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Geometric Networks in ArcGIS

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Presentation on theme: "Geometric Networks in ArcGIS"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geometric Networks in ArcGIS
Sewer, water, roads, etc.. 2/2008 GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

2 Types of Networks Networks are of two types
Directed flow (geometric networks) utility networks such as sewer and water systems; rivers and streams Elements on the network have no choice in travel decision. Flow direction is determined by the network characteristics alone. Referred to as geometric or utility networks by ESRI Available with ArcEditor level of ArcGIS Undirected flow Transportation networks such as streets Elements on the network make their own travel decisions. Flow direction not determined solely by network. Available thru Network Analyst extension GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

3 Geometric Networks and Network Topology
Geometric Networks can also be useful for checking network topology provide an alternative approach to applying topology rules checking editing on a line file for connectivity and overlaps Linking points and lines into a topological structure Network Topology a procedure for ensuring the integrity of data applying topology rules for points and lines feature classes examined in av9edit_topo.doc Geometric (Utility) Network a procedure for modeling flows thru a network However, can also be helpful in editing network data and ensuing its integrity My guess is that each was developed by separate teams with different primary goals, with overlap occurring in the process Note 1: If a Topology relationship class exists in a feature dataset, you cannot build a geometric network. Note 2: ArcEditor is required for either.

4 Creating a Network in ArcCatalog
Geometric networks are created in ArcCatalog and stored as a relationship class within a geodatabase feature dataset Right click on a feature dataset and select New/Geometric network to start the wizard for creating the network The network (a relationship class) and its junctions (a point feature class) are listed along with the feature classes Multiple point and line feature classes can participate in a network but they must all be in the same feature dataset However, not all line or point feature classes in the feature dataset have to participate The features within participating feature classes May be moved if snapping is allowed Have one or two new attribute fields: Enabled and Ancillary Role (if Source/Sink) A feature class can only participate in one network If desired, you can create a network with empty feature classes, and populate by editing in ArcMap, or loading data GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

5 Analyze Network in ArcMap what you can do with a network
relate lines and points together so that when a move is performed in editing all points and lines move together Establish flow direction in network using sources and sinks down the network to a sink or down the network from a source Intended for tracing paths through network Also useful to find errors in edited files (lines not snapped together, etc..) Sources and sinks are identified in the AncillaryRole field in the point feature class(es). A junction is either: source, sink, none, Usually have only sources or sinks Restrict flow via barriers, and observe effect on trace (pipe clog, pipe break, etc..) Temporary barriers applied to junction or edge with Barrier tool in map document (e.g pipe break now) Semi-permanent barriers applied through the Enabled field in point or line feature classes in database (e.g pipe segment under construction) Perform network analyses (e.g. find common ancestor, find connected segments) Junction or edge Flags are the starting point for these various trace operations sink source All are implemented with the Utility Network Analyst toolbar GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

6 Key Concepts Networks are made up of:
Edges (derived from Line feature classes) These have distance and direction Junctions (derived from Point feature classes) All edges end at a junction Junctions may be end point of a line or intersections between lines If a point from a point feature class is not available to serve as a junction, a point, called an orphan junction, is created in the junction feature class Edges and Junctions may be simple or complex Simple edges/junctions consist of a single feature Complex edges allows edges to connect without separate segments Complex junctions represent multiple features A pump station complex junction may itself consist of multiple water lines (edges) and valves (junctions) Weights may be associated with both edges and junctions They represent the cost of traveling over that feature They are calculated based upon an attribute of the feature (e.g. length of a pipe segment) edges junctions Simple edge Complex GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

7 Type of network flow Uninitialized Determined Undetermined
Flow has not yet been set for this part of the network Determined Flow has been set for this part of the network Undetermined Flow cannot be determined for this part of the network given the sources and sinks that are established Acts the same as uninitialized flow Same symbol used as default, but can be changed via options GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

8 Building and Using the Geometric Network
Reference detail GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

9 Building the network Select a feature dataset Name your network
Select feature classes to participate Set snapping Tolerance distance Feature classes to snap to Identify complex edge feature classes Define Sources and Sinks Set weights GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

10 Define Source and Sinks
GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

11 Establishing flow with sources and sinks
Flow goes from source to sinks AncillaryRole field of junctions A domain defines the available values None Source Sink Recalculate flow after editing and before analysis with tool Display flow arrows via Flow/Display Arrows GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

12 Network Weights Cost to traverse an edge or junction
Based on numeric field values Lower numbers = lower resistance Can be bidirectional (two way) by using two fields Negative values are barriers block flow down that segment Define when the network is created Name the weight Apply it to a field in one or more feature classes (process similar to using a domain: “define” then “apply”) GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

13 Add Weights to a network
GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

14 Add complex edges and Define feature to be snapped
GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

15 Network Analysis Network Traces
Tracing upstream and downstream Finding path Finding common ancestor Find connected Flags are use to define locations for tracing: 3 step process Place the flags Choose a trace task Solve the trace GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

16 Tracing upstream and downstream
Upstream trace Downstream trace GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

17 Finding Path Find the best path between two flags
Upstream, downstream, connected From first flag to second flag Flags are placed on any feature GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

18 Finding common ancestor
Piece of upstream network common to all flags Which electric line is common to all house? GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

19 Finding connected features
Finding features connected to a flag Commonly used for isolating features Disable layer(s) (e.g. Valves) Set Trace to Ends Property Place a flag on the feature you want to isolate Trace back to the disable layer GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

20 Finding Indeterminate Flow
Use the Find Loops analysis No Cycle (switch open) Cycle (switch closed) GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

21 Connectivity Rules for Networks
similar to domains for geodatabases Domains control the values that variables can assume Can apply at subtype level and also set default values Connectivity rules allow you to control: which edges may connect together what junctions (points) must be used to connect these edges Two types Edge to junction rules Edge to edge rules Cardinality The number of features that can connect Number of edges a junction can connect to Number of junctions an edge can connect

22 Setting Connectivity Rules
Connectivity rules are network versions of domains “business rules” which you apply to connections between features By default, all features can connect Setting one rule means you have to set rules for everything you want to connect This can be a lot of work! Connectivity rules are set after the network is created by right clicking the network relationship class in ArcCatalog and going to Properties/Connectivity tab Another option is to select Geometric Network Editor instead of going to Properties. (Probably easier once concept is understood) GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

23 Setting Edge-to-Junction rules (and junction-to-edge)
This feature class (edge, in this case) With these Cardinalities With this subtype Connects to this junction GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

24 Setting Edge-to-Edge Rules
This Edge Connects to this edge Through this junction GISC UT-Dallas Briggs

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