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Toward Practical Public Key Anti- Counterfeiting for Low-Cost EPC Tags Alex Arbit, Avishai Wool, Yossi Oren, IEEE RFID April 2011 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Toward Practical Public Key Anti- Counterfeiting for Low-Cost EPC Tags Alex Arbit, Avishai Wool, Yossi Oren, IEEE RFID April 2011 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Toward Practical Public Key Anti- Counterfeiting for Low-Cost EPC Tags Alex Arbit, Avishai Wool, Yossi Oren, IEEE RFID April

2 Outline Anti-counterfeiting for RFID Cryptographic anti-counterfeiting Lab system setup WIPR protocol flow Implementation results Optimizations Summary & Future work 2

3 RFID EPC Supply chain 3 Counterfeiting is considered one of the greatest treats to the worlds economy Electronic Product Code (EPC) is designed to guarantee uniqueness of every RFID Tag in Supply Chain Problem: Standard RFID EPC-based supply chain is generally unprotected and may become an easy target for the adversary

4 RFID Tags Anti-counterfeiting methods Unique ID (EPC) Unencrypted value – an easy prey for adversary! A world-wide readers network database to trace compromised tag IDs (track-and-trace) Essential cooperativeness of all supply chains Loss of information privacy Cryptographic solution Asymmetric solution – Public key on Tag Strong system protection – breaking one Tag doesnt compromise the supply chain Was considered not feasible for RFID chain due to high resource consumption on tag side and long execution times! 4

5 Cryptographic anti-counterfeiting protocol Non-secret Public key (Tag, reader) Private key (Reader only) 5

6 Asymmetric cryptographic approach Tag bears only a partial (public) key -> can only encrypt messages System not compromised even if a certain tag is Reader possesses both key parts -> can encrypt and decrypt Only one private key is required for entire chain No need for a constant link to a central server 6

7 A system view of the suggested public- key based anti-counterfeiting system Only Tag Integrator possesses all encryption and decryption keys Tag manufacturer has no signing key Unable to create arbitrary signed TIDs not from Integrators list Reader has private decryption key but no signing key Can only verify tags but unable to forge new ones o System can operate completely offline once keys are delivered 7

8 IAIK Demotag EPC C1G2 fully compliant UHF tag ATMega128 AVR controller Integral 128kB Flash, 4kB SRAM 16MHz crystal oscillator Communication interfaces JTAG UART RFID Analog Front End 8

9 Experimental System Setup IAIK UHF Demotag with a WIPR algorithm mounted on it CAEN RFID EPC1G2 Reader with MATLAB SCA toolkit 2 PC Workstations 9

10 10 Full WIPR Protocol flow

11 Seamless protocol integration with standard EPC Class I Generation II commands 11

12 Tag Firmware Architecture 12

13 Tag resources usage 13

14 Implementation results – message encryption time as f(heap size) Message encryption time shortened from initial 7 seconds down to 180 milliseconds using optimizations! Will be checked on existing ASIC implementation for the same dramatic effect of RAM usage on performance Y (ms) X (bytes) 14

15 Response time as a function of block read size Reader-tag maximum wireless link speed 15kbps After each data transaction reader shuts down the link – inefficient reader implementation slows the link down Reading out large chunks of data ensures fastest response time 15

16 16

17 Response time as a function of block read size – cont. Reading out large chunks of data ensures fastest response time 17

18 Optimizations 18

19 Optimizations Total systems performance further improved from 840ms to 265ms with full link pipelining 19 Total link time

20 Summary A full strength Public key Crypto system is implemented on standard EPC C1 G2 Tag for RFID supply chain! RAM usage presents a resource vs. message encrypt time latency trade-off. A better use of air interface by the reader side squeeze the total execution time down to 0.265s for full pipelining. System designed for fully off-line operation can be further strengthened by use of standard reader track-and-trace with no additional cost on Tag side. 20

21 Future Work Adding a small amount of RAM to existing ASIC implementation to compare performances and benchmarking Integrate suggested anti-counterfeiting solution with current EPC C1G2 tag chips Work with other reader vendors to see if they handle a standard EPC Class I Generation II more efficiently 21

22 Thank You! תודה רבה ! 22

23 WIPR algorithm on Tag 1. Reader challenge Rr received 2. Tag generates two random bit strings 1. Rt,1 – bit padding for Plaintext 2. Rt,2 – bit padding for Public key n 3. Tag forms response message 1. P=BYTE_MIX(Rr||Rt1||(Tag ID)) 2. M=P*P+Rt,2*n (encrypted message) 3. Encrypted message length = 276 Bytes 23


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