Presentation on theme: "OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012 Cold Weather Injuries."— Presentation transcript:
OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012 Cold Weather Injuries
Common Injuries Dehydration Hypothermia Frost Nip & Bite
Dehydration: 2 causes Loss of Body Fluids Respiration 2-3 quarts lost a night Perspiration Overheating and over-exertion Low Intake of Fluids More water is needed as activity increases and/ or in extreme temperatures
Why hydrate? Like oil in the car, water helps EVERY body system function efficiently. Any loss in oil pressure in a car causes an inefficient engine so does a lack of water in the body. Being low of water slows the body’s process of creating energy (heat) from food, hinders a logical thought processes, & dulls dexterity
Assessment of Dehydration Assessing yourself Headache Dark colored urine Assessing others “UMBLE’S” Stumble, fumble, mumble More irritable than normal Lethargic, lazy Tired Altered personality Dark colored urine
Treatment for Dehydration Prevention: Drink! Drink! Drink! Sip water slowly but constantly Rest and stay warm
OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012 Hypothermia
Hypothermia is when the body’s core temperature drops below 95*F. Unless you carry a thermometer this fact is useless Hypothermia affects the brain in the early stages. The body reduces blood flow to the brain to maintain core body temperature. Monitoring each participants personality one can see early warning signs
Hypothermia Assessment Assess yourself. You must know your body and know when it is getting too cold. One of the first things to be affected is your ability to assess yourself rationally. Use the “buddy system”.
Assessing Others The signs of hypothermia in others in your group can include: The “UMBLES.” Poor judgment. Personality changes. Uncontrollable shivering. (Note that as the core temperature drops uncontrolled shivering will stop. If the person hasn’t warmed up before the shivering stops evacuation is essential.)
Treatment of Hypothermia Exercise Walk Skip Ski Chicken dance Change out of damp clothes Put on more layers Get out of the wind Drink warm fluids Eat high energy foods If condition is too severe or continues: Evacuate
OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012 Frost Brothers
The Frost Brothers 1 st Degree or Frost Nip Top layers of the skin freezes 2 nd Degree Frost Bite or Superficial Most of skin layers freeze 3 rd Degree Frost Bite or Deep All skin & tissue layers freeze
Preventing the Frost Bothers Guard against wind. Wear proper clothes; wicking, warmth and wind layers to keep you dry and conserve body heat. Don’t wear tight clothes. Tight cloths increase conduction heat loss and reduce circulation. Use buddy system and watch each other. Drink! Drink! Drink! If you body is hydrated you will metabolize the food you eat into available energy.
Assessment of Frost Nip Starts off as redness, then becomes white and waxy (stiff to the touch) Frozen skin will still move over unfrozen tissue below Will be uncomfortable then will go numb
Treatment of Frost Nip Re-warm area, skin to skin Change wet, damp clothes Eat a snack and drink a little
Assessment of Frost Bite Skin and tissue frozen solid (together) and looks white or bluish Firm to touch No sensation (feels like a club) If injury re-warms the skin will not feel or act normal, area may be black or deep blue blisters will be clear and will be more red the more severe the injury
Treatment of Frost Bite The body cells are frozen. The cells are very fragile like a plastic bag full of sharp icicles. If the area is rubbed to be warmed the cells will be broken and the injured area will increase in size and severity, DO NOT RUB. It is not recommended to re-warm the injury in the field, keep it bundled. DON’T LET THE INJURY REFREEZE. The injury will be worse than you want to think about, or live with! EVACUATE FROM THE FIELD.
OKPIK Staff Training 2011 / 2012 Other Cold Injuries
Sunburns Caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation Cloudy or Sunny days Snow and ice reflects up to 75% of the sun’s rays Earlobes, the underside of the chin and nose, and lips are more common to be sunburned Use chap stick with SPF
Snow Blindness Caused by the reflection of ultraviolet rays Sunburn of the retina Cloudy or Sunny days Symptoms: dryness or irritation may occur 6-8 hours after exposure. Prevention and Treatment: wear dark sunglasses and a hat with a brim.
Burns May occur from boiling water, stove fuel, campfire or camp stove. Use caution when filling water bottles with boiling water Always wear rubber gloves when handling stove fuel Treatment is the same as in the summer. Cool. Clean. Cover.