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Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part II Dieter Zapf Valencia 15th Oct. 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part II Dieter Zapf Valencia 15th Oct. 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part II Dieter Zapf Valencia 15th Oct. 2008

2 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 2 Content 1.What is service? 2.Emotional labour – emotion work 3.Emotional job requirements 4.Antecedents of Emotion Work and Emotional Job Requirements 5.Emotional Job Requirements and Well-being at Work 6.Emotion regulation strategies 7.Emotion regulation strategies, job performance and well-being at work 8.Relations between emotion work requirements and emotion regulation 9.Motives for doing emotion work 10.Emotion work and age

3 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 3 6. Emotion Regulation Strategies

4 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 4 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Monitoring, Feedback Planning, Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations Performance

5 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 5 Study 1.Diary study: 2.48 participants (14 hairdressers, 14 flight attendants, 8 nurses, 7 salespersons, 5 call centre agents) responded to a questionnaire and filled in a diary for 10 working days and provided diary entries 4.The diary was filled in at the end of the work day. Participants had to refer to an emotionally significant interaction of the day 5.Response rate 47% (between 12 (sales) and 78% (hairdresser)) 6.Mean age 32 years; 70% women

6 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 6 Felt and Expressed Emotions – Diary Study Zapf, Trumpold, Erian, Keck & Weber (2008)

7 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 7 Felt and Expressed Emotions – Diary Study Zapf, Trumpold, Erian, Keck & Weber (2008) Culture specific?

8 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 8 Diary Study on Emotion Regulation Method: Participants were interviewed, and they were asked to record for 7 consecutive days, all interactions at work and in private life that lasted 10 minutes or more. N=78 participants from Switzerland Questions Was there a requirement to display an emotion?Yes - No Did you display the required emotion? Yes - No Did you feel the emotion? Yes - No Variables: Required – displayed – felt: Emotional harmony Required – displayed – not felt: Emotional dissonance Required – not displayed – not felt: Emotional deviance Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005, JOOP)

9 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 9 Diary Study on Emotion Regulation Results: 848 work-related interactions reported (coworkers and clients) 49% interactions involved an emotion regulation requirement 89 % interactions with clients involved an emotion regulation requirement 31% interactions with coworkers involved an emotion regulation requirement 10% interactions involved emotional dissonance 9% interactions involved emotional deviance Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005, JOOP)

10 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 10 The Process of Emotion Work: Emotion Regulation The regulation of emotions to express organizationally desired emotions can be done by several strategies: Surface acting: Regulation of visible behaviour (facial expression, gestures, voice) to match ones emotion display and the emotions required by the organization, while inner feelings are different Deep acting: Regulation of inner feelings to match ones emotion display and the emotions required by the organization Automatic emotion regulation: Regulation of visible behaviour (facial expression, gestures, voice) in an automatic mode, because an organizationally desired emotion is elicited by the situation (effortless): Natural emotion Emotional deviance: Displayed and felt emotion does not match the organizationally desired emotion (intentionally or unintentionally)

11 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 11 Emotion Regulation Model of Gross (1999) Deep acting Surface acting Grandey (2000)

12 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 12 Surface Acting Regulation of visible behaviour (facial expression, gestures, voice) to match ones emotion display and the emotions required by the organization, while inner feelings are different; according to Gross (1998) response focused: suppressing, intensifying or faking emotions Studies show: Surface acting is positively related to psychological strain (emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic symptoms) (e.g., Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Grandey, 2003; Totterdell & Holman, 2003; Tschan, Rochat & Zapf, 2005) Surface acting is negatively related to well-being (satisfaction, personal accomplishment) (e.g., Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002) Surface acting is negatively related to performance (e.g. affective delivery, customer satisfaction) (Grandey, 2003) Negative relations with performance because the true emotions may lurk through Surface acting appears as an unfavourable strategy which better should be avoided!

13 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 13 Deep Acting Regulation of inner feelings to match ones emotion display and the emotions required by the organization. With reference to Gross (1998): cognitive change and attention deployment Studies show: Deep acting is unrelated to psychological strain (e.g., Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Totterdell & Holman, 2003) Deep acting is positively related to well-being (satisfaction, personal accomplishment) (e.g., Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002) Deep acting is positively related to performance (self-rated performance, customer satisfaction) (e.g., Totterdell & Holman, 2003) Deep acting appears as a successful strategy which should always be used!

