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Second presentation. Gerda Taro (real name Gerta Pohorylle) was a war photographer, and the companion and professional partner of photographer Robert.

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Presentation on theme: "Second presentation. Gerda Taro (real name Gerta Pohorylle) was a war photographer, and the companion and professional partner of photographer Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 Second presentation

2 Gerda Taro (real name Gerta Pohorylle) was a war photographer, and the companion and professional partner of photographer Robert Capa. Taro is regarded as the first female photojournalist to cover the front lines of a war and to die while doing so. Gerta Pohorylle was born in 1910, in Stuttgart, into a middle-class Jewish Galician family. In 1929 the family moved to Leipzig, just prior to the beginning of Nazi Germany. Taro opposed the Nazi Party, joining leftist groups. In 1933, she was arrested and detained for distributing anti-Nazi propaganda. Eventually, the entire Pohorylle household was forced to leave Nazi Germany toward different destinations. Taro would not see her family again.

3 Escaping the anti-Semitism of Hitler's Germany, Pohorylle moved to Paris in In 1935, she met the photojournalist Endre Friedmann, a Hungarian Jew, becoming his personal assistant and learning photography. They fell in love. Pohorylle began to work for as a picture editor. Gerda Taro and Robert Capa in Paris. Early Fred Stein.

4 In 1936, Pohorylle received her first photojournalist credential. Then, she and Friedmann devised a plan. Both took news photographs, but these were sold as the work of the non-existent American photographer Robert Capa, which was a convenient name overcoming the increasing political intolerance prevailing in Europe and belonging in the lucrative American market. The secret did not last long, but Friedman kept the more commercial name "Capa" for his own name, while Pohorylle adopted the professional name of "Gerda Taro. The two worked together to cover the events surrounding the coming to power of the Popular Front in 1930s France.

5 Gerda Taro gallery, Segovia, may Spanish Civil War When the Spanish Civil War broke out (1936), Gerda Taro travelled to Barcelona, Spain, to cover the events with Capa and David "Chim" Seymour. They covered the war together at northeastern Aragon and at the southern Córdoba.

6 Always together under the common, bogus signature of Robert Capa, they were successful through many important publications (the Swiss, the French Vu). Their early war photos are distinguishable since Taro used a Rollei camera which rendered squared photographs while Capa produced rectangular Leica pictures. A 1937 image by Ms. Taro of Republican soldiers at the Navacerrada Pass in Spain

7 Subsequently, Taro attained some independence. She refused Capa's marriage proposal. Also, she became publicly related to the circle of anti fascist European intellectuals (Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell) who crusaded particularly for the Spanish Republic. The, a leftist newspaper of France, signed her for publishing Taro's works only. Then, she began to commercialize her production under the Photo Taro label. Reporting the Valencia bombing alone, Gerda Taro attained the photographs which are her most celebrated. Also, in July 1937, Taro's photographs were in demand by the international press when, alone, she was covering the Brunete region near Madrid for Ce Soir. Although the Nationalist propaganda claimed that the region was under its control, the Republican forces had in fact forced that faction out. Taro's camera was the only testimony of the actual situation.

8 Death During her coverage of the Republican army retreat at the Battle of Brunete, Taro hopped onto the footboard of a car that was carrying wounded soldiers when a Republican tank collided into its side. Taro suffered critical wounds and died the next day, July 26, 1937.

9 Due to her political commitment, Taro had become an anti-fascist figure. On August 1, on what would have been her 27th birthday, the French Communist Party gave her a grand funeral in Paris, buried her at Père Lachaise Cemetery, and commissioned Alberto Giacometti to create a monument for her grave.

10 Robert Capa (born Friedmann Endre); was a Hungarian war photographer and photojournalist who covered five different wars: the Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II across Europe, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and the First Indochina War. He documented the course of World War II in London, North Africa, Italy, the Battle of Normandy on Omaha Beach and the liberation of Paris. In 1947, Capa co-founded Magnum Photos in Paris with David "Chim" Seymour, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger and William Vandivert. The organization was the first cooperative agency for worldwide freelance photographers..

