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Atlantic Ocean Maury Project 2013 CAPT Bill Schulz US Naval Academy

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Presentation on theme: "Atlantic Ocean Maury Project 2013 CAPT Bill Schulz US Naval Academy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atlantic Ocean Maury Project 2013 CAPT Bill Schulz US Naval Academy schulz@usna.edu

2 Atlantic Ocean Facts The most studied oceanThe most studied ocean Second-largest of the worlds oceansSecond-largest of the worlds oceans Born: about 170,000,000 B.C.Born: about 170,000,000 B.C. Area: ~77 million km 2 (~ 6.5 times the area of U.S.)Area: ~77 million km 2 (~ 6.5 times the area of U.S.) Average depth: 3575 meters (11,072 ft)Average depth: 3575 meters (11,072 ft) Volume: 337,000,000 km 3 ( 8.9x10 19 gallons)Volume: 337,000,000 km 3 ( 8.9x10 19 gallons) Average surface salinity: 35.37 pptAverage surface salinity: 35.37 ppt –Higher than Pacific due to greater evaporation Still growingStill growing

3 Atlantic Ocean Basin Atlantic is in Stage III of Ocean Basin Evolution: A MATURE basin Spreading ~3 cm/year USGS - Understanding Plate MotionsUSGS - Understanding Plate Motions Mid-Atlantic Ridge Stage III

4 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief I – embryonic (crustal extension, rift; East Africa) II – young (subsidence, spreading; Red Sea) III – mature (spreading; Atlantic) IV – declining (spreading and shrinking; Pacific) V – terminal (shrinking, uplift; Mediterranean) VI – relict scar (Indus Suture) Stages of Ocean Basin Evolution

5 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Age of Oceanic Crust – Millions of Years Before Present Large ridge/rise system - ~ 70,000 km long Not nearly as seismically active as the Pacific Youngest crust down the center, rising and forming the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Atlantic Ocean Basin

6 Major Surface Currents in the Atlantic UCAR's Windows to the Universe Ocean currents tutorial from RSMAS Tomczak & Godfrey Regional Oceanography text

7 Wind Drives Atlantic Ocean Circulation 1 Sv = 264 million g/sec

8 Western Boundary Current Eastern Boundary Current Motion due to the wind (and Coriolis) affects the vertical structure of the water column (and therefore, temperature, biology, sound, etc….)

9 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation General Concept (National Climatic Data Center) – Suns heat absorbed in tropical ocean carried to the North AtlanticGeneral Concept (National Climatic Data Center) – Suns heat absorbed in tropical ocean carried to the North AtlanticNational Climatic Data CenterNational Climatic Data Center Oceanic conveyor belt - the large-scale 3-D flow pattern that results from the sinking of water in the Nordic and Greenland Seas and around Antarctica.Oceanic conveyor belt - the large-scale 3-D flow pattern that results from the sinking of water in the Nordic and Greenland Seas and around Antarctica.

10 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Modified from figure courtesy of Dr. Steve Hovan, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

11 Density Distribution AABW – Antarctic Bottom Water AAIW – Antarctic Intermediate Water NADW – North Atlantic Deep Water UPPER – North Central Atlantic Water Temperature ( o C) Salinity (PSU)

12 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation www.theresilientearth.com

13 Salt (Mediterranean Sea) Fresh Water (Amazon and Congo Rivers) Sediment (St. Lawrence, Niger, Rhine Rivers) Heat (Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico) Bottom Water (Arctic and Antarctic Seas) ATLANTIC WATER MASS INPUT :

14 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Mediterranean Outflow Large evaporation in the Med.Large evaporation in the Med. Produces dense/salty water, which then sinks. (Levantine Intermediate Water + Mediterranean Deep Water )Produces dense/salty water, which then sinks. (Levantine Intermediate Water + Mediterranean Deep Water ) Water spills over the sill at Gibraltar, As the plume of MOW exits Gibraltar, it moves to the north, then spreads west and southWater spills over the sill at Gibraltar, As the plume of MOW exits Gibraltar, it moves to the north, then spreads west and south MOW mixes with and settles with the North Atlantic Deep water, and spreads out one thousand km across the basin.MOW mixes with and settles with the North Atlantic Deep water, and spreads out one thousand km across the basin.

