Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Trigeminal Neuropathy From Trigeminal Neuralgia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Differentiating Trigeminal Neuropathy From Trigeminal Neuralgia Does It Even Matter?Justin Sandall, D.O.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterDepartment of Anesthesiology, CA-2
2 Case Presentation26 y/o female w/a history of chronic migraine HA, depression and hypothyroidism presents for evaluation of L sided facial pain. She relates a history of migraines since the age of 11; occurred infrequently until beginning college in 2001 at which time they increased in frequency to 2-3x/month. ~1 year ago she had her typical migraine which "didn't go away." She now has a constant, throbbing/boring pain in her L periorbital/frontal area with occ. radiation to the L maxilla. She also has intermittent sharp, lancinating pains in those same areas. Her pain is worsened with anxiety, working out, loud noises, heat and alleviated with application of cold, migraine medications and Lyrica. Mother has noticed L sided facial swelling.There is no association with brushing teeth, putting on makeup or wind on the face. She denies changes in hearing, balance or coordination. She also denies sensory changes, tearing, conjunctival effusion and ataxia. No h/o trauma or HSV.
3 Case PresentationMEDICATIONS: - Synthroid Oral Tablet 75 mcg 1 tablet by mouth daily - Betaxolol 10mg PO twice daily - Zoloft 150mg PO daily - Migrelief 2 tabs PO - Topamax 300mg OP daily - Ondansetron tab PO PRN - Indomethacin 25mg PO twice daily - Zomig Zmt 5mg PO twice daily - Lyrica 300mg - Kariva BC - Zyrtec 10mg
4 Case Presentation Relevant Physical Exam Relevant Imaging PERRL, CN II-XII intact b/l, NTTP along trigeminal distribution w/o allodynia or hyperesthesia, no sensory deficits, TMJ NTTP b/lRelevant ImagingPrevious work-up including CT and MRI unrevealing
5 Trigeminal NeuralgiaMost common pain syndrome referable to a cranial nerve.1Most common in adults > 50 y/o, women slightly more than men2Classically, pain is described as an electric shock–like, stabbing, unilateral pain with abrupt onset and termination in distribution of trigeminal nerve – usually V2/3.2,3Intervals between attacks are pain freeMinimal or no sensory loss in the region of painPrecipitation from trigger areas or by certain daily activities, such as eating, talking, washing the face, or cleaning the teeth3Diagnosis is typically made by the historyImaging is often pursued to r/o other causes of facial pain &/or to evaluate for MS, vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve etc.Typically, 80% of patients respond to medical therapy31st line therapy is carbamazepine2,3,5
6 Trigeminal NeuralgiaMay target trigeminal nerve at various sites with nerve blocks if unresponsive to medical therapySuperficial V1/V2, gasserian ganglionIf responsive to local anesthetic block, may pursue trigeminal neurolysisMost common target is the gasserian ganglion via the foramen ovale1Studies have all used patients w/classic trigeminal neuralgiaLess premorbid depression/anxiety, more satisfied w/outcome, fewer side effect complaints, more willing to repeat procedure1Study by Taha and Tew in 1996 evaluated RF rhizotomy w/curved electrode, RF rhizotomy, glycerol rhizotomy, balloon compression, and posterior fossa exploration (microvascular decompression, partial trigeminal rhizotomy)4Showed initial pain relief to be 91-98% with success of procedure in 85-98% and pain recurrence in 15-54%Glycerol rhizotomy had lowest initial pain relief, lowest procedure success and highest pain recurrenceComplications of trigeminal neurolysis can be devastating and include anesthesia dolorosa, loss of corneal sensation, keratitis, dysesthesia1
7 Trigeminal Neuropathy (included atypical trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial pain) Chronic or recurrent pain in the area of previous nerve injury, numbness, dysesthesias, and chronic burning sensations. Diagnostic evaluations rule out any other cause of pain.2More likely to have sensory loss or allodynia5Doesn’t meet White and Sweet criteria:2 The pain is paroxysmal.The pain is confined to the trigeminal distribution.The pain is unilateral.The bedside clinical sensory examination is normal.The pain may be provoked by light touch to the face (trigger zones)Significant clinical challenge because the symptoms of PTN respond poorly, if at all, to AED or surgical therapies commonly used in TN.1,2Neurolytic treatment may actually worsen pain in this subgroupMore often associated with young, middle aged women and feelings of depressionMotor cortex stimulation for trigeminal neuralgia seems promising – 70% success rate compared to 50% for central pain5
8 Classic trigeminal neuralgia Rare Intraoral or extraoral in trigeminal regionEach episode of pain lasts for seconds to minutes; refractory periods, and long periods of no painSharp, shooting, moderate to very severeLight touch provoked (e.g., eating, washing, talking)Discrete trigger zonesAtypical trigeminal neuralgiaSharp attacks lasting seconds to minutes, more continuous-type background pain, less likely to have complete pain remissionSharp, shooting, moderate to severe but also dull, burning, continuous mild background painLight touch provoked, but continuous-type pain not so clearly provokedMay have small trigger areas, variable patternTrigeminal neuropathyVery rareTrigeminal area, but may radiate beyondContinuousDull with sharp exacerbationAreas of allodynia, light touchSensory loss, subjective-objective, progressive, vasodilation and swelling may occurAdapted from Essentials of physical medicine and rehabilitation: musculoskeletal disorders, pain, and rehabilitation/ [edited by] Walter R. Frontera, Julie K. Silver, Thomas D. Rizzo Jr.—2nd ed. Chapter 90.
9 Case Resolution26 y/o female with L sided facial pain in the setting of chronic migraine HA, h/o depression and hypothyroidism. Given the nature of her pain, her history of depression and migraine HA, her pain triggers or lack thereof and physical exam findings, this most likely is atypical facial pain secondary to trigeminal neuropathic pain in the V1/V2 distribution rather than classic trigeminal neuralgia. It is important to make this distinction given that definitive treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (i.e. neurolytic tx) can actually worsen the pain of trigeminal neuropathy. In addition, she almost certainly has a component of transformed migraine HA that is contributory thus one of our long-term goals will be to decrease the number of medicines she is on. 1. Atypical facial pain 2. Trigeminal neuropathic pain in the V1V2 distribution 3. Transformed migraine headache 4. H/o depression 5. Hypothyroidism Will schedule for superficial V1/V2 block and TPI and assess response. Needs to be off indomethacin x7 days prior to procedure. May benefit from Gasserian ganglion block and/or Stellate ganglion block down the road if not responsive to more conservative measures. If responds well to the peripheral n. blocks, will use Botox for long-term control. Meanwhile
10 ReferencesJackson T, Gaeta R: Neurolytic blocks revisited. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 2008, 12:7-13.Raj's practical management of pain/editors, Honorio T. Benzon…[et al.].—4th ed. Chapter 25.Essentials of physical medicine and rehabilitation: musculoskeletal disorders, pain, and rehabilitation/ [edited by] Walter R. Frontera, Julie K. Silver, Thomas D. Rizzo Jr.—2nd ed. Chapter 90.Taha JM, Tew JM: Comparison of surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: reevaluation of radiofrequency rhizotomy. Neurosurgery 1996, 38:McMahon: Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, 5th ed. Chapter 37