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And the Romantic Period

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1 And the Romantic Period 1820-1900
Beethoven And the Romantic Period

2 Classical Timeline

3 Review of periods of Music History so far...
Common Practice Period Baroque (invention of opera and beginning of Common Practice Period to death of Bach) Classical (death of Bach to Beethoven's second period) Romantic (Beethoven's second period to twentieth century)

4 Ludwig van Beethoven

5 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
Early Period (up to 1802). Follows the language of Haydn - Classical style

6 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
Middle Period ( ) - Heroic period, fiery music, dramatic, Symphony No. 5

7 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
Late Period (after 1815) - introspective, very complex, intimate performing forces (piano, string quartet)

8 Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67
1. Psychological Progression - Moves from the key of C Minor to C Major 2. Driving Rhythm - Propells you forward throughout the form 3. Motivic Consistency (Short Short Short Long – ) is found in each movement

9 Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67
First movement - modified Sonata Allegro Form Compile a list of ways that the traditional Sonata Allegro form was changed by Beethoven. Why did he make these changes?


11 Second Movement Theme and Variations - typically A A1 A2 A3 etc.
Beethoven: A B A1 B1 A2 B2 etc. Varying two themes. B theme is –

12 Third Movement Typically Minuet and Trio: ABA
Beethoven replaces the Minuet (moderate triple meter dance) with SCHERZO, a much faster triple meter dance (means ‘joke’ or ‘jest’) A (Minuet/Scherzo): a a b a1 b a1 B (Trio): c c d c1 d c1 A (Minuet/Scherzo):a a b a1 Notice - no break as we move to the fourth movement - attaca

13 Fourth Movement Typically a lighter form, easier to listen to (usually Rondo) Beethoven brings back Sonata Allegro Form for the final movement!! C Major - much brighter key (psychological implications) Brings back ‘b’ theme from 3rd Movement right before the recapitulation

14 Symphony No. 9 “Ode to Joy” melody as theme of Fourth Movement.
Mentioned in 1793 as interested in setting An de Freude to music. Symphony No. 9 premiered in 1825. Added voices to the orchestra.

15 Implications Voices in a symphony?
Symphony - multi-movement work for orchestra. Last symphony Beethoven composed. Is this the direction he thought the symphony would/should go?

16 Beethoven 1770-1827 Pianist as well as composer Studied with Haydn
Lost his hearing 9 symphonies Bridge between Classical and Romantic periods

17 Heligenstadt Testament
Note from Beethoven to his brothers. Believed to be his “suicide note”. Introduced revolutionary ideas that interested and influenced later composers.

18 Heligenstadt Testament
Music is an Art Patience as a composer Reconciling the world after his death (medical records of his diagnosis) Hasten to meet death Artist in isolation Suffering Forced to become a philosopher

19 Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Considered among the list of composers from the Viennese School Wrote string quartets, piano sonatas, operas, and symphonies Knew each other How many symphonies did each compose? 100+; 50+; 9

20 Absolute Pitch

21 Absolute Pitch The ability to identify a pitch (note) with no other reference. Rare in most people. Rare in musicians! 10% have this ability.

22 Relative Pitch

23 Relative Pitch The ability to identify a pitch (note) after being given an initial reference pitch. The pitch is then identified in “relation” to the reference pitch. A skill that is developed (and expected) in musicians.

24 Romantic Period (Beethoven died in 1827, so is really a “bridge” into the Romantic period)

25 Romantic Themes Themes of nostalgia
Freedom (Revolutions and upheavals) Nature - Industrial Revolution forces masses to move to cities. Nature is idealized. Fascination with the Macabre, Death Exoticism - not here and now, foreign countries, distant times Importance of the individual and freedom Dramatic - emotion and expression

26 Romantic Themes Breakdown of Artistic Barriers
Nationalism - pride of larger conquering nations vs. heritage of the smaller countries that were being conquered Endless Search for New Forms of Expression - after Beethoven, what more is there to do in composing a [symphony, string quartet, sonata, etc.]

27 Romantic Harmony Chromaticism - notes other than the standard notes in the scale that are added in for “color”. Romantic harmony is more full, thick, colorful, surprising, deep, etc. than Classical harmony. Tonality (key) is “stretched”.

28 Romantic Rhythm Rubato - modifying the tempo for expressive purposes. Speeding up or slowing down. “Robbed time”

29 Romantic Miniatures Small scale (short works played by 1 or 2 performers) 1. Piano character piece - short piece for piano solo that is not developed. It just introduces a mood, idea, theme, or “character”.