11 . Gerda Taro (Robert Capa) He was born Endre Friedmann October 22, 1913 in Budapest, Hungary. Deciding that there was little future under the regime in Hungary, he left home at 18. Capa originally wanted to be a writer; however, he found work in photography in Berlin and grew to love the art. In 1933, he moved from Germany to France because of the rise of Nazism, but found it difficult to find work as a freelance journalist. He adopted the name "Robert Capa". He found it easier to sell his photos under the newly adopted "American"-sounding name. Over a period of time, he gradually assumed the persona of Robert Capa (with the help of his girlfriend Gerda Taro, who acted as an intermediary with those who purchased the photos taken by the "great American photographer, Robert Capa"). Capa's first published photograph was of Leon Trotsky making a speech in Copenhagen on "The Meaning of the Russian Revolution" in 1932.

12 Spanish Civil War and Chinese resistance to Japan From 1936 to 1939, Capa worked in Spain, photographing the Spanish Civil War, along with Gerda Taro, his companion and professional photography partner, and David Seymour. In 1938, he traveled to the Chinese city of Hankow, now called Wuhan, to document the resistance to the Japanese invasion. In 1936, Capa became known across the globe for the "Falling Soldier" photo long thought to have been taken in Cerro Muriano on the Cordoba Front. It was thought to be of a Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) militiaman who had just been shot and was falling to his death, and was long considered an iconic image of the war. The Falling Soldier

13 Omaha beach Probably his most famous images, The Magnificent Eleven, are a group of photos of D-Day. Taking part in the Allied invasion, Capa was with the second wave of American troops on Omaha Beach. The men storming Omaha Beach faced some of the heaviest resistance from German troops within the bunkers of the Atlantikwall. While under constant fire, Capa took 106 pictures, but all but eleven were destroyed in a photo lab accident back in London.

14 Russia and Israel In 1947 Capa traveled to the Soviet Union with his friend, the American writer John Steinbeck. He took photos in Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi, Batumi and among the ruins of Stalingrad. Capa toured Israel after its founding. He took the numerous photographs that accompanied Irwin Shaw's book, Report on Israel. First Indochina War and death In the early 1950s, Capa traveled to Japan for an exhibition associated with Magnum Photos. While there, Life magazine asked him to go on assignment to Southeast Asia, where the French had been fighting for eight years in the First Indochina War. Although a few years earlier he had said he was finished with war, Capa accepted and accompanied a French regiment with two Time-Life journalists, John Mecklin and Jim Lucas. On May 25, 1954, the regiment was passing through a dangerous area under fire when Capa decided to leave his Jeep and go up the road to photograph the advance. About five minutes later, Mecklin and Lucas heard an explosion; Capa had stepped on a landmine. When they arrived on the scene, he was alive but his left leg had been blown to pieces, and he had a serious wound in his chest. Mecklin called for a medic and Capa was taken to a small field hospital, where he was pronounced dead on arrival

15 David Seymour (born Dawid Szymin; November 20, 1911 November 10, 1956), or Chim (pronounced shim, an abbreviation of the surname "Szymin"), was a Polish photographer and photojournalist known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, for co-founding Magnum Photos, with Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, George Rodger and William Vandivert, and for his project "Children of War" with UNICEF that captured the plight of children in the aftermath of World War II. He became president of Magnum after Capa's death in 1954 and held this post until his own death in 1956 by Egyptian machine-gun fire in the aftermath of the Suez crisis. It was while Chim was studying at the Sorbonne in Paris that he became interested in photography. Chim began working as a freelance journalist in Between 1936 and 1938 Chim covered the Spanish Civil War (alongside fellow colleague Robert Capa) and other international political events. In February of 1935 Chim was sent to Spain by Regards to report on crucial issues there. Twenty five of his stories on Spain ended up being published in Regards. In 1939 he covered the Loyalist Spanish war refugees on the S.S. Sinai to Mexico and then later in the year he arrived in the United States. Chim was in New York when World War II broke out in Europe on September 3, 1939, two days after Hitler had invaded Poland, Chim's birthplace.