14 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 14 Automatic Emotion Regulation Regulation of visible behaviour (facial expression, gestures, voice) in an automatic mode (Zapf, 2002), because an organizationally desired emotion is elicited by the situation (effortless): genuinely felt emotion (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993): passive deep acting (Hochschild, 1983) So far only a few studies Studies show: Automatic Emotion Regulation is negatively related to psychological strain (e.g., Martínez-Iñigo, Totterdell, Alcover & Holman, 2007; Zammuner & Galli, 2005) Automatic Emotion Regulation is positively related to well-being (satisfaction, personal accomplishment) (e.g., Martínez-Iñigo, Totterdell, Alcover & Holman, 2007; Zammuner & Galli, 2005)

15 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 15 Emotional Deviance Displayed and felt emotion does not match the organizationally desired emotion (intentionally or unintentionally) (Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987) Studies show: Emotional Deviance is positively related to exhaustion (Tschan, Rochat & Zapf, 2005) Emotional deviance should be avoided!

16 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 16 Restrictions in the Application of DA and SA Grandey (2000, p. 103): the more negative the events, the more emotion regulation is necessary Totterdell & Holman (2003, p. 57): Negative events … will be positively associated with deep and surface acting… Many author assume that emotion regulation strategies can be used in every situation Conclusion: There seem to be no restrictions in the application of DA and SA

17 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 17 Anticipative and Situational Deep Acting The concept of deep acting in the literature is situational deep acting: that is, this emotion regulation strategy is carried out during the interaction. Hochschild (1983) has borrowed from theatre performance. Here practicing before going on stage plays a major role. Accordingly we assume that people do deep acting before the interaction (e.g., some firms like Wal-Mart cheer up before they start working). We prepare for a social interaction when we anticipate any kind of difficulties or when the situation is extremely important. We therefore assume that anticipative deep acting will be used in negative or neutral situations. We assume that human beings are overtaxed if they are expected to spontaneously transform negative feelings into positive ones. Therefore we expect that situational deep acting is constrained to neutral or positive situations.

18 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 18 Review of the Literature - Conclusion Surface acting appears as an unfavourable strategy: positively related to psychological strain and negatively related to satisfaction and performance Deep acting appears as a favourable strategy: unrelated to psychological strain (at least relation unclear) and positively related to satisfaction and performance There seem to be no restrictions in the application of DA and SA Emotional Deviance is positively related to psychological strain. There is little research on automatic emotion regulation (passive deep acting)

19 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 19 Hypotheses 1.Automatic emotion regulation is restricted to positive situations; in negative or neutral situations the positive emotions would not be triggered automatically. 2.Situative deep acting is constrained to neutral or positive situations. 3.Anticipative deep acting will be used in negative or neutral situations. 4.Surface acting is used most often in negative or neutral situations 5.Emotional deviance appears most often in negative or very negative situations

20 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 20 Study 1.Diary study: 2.48 participants (14 hairdressers, 14 flight attendants, 8 nurses, 7 salespersons, 5 call centre agents) responded to a questionnaire and filled in a diary for 10 working days and provided diary entries 4.The diary was filled in at the end of the work day. Participants had to refer to an emotionally significant interaction of the day 5.Response rate 47% (between 12 (sales) and 78% (hairdresser)) 6.Mean age 32 years; 70% women

21 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 21 Measures Based on Brotheridge and Lees (2003) instrument, extended based on Totterdell & Holman (2003), Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005) and others. The diary made short measures necessary. Single items for Quality of the situation, exhaustion, effort, satisfaction with interaction Emotion regulation based on factor analyses Automatic emotion regulation: 2 items Deep acting: 5 items Anticipative deep acting: 2 items Situative deep acting: 3 items Surface acting: 6 items Emotional deviance: 2 items Self-rated performance: 3 items

22 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 22 Measures Based on Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005) Categorial Measures: Was there an expectation to display an emotion? No – yes, if yes: positive – neutral – negative Did you express the emotion? No – yes Did you feel the emotion? No - yes

23 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 23 Effects of Emotion Regulation on Performance Automatic Anticip DA Surface A Deviance Interaction Level Situation pleasant.36** ** Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situat DA -.33**

24 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 24 Emotion Regulation Dependent on Quality of the Interaction Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries

25 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 25 Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Emotion Regulation Dependent on Quality of the Interaction