15 Temperature at 1000 m depth (from Tomczak and Godfrey)

16 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief The Gulf Stream Current on the western boundary of the Atlantic Ocean Western boundary currents are much narrower and faster than eastern boundary currents Western boundary currents move significant amounts of warm waters northward and are important in transporting excess heat from the tropics towards the poles. Eddies form along the meandering Gulf Stream

17 Gulf Stream

18 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief There is a river in the ocean. In the severest droughts it never fails, and in the mightiest floods it never overflows; its banks and its bottom are of cold water, while its current is of warm; the Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and its mouth is the Arctic Sea. It is the Gulf Stream. There is in the world no other such majestic flow of waters. - Matthew Fontaine Maury 1855 NOAA AVHRR 1996 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 1860 Franklin-Folger 1770 Views of the Gulf Stream

19 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Naval Research Lab Gulf of Mexico Currents (Global NRL Layered Ocean Model – NLOM) 20 April 2010 Deep Water Horizon NOAA Oil Spill Map The Loop Current

20 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Air-Ocean Interaction and The Atlantic Ocean HurricanesHurricanes –2013 expected to be slightly above average (Gray, Colorado State, 2013) –18 named storms (avg=12), 9 hurricanes (avg=6.5 avg), 4 major (avg = 2) Atlantic role in Extra-Tropical CyclonesAtlantic role in Extra-Tropical Cyclones

21 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Atlantic Hurricanes Warm ocean water (> 78.8 F;26 C) is a main ingredient for formation of HurricanesWarm ocean water (> 78.8 F;26 C) is a main ingredient for formation of Hurricanes –NASA Earth Observatory - Hurricane Tutorial NASA Earth Observatory - Hurricane TutorialNASA Earth Observatory - Hurricane Tutorial ClimatologyClimatology –National Hurricane Center National Hurricane CenterNational Hurricane Center (wind piling up water) is biggest damagerStorm surge (wind piling up water) is biggest damager COMET storm surge tutorialCOMET storm surge tutorial Satellite ImagerySatellite Imagery –Of Past Hurricanes Archive Imagery from CIMSS Archive Imagery from CIMSSArchive Imagery from CIMSS –Of Current Ocean Basins NRL Satellite Homepage, NRL Tropical Cyclone Page NRL Satellite HomepageNRL Tropical Cyclone PageNRL Satellite HomepageNRL Tropical Cyclone Page

22 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief

23 The Historic 2005 Season - 27 Named Systems - 15 Hurricanes

24 Saffir Simpson Scale TypeCategory Pressure (mb) Winds (knots) Winds (mph) Surge (ft) DepressionTD--- < 34 < 39 --- Tropical Storm TS---34-6339-73--- Hurricane1 > 980 64-8274-954-5 Hurricane2965-98083-9596-1106-8 Hurricane3945-96596-112111-1309-12 Hurricane4920-945113-135131-15513-18 Hurricane5 < 920 > 135 > 155 > 18

25 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Hurricane Isabel Sep 2003 Extensive flood damage along Chesapeake Bay coastline due to storm surgestorm surge USNA Flooded

26 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Biloxi, MS 2 Sept 2005 Biloxi, MS 13 Nov 2001 Powerful storm surge and winds from Hurricane Katrina (Aug 2005) rip two floating casinos in Biloxi, MS from their moorings, relocating them across a highway. Hurricane Katrina Other significant damage to structures, landscape and vegetation are also observed. Casino 1 Casino 2 From: Spaceimaging.com

27 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Radar Imagery of Landfall of Hurricane Dennis (July 2005) NWS National and Regional Radar Composites

