2 What is an explanation text? An explanation text gives you information about a subject that you are interested in and would like to know more about.It is usually a text that aims to explain a process e.g. How glass is recycledCan you think of any other topics you could choose for an explanation text?
3 Definition and Purpose Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena.Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
4 Generic structure• General statement : stating the phenomenon issues whichare to be explained.• Sequenced explanation : stating a series of steps which explainthe phenomena.• Closing : sump up the explanation and talks aboutits applications.
5 Languange Features Featuring Generic Participants; sun, rain, etc. Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etcUsing passive voice patternUsing simple present tenseUsing abstract nounUsing action verbUsing conjunction of timeUsing noun phrasesUsing adverbial phrasesUsing technical terms
6 Example of languange features Featuring Generic Participants; tsunamiUsing passive voice pattern: A tsunami will be generated when the sea floorUsing simple present tense: Tsunami always bring great damageUsing abstract noun: vertical, horizontal, heightUsing action verb: movement, moveUsing conjunction of time: whenUsing noun phrases: rapidly displacedUsing adverbial phrases: lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scaleUsing technical terms: wave, gravity, equilibriumTsunamiThe term of “tsunami” comes from the Japan which means harbor ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.A tsunami will be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at the plate boundaries. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
7 Explanation text also includes StructurePresent TenseConnectivesDiagram and PicturesWriting an Explanation Text
8 StructureAn explanation text usually starts with a statement that introduces the subject or topic to the reader, such as;'Lots of animals like hedgehogs, badgers and mice hibernate during winter.'What Next?Next there comes a series of steps that explain how things happen or the reasons why, such as;'This is because it gets much colder and darker during the winter months.''When it gets colder, food like berries and insects become harder to find. Therefore, some animals find a safe place to sleep and store energy until the plants start to grow again and food is more plentiful.'These steps continue until the question has been answered or the explanation is complete.
9 Present TenseExplanation texts are usually written in the present tense because they are explaining how or why something happens. To do this they explain it as if it is happening now.
10 ConnectivesExplanation texts usually use words called connectives that explain things in order, one after another.Some of the connectives you might find are:FirstlyNextThenAfter thatMeanwhileEventuallyLaterFinallyOther connectives explain how things work or why things happen, such as:BecauseSoThis means
11 Diagram and pictureExplanation texts often include diagrams, pictures or charts to help you understandDiagrams and charts always have a title, and pictures will always have a caption underneath. For example:Animals like this badger hibernate during winter.Make sure that your caption explains exactly what is going on to help the reader to understand why it is there.
12 Writing an explanation text TitleTitles that use words like 'how' or 'why', will help readers to understand what the text is about and make them want to find out more. For example: 'Why' do animals sleep through the winter?'ParagraphsYou need to write in paragraphs to break up your text and make sure it follows a sequence. Use connectives like 'Firstly' and 'So' to put it in the right order.StyleUse a question or a statement as your title. Keep this in mind so you stick to the point. Use the rest of your writing to make points that help to answer your question or support your statement.Interesting factsThrow in a few interesting facts to make your writing come alive and keep your reader interested.Re-readRe-read your explanation text when you have finished. Make sure you've answered your question or supported your statement.
13 Similarities and Differences of Explanation and Procedure Text The Similarities :Using chronological connectionUsing passive voice patternUsing simple present tenseHave the answer of two question ‘why’ and ‘how’Explain about the process
14 The differences Explanation Text Procedure Text More general Sequential chronologyExample ‘the way how you go to campus’, ‘making a food’, etc.The text will be spesifically explainNot all of the material can be usedUsually explain about phenomena
15 Similarities and differences of Explanation Text and Report Text Explain about the result of observation, research, and study.Explanation textMore to process about something that happened or why it existed and is formed. Ex: ‘how volcano explode?’Report textexplain anout the circumstances or elements that participants have. Ex: The volcanoes has very hot larvae which can damage the surrounding environment
16 Similarities and Differences of Explanation and Descriptive Text The similarities:Explanation text and descriptive text if we see a glimpse already seen the difference. Both of them have in common only on the structure of sentence is use simple present tense
17 The Differences Explanation Text Descriptive Text Explain about how the process of something happened and why it happened. Ex: Raining, Tsunami, etc.The generic structure of explanation text are general statement, sequenced explanation, and close.Describe about something that general like a particular person, place, or thing. Ex: my dog, may cat, etc.The generic structure of descriptive text are identification and description.