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Presentation on theme: "THE ANALYSIS OF EXPLANATION TEXT"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is an explanation text?
An explanation text gives you information about a subject that you are interested in and would like to know more about. It is usually a text that aims to explain a process e.g. How glass is recycled Can you think of any other topics you could choose for an explanation text?

3 Definition and Purpose
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.  

4 Generic structure • General statement : stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. • Sequenced explanation : stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. • Closing : sump up the explanation and talks about its applications.

5 Languange Features Featuring Generic Participants; sun, rain, etc.
Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense Using abstract noun Using action verb Using conjunction of time Using noun phrases Using adverbial phrases Using technical terms

6 Example of languange features
Featuring Generic Participants; tsunami Using passive voice pattern: A tsunami will be generated when the sea floor Using simple present tense: Tsunami always bring great damage Using abstract noun: vertical, horizontal, height Using action verb: movement, move Using conjunction of time: when Using noun phrases: rapidly displaced Using adverbial phrases: lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale Using technical terms: wave, gravity, equilibrium Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japan which means harbor ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. A tsunami will be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at the plate boundaries. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.

7 Explanation text also includes
Structure Present Tense Connectives Diagram and Pictures Writing an Explanation Text

8 Structure An explanation text usually starts with a statement that introduces the subject or topic to the reader, such as; 'Lots of animals like hedgehogs, badgers and mice hibernate during winter.' What Next? Next there comes a series of steps that explain how things happen or the reasons why, such as; 'This is because it gets much colder and darker during the winter months.' 'When it gets colder, food like berries and insects become harder to find. Therefore, some animals find a safe place to sleep and store energy until the plants start to grow again and food is more plentiful.' These steps continue until the question has been answered or the explanation is complete.

9 Present Tense Explanation texts are usually written in the present tense because they are explaining how or why something happens. To do this they explain it as if it is happening now.

10 Connectives Explanation texts usually use words called connectives that explain things in order, one after another. Some of the connectives you might find are: Firstly Next Then After that Meanwhile Eventually Later Finally Other connectives explain how things work or why things happen, such as: Because So This means

11 Diagram and picture Explanation texts often include diagrams, pictures or charts to help you understand Diagrams and charts always have a title, and pictures will always have a caption underneath.  For example: Animals like this badger hibernate during winter. Make sure that your caption explains exactly what is going on to help the reader to understand why it is there.

12 Writing an explanation text
Title Titles that use words like 'how' or 'why', will help readers to understand what the text is about and make them want to find out more. For example:  'Why' do animals sleep through the winter?' Paragraphs You need to write in paragraphs to break up your text and make sure it follows a sequence. Use connectives like 'Firstly' and 'So' to put it in the right order. Style Use a question or a statement as your title. Keep this in mind so you stick to the point. Use the rest of your writing to make points that help to answer your question or support your statement. Interesting facts Throw in a few interesting facts to make your writing come alive and keep your reader interested. Re-read Re-read your explanation text when you have finished. Make sure you've answered your question or supported your statement.

13 Similarities and Differences of Explanation and Procedure Text
The Similarities : Using chronological connection Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense Have the answer of two question ‘why’ and ‘how’ Explain about the process

14 The differences Explanation Text Procedure Text More general
Sequential chronology Example ‘the way how you go to campus’, ‘making a food’, etc. The text will be spesifically explain Not all of the material can be used Usually explain about phenomena

15 Similarities and differences of Explanation Text and Report Text
Explain about the result of observation, research, and study. Explanation text More to process about something that happened or why it existed and is formed. Ex: ‘how volcano explode?’ Report text explain anout the circumstances or elements that participants have. Ex: The volcanoes has very hot larvae which can damage the surrounding environment

16 Similarities and Differences of Explanation and Descriptive Text
The similarities: Explanation text and descriptive text if we see a glimpse already seen the difference. Both of them have in common only on the structure of sentence is use simple present tense

17 The Differences Explanation Text Descriptive Text
Explain about how the process of something happened and why it happened. Ex: Raining, Tsunami, etc. The generic structure of explanation text are general statement, sequenced explanation, and close. Describe about something that general like a particular person, place, or thing. Ex: my dog, may cat, etc. The generic structure of descriptive text are identification and description.


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