28 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Impact of ENSO on ATL Hurricane Season? El Niño (warm equatorial Pacific) leads to fewer ATLANTIC cyclonesEl Niño (warm equatorial Pacific) leads to fewer ATLANTIC cyclones La Niña (cooler equatorial Pacific)favors ATLANTIC cyclone developmentLa Niña (cooler equatorial Pacific)favors ATLANTIC cyclone development Currently (26 June 2012) largely neutral, 50% chance of El Niño conditions developing in later half of 2012.Currently (26 June 2012) largely neutral, 50% chance of El Niño conditions developing in later half of 2012. ENSO module later in the Project, in the meantime:ENSO module later in the Project, in the meantime: –Climate Prediction Center - ENSO Discussion Climate Prediction Center - ENSO DiscussionClimate Prediction Center - ENSO Discussion –NWS JetStream - Weather Impacts of ENSO NWS JetStream - Weather Impacts of ENSONWS JetStream - Weather Impacts of ENSO

29 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Winter – Noreasters Storms Develop in Southeast and move up the Atlantic coastlineStorms Develop in Southeast and move up the Atlantic coastline –Large moisture content –Potential for large snowfall amounts from Mid- Atlantic to Northeast U.S. Movement over the Gulf Stream intensifies storm – source of heat/moistureMovement over the Gulf Stream intensifies storm – source of heat/moisture –Gale/Hurricane force winds and coastal flooding along NE Seaboard

30 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief History Makers NorEasters – Storm of the CenturyNorEasters – Storm of the CenturyStorm of the CenturyStorm of the Century Extra-Tropical / Tropical Storm Interaction - The Perfect StormExtra-Tropical / Tropical Storm Interaction - The Perfect StormThe Perfect StormThe Perfect Storm

31 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief Noreaster Development AMS DataStreme Project AMS DataStreme Project

32 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief

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34 Additional On-Line Education Resources Oceans activities from Education WorldOceans activities from Education World –Celebrate the Year of the Ocean Celebrate the Year of the OceanCelebrate the Year of the Ocean –A "Sea" of Resources on the Internet! A "Sea" of Resources on the Internet!A "Sea" of Resources on the Internet! Tutorials on HurricanesTutorials on Hurricanes –WW2010 Tutorial - Hurricanes WW2010 Tutorial - HurricanesWW2010 Tutorial - Hurricanes –NASA Earth Science for Kids - "Tropical Twisters" NASA Earth Science for Kids - "Tropical Twisters"NASA Earth Science for Kids - "Tropical Twisters" –Community Learning Network (CLN) - Hurricane learning and activity resources list Community Learning Network (CLN) - Hurricane learning and activity resources listCommunity Learning Network (CLN) - Hurricane learning and activity resources list

35 Maury Project: Atlantic Ocean Brief On-Line Education Resources, Contd Consortium on Oceanographic Activities for Students and Teachers (COAST) - Resource GuideConsortium on Oceanographic Activities for Students and Teachers (COAST) - Resource GuideConsortium on Oceanographic Activities for Students and Teachers (COAST) - Resource GuideConsortium on Oceanographic Activities for Students and Teachers (COAST) - Resource Guide JPL - Resources for OC / MET and Remote Sensing of the OCN/ATMJPL - Resources for OC / MET and Remote Sensing of the OCN/ATMJPL - Resources for OC / MET and Remote Sensing of the OCN/ATMJPL - Resources for OC / MET and Remote Sensing of the OCN/ATM Smithsonian Museum of Natural History – Ocean ExhibitsSmithsonian Museum of Natural History – Ocean Exhibits –Smithsonian Ocean Planet - outdated Smithsonian Ocean Planet - outdatedSmithsonian Ocean Planet - outdated –Smithsonian - Sant Ocean Hall Smithsonian - Sant Ocean HallSmithsonian - Sant Ocean Hall List of Oceanography resources from NCSUList of Oceanography resources from NCSUList of Oceanography resources from NCSUList of Oceanography resources from NCSU NWS Tutorial - Thunderstorm Tornado Development


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