26 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 26 Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Anticipative and Situative Deep Acting Dependent on Quality of the Interaction

27 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 27 Emotion Regulation Dependent on Emotion Felt Happy/ SatisfiedAngry/ Irritated Data subset: Positive emotion expected (N=261)

28 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 28 Emotion Regulation and Performance SD=.81 SD=.67 ** Data subset: Positive emotion expected (N=261)

29 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 29 Emotion Regulation and Performance SD=1.00 SD=.81 SD=.67 F=28.44 (d.f.=2) *** ** Data subset: Positive emotion expected (N=261)

30 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 30 Summary Situation Very positive Positive NeutralNegativeVery negative Automatic Emotion Regulation Situational Deep Acting Anticipative Deep Acting Surface Acting Emotional Deviance - Performance + + Strain -

31 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf Emotion Regulation, Job Performance and Well-being at Work

32 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 32 ? Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Monitoring, Feedback Planning, Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) ? Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations Performance

33 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 33 Effects of Emotion Regulation on Exhaustion Interaction Level.21* -.41** (-.11*).69** (.50**).58** (.31**) Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Sample: Hairdressers, flight attendants, nurses, salespersons, call centre agents Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Automatic Anticip DA Surface A Deviance Situat DA.03 (-.07) Analysis with multiple predictors in parentheses Exhaustion

34 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 34 Effects of Emotion Regulation on Satisfaction with Interaction Interaction Level.01.41** (.27**) -.42** (-.15*) -.46** (-.26**) Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Automatic Anticip DA Surface A Deviance Situat DA.18* (.08) Analysis with multiple predictors in parentheses Satisfaction with Interaction

35 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 35 Effects of Emotion Regulation on Effort Interaction Level.15 (p=.20) -.64** (-.18**) 1.04** (.75**).88** (.45**) Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Sample: Hairdressers, flight attendants, nurses, salespersons, call centre agents Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Automatic Anticip DA Surface A Deviance Situat DA -.25** (-.12*) Analysis with multiple predictors in parentheses Interaction effortful Did you have to make an effort to control your emotions during the interaction?

36 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 36 Effects of Emotion Regulation on Performance Interaction Level Performance.05.32** (.20**) -.31** (-.06) -.40** (-.27**) Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Automatic Anticip DA Surface A Deviance Situat DA.24** (.16**) Analysis with multiple predictors in parentheses

37 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 37 Diary Study on Emotion Regulation Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005) Requirement to Display an Emotion L2 Negative affectivity L1 Control L1 Emotion work requirement -.22 (.093)*.13 (.035)* -.25 (.076)* Emotional Dissonance L2 Negative affectivity L1 Control L1 Emotional Dissonance Surface Acting L1 Negative emotion felt -.20 (.071)* )* -.19 (.081)* (.119)* Emotional Deviance L2 Negative affectivity L1 Control L1 Emotional Deviance Venting L1 Negative emotion felt -.20 (.089)*.09 (.032)* -.48 (.124)* -.49 (.083)* Effects on Situational Well-being

38 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf Relations between Emotion Work Requirements and Emotion Regulation

39 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 39 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Monitoring, Feedback Planning, Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations Performance Emotional Job Requirements Emotional Job Requirements

40 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 40 Hierarchical Data Structure Person Questionnaire Diary Day 1 Diary Day 2 Diary Day 10 Diary Day 3 Level 2... Level 1 Single interactions with customers These data are not statistically independent General characteristics of the person and her situation

41 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 41 Hierarchical Data Structure Emotional Dissonance Surface Acting Day 1 Surface Acting Day 2 Surface Acting Day 10 Surface Acting Day 2 Level 2... Level 1 N=48 N=385

42 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 42 Emotional Job Requirements and Emotion Regulation Strategies AutomaticDeep ActingAnticip DA Situational DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Display Positive Emotions n.s p= ** n.s n.s n.s. Display Negative Emotions n.s p= n.s * n.s * Display Sympathy Emotions n.s n.s n.s p= p= n.s. Emotional Neutrality n.s p= * n.s n.s n.s Sensitivity Require- ments n.s ** * ** p= n.s. Emotional Dissonance * p= * n.s ** n.s. One-sided tests Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Sample: Hairdressers, flight attendants, nurses, salespersons, call centre agents Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6

43 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf Motives for Doing Emotion Work

