Presentation on theme: "Screen Selection for Digital 2D & 3D Cinema"— Presentation transcript:
1Screen Selection for Digital 2D & 3D Cinema Andrew RobinsonManaging DirectorHarkness ScreensICTA June 2009Amsterdam
2This presentation will cover the following topics: Brightness standards for digital cinema.Differences between digital and 35mm projection.Screen selection for digital projection.Use of “gain” screens.Digital 3D – screen implications.Mixed digital 2D/3D applications.
3Standards for screen luminance SMPTE luminance standard for digital cinema is:14 fl in screen centre +/- 3fl.75% of centre brightness at the sides, minimum 9 fl. SMPTELuminance standard for 35mm projection is 16 fl.
4Differences between digital and 35mm projection Digital projectors use short arc, high-pressure Xenon lamps which are more costly than 35mm Xenons.Light distribution from digital projector is more even than 35mm.Setting up and changing film formats on digital projectors can result in significant reduction of available light.
5Digital Cinema Projectors Light outputs of up to 30,000 lumens are quoted by projector manufacturers.Achieving maximum lumens requires optimum set-up and operating conditions:- this may be costly in terms of operating costs- in reality, incident light on screen may be significantly lessScreen selection is important to achieve recommended light levels and to moderate operating costs.
6Screen light efficiency Screens cannot create light; but they can optimise the reflection of it.Reflectivity of a screen is measurable and is usually called “gain”Gain is measured by comparing reflectivity of the screen with a reference standard and is expressed as a factor (e.g. 0.8 or 1.2).There is a British Standard for gain measurement (BS 5550), which uses a reference standard to compare screen materials.There are other measurement standards, but the BS is widely recognised and is used by Harkness to classify screen gain.This enables screen materials to be compared in the laboratory.
7Measurement of gain Projector Light meter Magnesium carbonate block Screen surfaceGain is measured according to British Standard BS 5550
8Types of cinema screenScreens are available with various gain levels:matt white: 'gain' typically 0.8 – 1.0'gain' screens: up to 2.0 or more: typically mid gain (~1.4): or high gain (~1.8): above 1.8 gain there is a riskof 'hot spotting'
9Light reflectanceGain ScreenMatt White ScreenGain screens reflect more light back to the audience than matt white screens
10Measurement of viewing angle Gain is measured at intervals of 10° by comparison with reference standard
11Gain vs. viewing anglewith all screens, perceived brightness reduces as viewing angle increasesbrightness of gain screens reduces more than matt white as viewing angle increases
13Picture formats / masking 2 most common movie formats are:Cinemascope 2.35:1Flat :1Screen size can be adjusted bykeeping screen height constantlargest picture is ‘scope’orkeeping screen width constantlargest picture is ‘flat’12.3511.85
142k digital projectors : film formats Native ‘scope’ screenThe full resolution of the DMD is 1080 x 2048.Changing film formats with “constant height” can be done electronically by reducing the area of DMD that is used.Up to 37% loss of available light. Using motorised lenses reduces this significantly.
152k digital projectors : film formats • alternatively using an anamorphic lens for ‘scope’ picture this maximises the use of available light – 10% light loss from lensrequires activation of anamorphic lensthese anamorphic lenses are expensivethis is the only practical approach on large cinemascope screens
162k digital projectors : film formats Native ‘flat’ screenChanging film formats on ‘constant width’ screens.This is easily achieved electronically.With digital projection, light is reduced changing from 1.85 screen to 2.35 screen, but so is the screen size. Brightness levels are maintained. (This is an advantage over 35mm when the opposite happens).
17Xenon lamp light losses Digital projectors use high performance Xenon lamps.Usually more expensive, and have shorter warranty lives than 35mm lamps.Light loss at warranty life can be up to 40%.Running beyond warranty life further reduces light.
18Screen light levelsLight losses from set-up and life-point of lamp can be as much as 50% of theoretical maximum.Screen gain level can make a big difference to screen brightness or lumens required.Medium to high gain screens (1.4 to 1.8) will reduce lamp power needs and can significantly reduce operating costs.
19Screen light levels Lumens required to achieve 14 ft lamberts Screen gainScreen width (m) / cinemascope format1.01.41.82.2The above lumens are for incident light on the screen (after losses).
20Screen light levels cont’d Lumens required to achieve 14 ft lamberts Screen gainScreen width (m) / flat format1.01.41.82.2The above lumens are for incident light on the screen (after losses).
