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1 The National Rural Employment Guarantee Four Years On Dr. Santosh Mehrotra Director Institute of Applied Manpower Research (Planning Commission,Govt.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The National Rural Employment Guarantee Four Years On Dr. Santosh Mehrotra Director Institute of Applied Manpower Research (Planning Commission,Govt."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The National Rural Employment Guarantee Four Years On Dr. Santosh Mehrotra Director Institute of Applied Manpower Research (Planning Commission,Govt. of India)

2 Structure of presentation Slide Numbers  30 years history of WEP 3  So why another wage employment programme? 4  NREGA 5  Objectives 6  Paradigm shift difference from earlier schemes. 7  Worked being undertaken under the Act 8  Composition of works  Volume of employment provided  NREGA has generated more employment. 12  Performance among the states 13  % person days generated Vs % Rural Poor 14  Wage Rates Comparison and Migration  House holds completed 100 days of employment  Summary Achievements and challenges

3 3 30 yr history of WEPs…but Problems  Low programme coverage and Intensity (lack of awareness about new features of NREGS; shortage of staff)  Bureaucracy dominated planning; little participation of community in planning  Work to women ltd  Ltd days employment provided to household  Assets created not durable  Corruption: Reports of fake muster rolls; Contractors persisted; machines used, fake bills; Payment often less than prescribed wages etc.

4 4 So why another wage employment programme ?  Political imperative: Previous govt’s ‘India Shining’ campaign failed to win votes in May 2004 elections. Cong govt came to power on a rural/agriculture dev vote  Econ imperative: Agriculture growth slowed since latter half of 1990s – despite overall GDP growth. Rural wages/inc stagnating; Gini coeff of income worsening; 300 mn poor in 1973 and 2005; farmers committing suicide; Maoist insurgency in 200 of 631 districts

5 5 NREGA  The Government of India launched National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) on February 2,  For , 200 poorest districts were covered of total 619 districts in the first phase.  In , 330 districts were covered in the second phase (130 districts added)  In rest of country a pre-existing WEP continued; April 2008 coverage of whole country

6 6 Objectives 1. Provide 100 days of employment for poorer sections i.e., landless labour and marginal farmers 2. Improve land productivity, income and employment over time

7 7 Paradigm Shift-differences from earlier schemes NREGA introduces Rights Based framework: Legal Guarantee Time bound action to fulfill Guarantee Incentive structure for performance (Centre funds 90% of costs of generating employment) Disincentive for non performance (Unemployment allowance is state liability) Demand based resource availability Accountability of public delivery system

8 8 Works being undertaken under the Act  Water Conservation and water harvesting.  Drought proofing ( including afforestation  Irrigation canals  Provision of irrigation facility to land owned by SC and ST, land of beneficiaries of land reforms and that of beneficiaries of Indira Awaas Yojana.  Renovation of traditional water bodies  Land development  Flood control works  Rural connectivity to provide all weather access  Any other work which may be notified by Central Government in consultation with State Government.

9 9 Composition of works ( )

10 10 Volume of Employment Provided » In 2009/10 the share of SCs which received employment is 20% whereas STs share is 18% » Average no. of person days per HH 37 for India in 2009/10, 26 in case of SGRY

11 11 Women constituted 48% of all persons working in 2009/10. But gender performance was poor in Karnatka (11.9%), Himachal Pardesh (13.6%), Assam (14.1), Mizoram (20.3),WB (27.5%),Chadigarh (28.1%) and Orissa (30.1%)

12 12 NREGA has generated more employment than SGRY and NFFWP TOGETHER (Million)

13 13 Good Performers: Rajasthan,Mizoram, and Tripura Under Performers: Assam,Bihar,and West Bengal Performance among the States

14 14 % Person days generated Vs. % Rural Poor

15 15 Wage Rates Comparison and Migration » Raising wages in the areas where NREGA works are implemented » Difference in the market wage rates for Agri. Activity in pre-and-post NREGA (especially in the case of women, who are paid the same rates as men under NREGA) » Migration: they do not need to migrate to other rural areas (eg. Bihar labourers do not find work in Punjab)

16 16 Comparison of Wage Rates in Rural India with NREGA Wage Rates States Average Daily Wage Rates in Rural India, (Rs.) NREGA Wage Rates (Rs.) MenWomen Assam Bihar Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Kerala MP Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan TN UP WB All-India

17 17 Households completed 100 Days of Employment » In 2009/10 only 1.60 mn HH completed 100 day of employments as against 1.83 mn in 2008/9 » Chattisgarh, MP, Orissa, Rajasthan and UP (all are poor states) are amongst the highest no. of HH completing 100 days employments.

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19 19 Summary: Achievements  Total employment generated under NREG much larger than earlier WEP  Wage rates rose ( women paid same rates as men)  Self-targeting is working (SC, ST participation  After NREG, migration declined

20 20 Summary Challenges Ahead System of Social Audit: Should be performed and owned by the GPs, NGOs can assist. Manual for social audit should be circulated to all GPs, block and district officials within 3 months Administrative Costs: Most Govt programmes allow for 10% of total expenditure for admin costs but under NREGA 6% is allowed but as is found actual expenditure is even less then 3%. contn…..

21 21 Cost saving and quality of works through CONVERGENCE Task Force on Convergence: Lab component of non-NREGA from NREGA Value addition for durable assets: from kutcha (NREGA) to pucca works (non- NREGA programme)

22 22 Challenges Ahead Lack of awareness: Better information, Communication, Education (IEC) is urgently needed. Good example set by IEC strategies created for Bharat Nirman and for JNNURM should be used for NREGA Creating Assets on Private land: To undertake employment works on land owned by small and marginal farmers in addition to SC/ST/BPL farmers ensuring maintenance Transparency in wage payment: Separating payment agency from implementing agency. There is a need to strengthen Sub-Post Office/Branch Post Office to avoid malfeasance (e.g AP) cr bank acc/PO accts opened

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