44 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 44 The Starting Point Organisational Display Rules Emotional Labour Show positive emotions Emotion regulation Show positive emotions

45 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 45 The Starting Point Organisational Display Rules Emotional Labour Show positive emotions Emotion regulation Show positive emotions The emotion is just the "symptom" Both the organisation and the employee want more

46 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 46 Reasons and Motives for Emotion Regulation Service Quality (SERVQUAL, Zeithaml et al., 1990): Courtesy Responsiveness Reliability Security Competence Understanding the customer Motives in organisational psychology (see Maslow, 1954; Jahoda, 1981), e.g.: Social motives Recognition Self-esteem regulation

47 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 47 Reasons and Motives for Emotion Regulation – the Literature Totterdell & Holman, (2003) Affect regulation Glaso et al. (2006) Reasons to regulation emotion in supervisor-subordinate relations: To appear competent Motivate somebody Keep a good relationship

48 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 48 Qualitative Interviews 12 qualitative interviews (open question and preliminary list) led to the following result: Why do you regulate your emotions when interacting with customers?

49 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 49 Qualitative Interviews 12 qualitative interviews (open question and preliminary list) led to the following result: Avoid Escalation Avoid Argument Keep Control Personally important Feel better Good Personal Relation Create Certain Atmosphere Motivate Customer Reaction to Customer Competent Impression Clear Display Rules Part of Job Endanger Job Why do you regulate your emotions when interacting with customers?

50 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 50 Research Question 12 qualitative interviews (open question and preliminary list) led to the following result: Avoid Escalation Avoid Argument Keep Control Personally important Feel better Keep Good Relations Create Certain Atmosphere Motivate Customer Reaction to Customer Competent Impression Clear Display Rules Part of Job Endanger Job Why do you regulate your emotions when interacting with customers? How are these motives related to emotion regulation strategies?

51 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 51 Hypotheses (exploratory) Avoid Escalation Avoid Argument Keep Control Personally important Feel better Good Personal Relation Create Certain Atmosphere Motivate Customer Reaction to Customer Competent Impression Clear Display Rules Part of Job Endanger Job Surface acting Deep acting Surfacting and Anticipative DA Automatic Reg Situative DA Situative DA Automatic Reg Automatic Reg Situative DA

52 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 52 Diary Study 1.Diary study: 2.48 participants (14 hairdressers, 14 flight attendants, 8 nurses, 7 salespersons, 5 call centre agents) responded to a questionnaire and filled in a diary for 10 working days and provided diary entries with full data set 4.The diary was filled in at the end of the work day. Participants had to refer to an emotionally significant interaction of the day 5.Response rate 47% (between 12 (sales) and 78% (hairdressers)) 6.Mean age 32 years; 70% women

53 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 53 Diary Studies - Measures Based on Brotheridge and Lees (2003) instrument, extended based on Totterdell & Holman (2003), Tschan, Rochat & Zapf (2005) and others. Emotion regulation based on factor analyses Automatic emotion regulation:2 items Anticipative deep acting: 2 items Situative deep acting: 3 items Surface acting: 6 items Emotional deviance: 2 items Plus: 13 single items on motives for regulation

54 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 54 Emotion Regulation Motives Diary Study

55 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 55 Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA.130+ Clear Display Rules Surfacting O Anticipative DA Situative DA

56 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 56 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level -.243**.082* n.s..188** Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA.297** Avoid Argument Surfacting Anticipative DA Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies

57 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 57 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level.345** * -.267** Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA -.200** Good Personal Relations Situative Deep acting Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies Automatic Reg Situative DA

58 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 58 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level.200**.058*.222** Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA -.133** Motivate Customer Situative Deep acting Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies

59 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 59 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level.416** Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA -.259** Reaction to Customer Automatic Emotion Regulation Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies

60 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 60 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level.405** ** -.142* Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA -.260** Feel better Automatic Reg Situative DA Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies

61 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 61 Automatic Anticipative DA Surface Acting Emotional Deviance Interaction Level Diary Study: N=48 with 385 diary entries Statistical analysis: Hierarchical Linear Modeling HLM6 Situative DA.155* Competent Impression o Automatic Reg o Situative DA Effects of Motives on Emotion Regulation Strategies