16 Chim (David Seymour) [Republican soldier playing the txistu during outdoor Mass, Berriatua, Basque region, Spain], February 1937 Chim (David Seymour) [Young woman holding a placard in the parade for the Nineteenth anniversary of the Russian Revolution, Barcelona], November 8, 1936

17 Barcelona, November 1936 © Chim In 1940 he enlisted in the United States Army, serving in Europe as a photo interpreter during the war. In 1942 he became a "naturalized" citizen of the United States, the same year that his parents were killed by the Nazis. Chim photographed for Life, along with Look, Paris-Match and Regards. In 1948 he received a commission through UNICEF and traveled to Austria, Hungry, Italy, Poland and Germany to document the plight of World War II refugee children. Inge Bondi, Chim scholar, said: "Chim's heart had always gone out to children, and they reacted to him with complete acceptance. They seemed oblivious of him, but he noticed every little movement, every little pain, every little pleasure. There is no artifice, no bravura of lighting expertise in Chim's photographs of the children. They speak simply from his pictures, as if alive. This intellectual, so adept at analyzing the most complex political situations, so comfortable photographing heads of state, produced his greatest photographs to help children in need. On November 10, 1956, Chim was killed while driving to photograph an exchange of wounded soldiers at El Quantara by egyptian machine- gun fire four days after the armistice of the 1956 Suez War.

18 Fred Stein (July 3, 1909 – September 27, 1967) was an early pioneer of the hand-held camera who became a gifted street photographer in Paris and New York after he was forced to flee his native Germany by the Nazi threat in the early 1930s. He explored the new creative possibilities of photography, capturing spontaneous scenes from life on the street. He was also a master portraitist, creating intimate images of many of the great personalities of the 20th century.

19 Taro Gustavo Durán on a motorcycle, Navacerrada Pass, Segovia front, June 1937

20 Gerda Taro in the trenches


22 Three Republican soldiers on a field telephone, Segovia Front, Spain, June Ms. Taros work was published in the Parisian newspaper Ce Soir and in the French magazine Regards, among other places; in the United States, her death was reported in Life magazine, which also ran some of her photographs.Taro

23 Men with wounded Republican soldier on a stretcher, Navacerrada Pass, Segovia front, Spain, late May–early June 1937, Taro


25 Cover of the French magazine Regards June 1937 Cover - Madrid - June 1937


27 Teruel battle, Capa



30 Republican soldier watching for national soldiers arrive, Teruel, December 1937, Capa

31 Since Republican first aid, river Segre, Aragon front, near Fraga, November 7, 1938, Capa

32 Teruel, December International Center of Photography/ Magnum The Mexican suitcase children's

33 The children's war

34 Children's of war

35 Boy in the uniform of the Iberian Anarchist Federation, during the Spanish Civil War. August 1936, Taro Ms. Taro's shot of a boy in an Iberian Anarchist Federation cap. Ms. Taros celebrity was short-lived but outsize. Shortly after establishing herself independently of Mr. Capa, she was sideswiped by a tank after jumping onto the running board of a car transporting casualties during the battle of Brunete, and killed. Her funeral in Paris drew thousands who hailed her as a martyr to anti-Fascism.

36 Children playing war...

37 Two girls sitting during collection. Valsequillo, Córdoba front, June-July 1937 Gerda Taro, International Center of Photography

38 Robert Capa Republican soldiers, woman, and child in an internment camp for Spanish refugees, Argelès-sur-Mer, France, March 1939

39 Chim (David Seymour) Children saluting in the parade for the Nineteenth anniversary of the Russian Revolution, Barcelona, 1936

40 Little girl with two Dolls Barcelona, 1936 Estate of Chim

41 Senior man and two children Barcelona, november Estate of Chim Magnum

42 Boys in the dining center for refugees from the Stadium of Montjuic, Barcelona, October-November 1936 © Chim

43 A refugee girl sitting on her bed crying, inside a religious building in ruins occupied by different families / Barcelona, November Robert Capa ©

44 Barcelona, November 1938, Capa. Children in the school yard of the building Monserdà Pain Group, after the distribution of bread and milk, probably by the organization of Friends Quakers

45 Woman and Child at French Refugee Camp, March, 1939 Photo by Robert Capa.

46 A Republican soldier playing the bugle, Valencia, March The exhibition is one of four concurrent shows at the Center related to the Spanish Civil War, including a display of Capa war pictures. Taro

47 Taro Republican soldier leading a wounded soldier, Navacerrada Pass, Segovia front, late May–early June 1937


49 Robert Capa. Republican refugees walk along the beach to an internment camp, France 1939.

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