30 Romantic Miniatures 2. Lied - a Song - only voice with piano accompaniment Schubert’s Erlkönig (Erlking)

31 Erlkonig p. 179 Text -poem by Goethe (author of Faust)
Mythological/supernatural Love of nature Childhood and nostalgia Unknown Death

32 Erlkonig 2 performers: Singer and pianist
How many different roles are played? Singer: Narrator, Father, Son, and Erlkonig Pianist: Left hand wind and rustling leaves, Right hand horse’s hooves or child’s heartbeat

33 Setting Text to Music 2 primary methods
1. Strophic - same music different text (verse form) 2. Through-composed - different music for different text (changes throughout)

34 Erlkonig Who rides so late through night and wind?
It is the father with his child. He holds the boy safe in his arm He holds him safe, he keeps him warm. Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind? Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind; Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm, Er faßt ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm.

35 Erlkonig "My son, why do you hide your face so fearfully?"
"Father, do you not see the Elf king? The Elf king with crown and robe?" "My son, it's a wisp of fog." "Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht?" "Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht? Den Erlenkönig mit Kron und Schweif?" "Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif."

36 Erlkonig "You lovely child, come, go with me!
Nothing but beautiful games I'll play with you; Many colourful flowers are on the shore, My mother has many golden robes." "Du liebes Kind, komm, geh mit mir! Gar schöne Spiele spiel' ich mit dir; Manch' bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand, Meine Mutter hat manch gülden Gewand."

37 Erlkonig "My father, my father, can't you hear,
What the Elf king quietly promises me?" "Be calm, stay calm, my child; It is the wind rustling in the dry leaves." "Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht, Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht?" "Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind; In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind."

38 Erlkonig "Do you want to come with me, fine lad?
My daughters should already be waiting for you; My daughters lead the nightly folkdance And rock you and dance and sing." "Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehn? Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön; Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reihn, Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein."

39 Erlkonig "My father, my father, and can't you see there,
The Elf king daughters in the gloomy place?" "My son, my son, I see it well: It is the old grey willows gleaming." "Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dort Erlkönigs Töchter am düstern Ort?" "Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh es genau: Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau."

40 Erlkonig "I love you, your beautiful form entices me;
And if you're not willing, I shall use force." "My father, my father, now he takes hold of me! The Elf king has wounded me!" "Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt; Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch ich Gewalt." "Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt faßt er mich an! Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan!"

41 Erlkonig It horrifies the father; he rides swiftly,
Holding in his arms the moaning child. He reaches the yard with great difficulty; In his arms, the child was dead. Dem Vater grauset's, er reitet geschwind, Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind, Erreicht den Hof mit Müh' und Not; In seinen Armen das Kind war tot.

42 Large-scale Romantic works
Wagner Ring Cycle (4 operas performed on 4 consecutive nights) Verdi & Puccini Operas Orchestral works Large-scale - long works using many performers on a grand scale.

43 Symphonie Fantastique
Hector Berlioz Idee fixe, “fixed idea” through each movement, transformed as needed. Notable orchestration Romantic symphony Program music - autobiographical?

44 Symphonic Poem One-movement programmatic work for orchestra
Composed as an “alternative” to Beethoven’s symphonic works!

45 Symphonic Poem The Moldau by Bedrich Smetana pp. 228-229
Symphonic Poem about a river in Czech Republic (then Bohemia)

46 The Moldau Source of river: two springs

47 The Moldau River theme

48 The Moldau The hunt

49 The Moldau Wedding dance

50 The Moldau Nightfall and water nymphs in moonlight

51 The Moldau River theme (returns)

52 The Moldau St. John’s rapids

53 The Moldau River theme (after rapids)

54 The Moldau Historic castles

55 The Moldau River fades away
The Moldau concludes with two forceful chords (THE END)

56 Romantic Opera Italian vs. German

57 Italian Opera Melody (I) predominant and beautiful
Role of voice (I) main melody Role of orchestra (I) secondary accompaniment Libretto and source(I) pre-existing source w/librettist Subject matter and characters(I) realistic, human characters, believable Language(I) Italian Aria and Recitative(I) yes Name (I) Opera Performed in (I) traditional theatre

58 German Music Drama Melody - polyphonic, and of secondary importance
Role of voice - another instrument Role of orchestra - symphonic w/polyphony & voice “Leitmotif” are musical clues that are played to provide additional insight to the drama on stage. Libretto and source - creates his own story and libretto Subject matter and characters - fantasy, non-human characters - supernatural elements, gods, etc. unbelievable Language - German Distinction between Aria and Recitative -no - endless melody Name - Music Drama Performed in specially redesigned theatre

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