3Dehydration: 2 causes Loss of Body Fluids Respiration 2-3 quarts lost a nightPerspirationOverheating and over-exertionLow Intake of FluidsMore water is needed as activity increases and/ or in extreme temperatures
4Why hydrate?Like oil in the car, water helps EVERY body system function efficiently. Any loss in oil pressure in a car causes an inefficient engine so does a lack of water in the body.Being low of water slows the body’s process of creating energy (heat) from food, hinders a logical thought processes, & dulls dexterity
5Assessment of Dehydration Assessing yourselfHeadacheDark colored urineAssessing others“UMBLE’S”Stumble, fumble, mumbleMore irritable than normalLethargic, lazyTiredAltered personality
6Treatment for Dehydration Prevention: Drink! Drink! Drink!Sip water slowly but constantlyRest and stay warm
8HypothermiaHypothermia is when the body’s core temperature drops below 95*F.Unless you carry a thermometer this fact is uselessHypothermia affects the brain in the early stages. The body reduces blood flow to the brain to maintain core body temperature. Monitoring each participants personality one can see early warning signs
9Hypothermia Assessment Assess yourself. You must know your body and know when it is getting too cold.One of the first things to be affected is your ability to assess yourself rationally.Use the “buddy system”.
10Assessing OthersThe signs of hypothermia in others in your group can include:The “UMBLES.”Poor judgment.Personality changes.Uncontrollable shivering.(Note that as the core temperature drops uncontrolled shivering will stop. If the person hasn’t warmed up before the shivering stops evacuation is essential.)
11Treatment of Hypothermia ExerciseWalkSkipSkiChicken danceChange out of damp clothesPut on more layersGet out of the windDrink warm fluidsEat high energy foodsIf condition is too severe or continues: Evacuate
13The Frost Brothers 1st Degree or Frost Nip Top layers of the skin freezes2nd Degree Frost Bite or SuperficialMost of skin layers freeze3rd Degree Frost Bite or DeepAll skin & tissue layers freeze
14Preventing the Frost Bothers Guard against wind.Wear proper clothes; wicking, warmth and wind layers to keep you dry and conserve body heat.Don’t wear tight clothes. Tight cloths increase conduction heat loss and reduce circulation.Use buddy system and watch each other.Drink! Drink! Drink! If you body is hydrated you will metabolize the food you eat into available energy.
15Assessment of Frost Nip Starts off as redness, then becomes white and waxy (stiff to the touch)Frozen skin will still move over unfrozen tissue belowWill be uncomfortable then will go numb
16Treatment of Frost Nip Re-warm area, skin to skin Change wet, damp clothesEat a snack and drink a little
17Assessment of Frost Bite Skin and tissue frozen solid (together) and looks white or bluishFirm to touchNo sensation (feels like a club)If injury re-warms the skin will not feel or act normal, area may be black or deep blue blisters will be clear and will be more red the more severe the injury
18Treatment of Frost Bite The body cells are frozen. The cells are very fragile like a plastic bag full of sharp icicles.If the area is rubbed to be warmed the cells will be broken and the injured area will increase in size and severity, DO NOT RUB.It is not recommended to re-warm the injury in the field, keep it bundled.DON’T LET THE INJURY REFREEZE. The injury will be worse than you want to think about, or live with!EVACUATE FROM THE FIELD.
19OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012Other Cold Injuries
20Sunburns Caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation Cloudy or Sunny daysSnow and ice reflects up to 75% of the sun’s raysEarlobes, the underside of the chin and nose, and lips are more common to be sunburnedUse chap stick with SPF
21Snow Blindness Caused by the reflection of ultraviolet rays Sunburn of the retinaCloudy or Sunny daysSymptoms: dryness or irritation may occur 6-8 hours after exposure.Prevention and Treatment: wear dark sunglasses and a hat with a brim.
22BurnsMay occur from boiling water, stove fuel, campfire or camp stove.Use caution when filling water bottles with boiling waterAlways wear rubber gloves when handling stove fuelTreatment is the same as in the summer.Cool. Clean. Cover.