62 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 62 Summary of Results Avoid Escalation Avoid Argument Keep Control Personally important Feel better Good Personal Relation Create Certain Atmosphere Motivate Customer Reaction to Customer Competent Impression Clear Display Rules Part of Job Endanger Job Surface acting Anticipative Deep Acting Situative Deep Acting Automatic Reg

63 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 63 Summary & Conclusion 1.Participants report a variety of motives to regulate emotions 2.Motives are related to different emotion regulation strategies 3.Showing emotions are symptoms 4.Next step: relate to other established concepts such as trust psychological contract organizational commitment

64 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf Emotion Work and Age

65 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 65 Why is the Employment Rate of Older Employees so low? Deterioration of Performance of older workers because of Reduced physical strength Deterioration of basic cognitive abilities (e.g., reaction time, perception, recognition time, memory, dual tasks performance, etc.) Reduced flexibility and learning motivation Little familiarity with new technology However: Compensation by increased knowledge Increased practical job experience

66 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 66 However: What about social and emotional skills? So far no study has systematically examined the effects of aging in emotional labour Why is the Employment Rate of Older Employees so low?

67 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 67 Hypothesis: Older Employees are Good Emotion Workers !

68 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 68 Some Empirical findings Age differences in problem-solving styles: In emotional salient situations older people use more emotion focused strategies than younger ones. (Blanchard-Fields, Jahnke & Camp,1995) Older adults show greater affect control and appraise conflict situations more positively than younger adults. (Diehl,Coyle, & Labouvie-Vief,1996) More use of humor (a strategy of cognitive restructuring) ( Vaillant, 1977 ) Older individuals are less confrontative, contribute less to conflicts, show more distancing, more positive reappraisal, however, less active problem solving ( Lazarus, Pimeley & Novacek, 1987), Research in wisdom : Older people show more social sensitivity and prespective taking (Baltes, Staudinger, Maercker & Smith, 1995)

69 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf in Conclusion Younger people... Show more - active - interpersonal - behavioural coping - seeking help Are more confrontative and aggressive Contribute to conflicts Older people... Show more - passive - intrapsychological - emotional coping (such as perspective taking, distancing or positive reappraisal ) Are less confrontative Better match with social requirements in service interactions!

70 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 70 Explanations Stress research: Active behavioural coping better in high control situations Passive intrapsychological emotional coping better in low control situations Developmental Psychology, wisdom research: Throughout their lives people experience situations High in uncertainty and unpredictability Low in control Consequence: Older people learn to cope with unpredictability and low control Develop emotional coping strategies Better match with social requirements in service interactions!

71 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 71 Sample Municipal youth and social welfare office (n=557) International insurance (n=399) Security firm (n=310) Hospital (N=158) Wholesale company (n=81) social workers (n=66) Total sample: N=1571 Women: 55%, Men: 45% Age: Minimum 19 years, maximum 73 years, M=40,93 years (SD 10,64 )

72 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 72 Hypothesis 1: Direct Age effect – Emotional Dissonance Older service employees report less emotional dissonance than their younger colleagues, even if they - in general - have the same job requirements. Requirement to display Positive Emotions: n.s. Emotional dissonance: significant differences between 7 age groups, F=7.27, p<.01

73 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 73 Hypothesis 1: Direct Age Effect - Burnout Age Older service employees perceived lower levels of burnout emotional exhaustion F=8.49 depersonalization F=8.55 and personal accomplishment (inverted) F=4.38, all p<.01

74 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 74 Age Older service employees perceived lower levels of burnout emotional exhaustion F=8.49 depersonalization F=8.55 and personal accomplishment (inverted) F=4.38, all p<.01 Direct Age Effect - Burnout

75 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 75 Hypothesis 2: Moderating Effect of Age Interaction of age and emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion younger employees older employees low (-1SD) high (+1SD) After controlling for the same variables before, the direct effect of age (ß=-.09**) and the moderating effect (ß=-.09**) were again significant and also explained an additional 2% of the variance of emotional exhaustion in the analysis

76 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 76 Moderating Effect of Age Even after controlling for emotional requirements and work and organizational stressors (ttl 10 variables), the direct effect of age (ß=-.11**) and the moderating effect (ß=-.09**) were significant and explained an additional 2% of the variance of depersonalization in step 4 and 5 of the moderated hierarchical regression analysis

77 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 77 Conclusion Older employees have a strength in emotion regulation which may well balance weaknesses in other areas In service work they may be as good or even better than their younger colleagues


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