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Knowledge Network Based on Legal Issues - Network Analysis in Law, ICAIL 2013 - Paul Zhang - Harry Silver - Mark D. Wasson - David Steiner - Sanjay Sharma.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Network Based on Legal Issues - Network Analysis in Law, ICAIL 2013 - Paul Zhang - Harry Silver - Mark D. Wasson - David Steiner - Sanjay Sharma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Network Based on Legal Issues - Network Analysis in Law, ICAIL Paul Zhang - Harry Silver - Mark D. Wasson - David Steiner - Sanjay Sharma June, 2013

2 Research and work has been going on to build networks based on Semantics of text corpora (for both general sources and Legal Documents) Typically, the basic linguistic units used to represent semantics of texts include: Words and Phrases, Concepts, Topics, Paragraphs, or various types of Entities Here, we describe a new type of semantic units for Legal Data - units of... Legal Issues These Legal Issues can be mined from a case law corpus, and be networked to represent knowledge of the legal domain In this presentation, we focus more on the How-to part of the work. Those interested are invited to read the paper version, where you will find more analysis and examples We will talk about the following points......

3 Legal Issue Library Network of Legal Issues WHY Legal Issues Representing Cases with Legal Issues Semantics of Citations HOW to do it

4 Why Legal Issues... A Legal Issue (in our context) is a statement of belief, opinion, a legal principle, etc. It usually contains one or more Concepts to be meaningful. For example, here is a Statement: Thirteen-year-olds should not own a vehicle. It has at least three Concepts in it: 13-year-old, vehicle, and to own; and the author or speaker states clearly an opinion, a belief, or a rule Here are examples of Legal Issues: An inference is not reasonable if it is based only on speculation. To constitute the crime of robbery, however, the use of force must be motivated by an intent to steal. a statute will not be given an interpretation in conflict with its clear purpose, and that general words used therein will be given a restricted meaning when reason and justice require it, rather than a literal meaning which would lead to an unjust and absurd consequence. … the initial question to be decided in all cases in which a defendant complains of prosecutorial misconduct for the first time on appeal is whether a timely objection and admonition would have cured the harm , which can be seen as small pieces of Law in the United Sates

5 Why Legal Issues... Concepts, on the other hand, are building-blocks of discussion or Issues The Concept vehicle, for example, is used in all these Legal Issues: A police officer may approach a stopped vehicle and inquire about an occupant's well-being without intruding on the Fourth Amendment. In Nebraska, a vehicle can be a tool of the debtor's trade if the debtor uses it in connection with or to commute to work. State law governs the issue of security interests in motor vehicles. In Idaho, it is a felony to purport to sell or transfer a vehicle without delivering to the purchaser or transferee a certificate of title duly assigned to the purchaser. They are, obviously, on different Issues Legal Issues are more specific and stand-alone statements relevant to the legal experts discussion and argument While Concepts, Topics and other types of linguistic Units tell us what a legal discussion is generally ABOUT..., Legal Issues tell us what the legal discussion is specifically SAYING

6 Semantics of Citations


8 As a result, we are able to distinguish between Case-based Citations vs. Issue-based Citations, and make citation links more specific: Case_X:CiteArea_a Case_Y to Case_X:CiteArea_a Case_Y:CiteArea_b The following is an example of such a new Citation Link: Semantics of Citations

9 A72D7FE70BE40038 is the ID for the Citing Case : ROLLEY, INC. v. MERLE NORMAN COSMETICS, INC., 129 Cal. App. 2d 844 R_1 represents the Citing RFC in the case : Appellate courts cannot submit to piecemeal argument and will not consider on petition for rehearing questions not previously raised. A BE40246 is the ID for the Cited Case : Bradley v. Bradley, 94 Cal. App. 2d 310 R_5 represents the Cited Text Area in the Case The case having been tried on the theory that condonation was not an issue appellant under settled principles cannot now change his theory on [***3] appeal to the disadvantage of respondent. ( : the similarity measure ) What this line says : ROLLEY, INC. v. MERLE NORMAN COSMETICS, INC. cited Bradley v. Bradley for the listed Legal Issue ( with a similarity measure of 0.8 ) Semantics of Citations A72D7FE70BE40038:R_1::A BE40246:R_5::

10 The Citation corpus is now Issue-Based ( Colors represent different ISSUEs ) Legal Issue Library

11 During the process, individual Legal Issues are chained together by traversing the Issue-pairs data, and placed in a repository to form the Issue Library Cases and text areas in them where an Issue was discussed are linked to the Issue in the Library This corpus is the main source for building the Legal Issue Library Legal Issue Library



14 An example Record in LIL with minimum elements : Legal Issue Library

15 Most cases have multiple Legal Issues in the text. To some extent, these Legal Issues form a skeleton of the case With the Issue Library in the background, each case can be converted into a Vector of Legal Issues, which is a new Case Representation that is computable This new type of metadata looks like this: ( Each LLI has a direct link to a Record in the Issue Library ) Since Issues are uniquely identified and normalized, the new Case Representation can be indexed to support different Applications, such as searching, clustering, content- linking, etc. As discussed above, Issues are more specific semantically than other Linguistic Units, this new data will provide deeper semantic analytic power for Legal Research Case ID : Legal Issues found in Case CASE_ : LLI_000055; LLI_000195; LLI_000220; LLI_112160;... CASE_ : LLI_000089; LLI_000220; LLI_112160; LLI_115095; LLI_200344;.. CASE_ : LLI_000455; LLI_001178; LLI_003179; LLI_112160; LLI_150344; Representing Cases with Normalized Legal Issues

16 For example, two cases United States v. Kelly, 592 F.3d 586 and Mewbourn v. State, 570 So. 2d 805 have these three Legal Issues in common: Under the automobile exception to the usual warrant requirement, law enforcement officers may search a vehicle without a warrant if it is readily mobile and probable cause exists to believe it contains contraband. The probable cause standard does not require officials to possess an airtight case before taking action.... In general, the automobile exception to the warrant requirement is premised upon the exigencies associated with the mobility of a vehicle and the diminished expectation of privacy with regard to a vehicle.... Legal experts may find this higher degree of sharing of Issues as an indication of two cases sharing similar Factual Patterns, similar Argument Strategies, or both A Recommendation System based on this kind of analogy could bring in similar cases that regular Systems would not be able to do Representing Cases with Normalized Legal Issues

17 Linguistic Units occur in large Text Corpora, and form Networks among themselves. These Networks are Semantic by nature, and reflect relations between the Units This kind of networks can be extracted from the Text Corpus to represent knowledge of the given domain When the Knowledge Network is built with Legal Issues, much of the more profound legal knowledge that has not been explicit or easily seen will be revealed and become obvious As Issues represent legal opinions or principles, the Legal Issue Network can be seen as a representation of Law to support various kinds of legal studies or research The following is an example network from a small set of data Network of Legal Issues

18 In the network, Issue of Definition of Robbery (CL_17) is properly linked to other Issues (as weighed by associations between nodes) Network of Legal Issues The Issue Courts duty to instruct on the lesser (CL_147) has a stronger connection torequired reversal or resolution when error is made with that respect (CL_264) ( Please see more analysis in the Paper ) Further Research Study of the outcome of the automatic mining is in the plan for ways to better organize and merge very close Issues Explore potentials of the network structure in support of research in Law

19 Thank You

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