212k digital projectors : film formats Optimum aspect ratio for digital projection is 1.90:1 (2048:1080).If movies were made in this format and cinema screens were this format, there would be significant benefits with digital projectionuse all the DMD (no set-up losses)use all the available screenno need for anamorphic lensno “blockbusters” on a smaller screenno need for moving maskingMany modern US theatres have “constant width” screens 1.85:1 which is very close to 1.90:1; less common in EuropeCould 1.90:1 become a new standard?
22Operating Savings Lamps kw user price € warranty life (hrs) lamps lamp costp.a € p.a.powercost€ p.a.operating cost€ p.a. € per hr2344.56800100012501200150024001400700600160018002160410087256600129000.541.032.181.653.23Based on 4000 hours annual use.Examples of operating cost savings € p.a.Using 2 kw instead of 3 kw lamp :Using 3 kw instead of 4 kw lamp :Using 4.5 kw instead of 6 kw lamp:1.8 gain screen costs including install €11m flat14m scope18m scopeThere may also be initial investment savings if a smaller model projector can be used by reducing required lamp power.
23Practical Implications New installations of digital projectors- consider projector / lamp options together with screen gain levelpotential operating cost savingscapital cost savings if can use smaller projectorExisting installations of digital projectorsby changing to high gain screens, may be able to reduce lamp size and operating costs
24Measuring screen gain in existing theatres Relatively easy to do this using light meter and reference card.Gain = L1 / L2Worthwhile also to measure absolute light levels in foot lamberts.
27Viewing AngleIn this typical theatre almost all seats have better than half-gain level even with 1.8 gain screens.
28Screen shapeA curved gain screen reflects more light back to the audience
29Screen shape •Gain screen curvature Harkness guideline is 5% curveR.O.C. = 5% of chord20m screen width1m screen depth
303D Cinema Stereoscopic 3D is growing fast, particularly in US. Over 2,500 3D screens operational worldwide end 2008.Forecast of 6,000 3D screens by end 2009 and 9,000 by end 2010.17 3D titles releasing in 2009; more in 2010/11.Single digital projector gives economic 3D performance.High quality of digital 3D images.
313D Cinema Technologies Polarised light systems There are 3 main technologies used in digital 3D cinema:Polarised light systemspolarising filter / silver screen / passive eyeweare.g. Real D, Master Image, ImaxColour filterscolour filter wheel / white screen / passive eyeweare.g. Dolby“Active” eyewearwhite screen / electronic “shutters” in eyeweare.g. Xpand
323D Cinema light efficiency All 3D systems absorb a large amount of light compared with 2D mode because of filters and eyewearefficiencyReal D15%Real D XL28%Dolby12%Xpand18%“Acceptable” screen brightness level 4.5 fl. (14 fl. 2D)
33Screen implications for 3D Cinema Polarised light systems (e.g. Real D)Screen must maintain polarisation on reflection.“Silver” screens (aluminium flake coatings).>130:1 signal:noise ratio to maintain quality 3D images.Silver screens are intrinsically high gain (typically 2.4).Compensates light losses from 3D.Screens up to 14m with a single projector (22m with Real D ‘XL’ system is possible).
34Screen implications for 3D Cinema Colour filter wheels (e.g. Dolby 3D)Use white screens (do not need to maintain light polarisation).Gain screens required to overcome light loss- up to 2.2 (maximum gain available)Up to 14m wide screen possible with single projector / 2.2 gain screen.
35Screen implications for 3D Cinema Active eyewear (e.g. Xpand)White screen.Gain screen needed for larger screens.Screen up to 15m with single projector / 2.2 gain screen.
36Mixed 2D / 3D applications Acceptable brightness level with 3D is 4.5 flefficiency level 15%Recommended brightness level for 2D is 14 flSwitching 2D / 3D modes2D image too brightchange lamp / reduce power in 2D modeReal D ‘XL’ system 2D / 3D modes in balanceIncreased risk of visible defects due to high gainAll Harkness 3D screens will support 2D contentuseful for mixed programming
37Theatre shape 3D systems use high gain screens. High gain screens have reduced viewing angles:Spectral 240 half-gain angle 24ºPerlux 220 half-gain angle 25ºBest to use theatres for 3D which are long relative to widththrow minimum 1.5 x screen widthWith 3D, curving the screen is strongly recommended.
38Viewing AngleThis theatre has most seats with an acceptable viewing experience.Seats outside the half-gain angle will have an inferior viewing experience.
39Summary For digital projection, it is recommended to use gain screens. Benefits in power use/lamp life can give big operating cost savings.Screen must be consistent with 3D technology chosen.For 3D digital screens, it is usually necessary to change the screen for the highest possible gain.