3Review of periods of Music History so far... Common Practice PeriodBaroque (invention of opera and beginning of Common Practice Period to death of Bach)Classical (death of Bach to Beethoven's second period)Romantic (Beethoven's second period to twentieth century)
5Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) Early Period (up to 1802). Follows the language of Haydn - Classical style
6Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) Middle Period ( ) - Heroic period, fiery music, dramatic, Symphony No. 5
7Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) Late Period (after 1815) - introspective, very complex, intimate performing forces (piano, string quartet)
8Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 1. Psychological Progression - Moves from the key of C Minor to C Major2. Driving Rhythm - Propells you forward throughout the form3. Motivic Consistency (Short Short Short Long – ) is found in each movement
9Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 First movement - modified Sonata Allegro FormCompile a list of ways that the traditional Sonata Allegro form was changed by Beethoven. Why did he make these changes?
11Second Movement Theme and Variations - typically A A1 A2 A3 etc. Beethoven: A B A1 B1 A2 B2 etc. Varying two themes.B theme is –
12Third Movement Typically Minuet and Trio: ABA Beethoven replaces the Minuet (moderate triple meter dance) with SCHERZO, a much faster triple meter dance (means ‘joke’ or ‘jest’)A (Minuet/Scherzo): a a b a1 b a1B (Trio): c c d c1 d c1A (Minuet/Scherzo):a a b a1Notice - no break as we move to the fourth movement - attaca
13Fourth MovementTypically a lighter form, easier to listen to (usually Rondo)Beethoven brings back Sonata Allegro Form for the final movement!!C Major - much brighter key (psychological implications)Brings back ‘b’ theme from 3rd Movement right before the recapitulation
14Symphony No. 9 “Ode to Joy” melody as theme of Fourth Movement. Mentioned in 1793 as interested in setting An de Freude to music.Symphony No. 9 premiered in 1825.Added voices to the orchestra.
15Implications Voices in a symphony? Symphony - multi-movement work for orchestra.Last symphony Beethoven composed. Is this the direction he thought the symphony would/should go?
16Beethoven 1770-1827 Pianist as well as composer Studied with Haydn Lost his hearing9 symphoniesBridge between Classical and Romantic periods
17Heligenstadt Testament Note from Beethoven to his brothers.Believed to be his “suicide note”.Introduced revolutionary ideas that interested and influenced later composers.
18Heligenstadt Testament Music is an ArtPatience as a composerReconciling the world after his death (medical records of his diagnosis)Hasten to meet deathArtist in isolationSufferingForced to become a philosopher
19Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Considered among the list of composers from the Viennese SchoolWrote string quartets, piano sonatas, operas, and symphoniesKnew each otherHow many symphonies did each compose? 100+; 50+; 9
23Relative PitchThe ability to identify a pitch (note) after being given an initial reference pitch.The pitch is then identified in “relation” to the reference pitch.A skill that is developed (and expected) in musicians.
24Romantic Period(Beethoven died in 1827, so is really a “bridge” into the Romantic period)
25Romantic Themes Themes of nostalgia Freedom (Revolutions and upheavals)Nature - Industrial Revolution forces masses to move to cities. Nature is idealized.Fascination with the Macabre, DeathExoticism - not here and now, foreign countries, distant times Importance of the individual and freedomDramatic - emotion and expression
26Romantic Themes Breakdown of Artistic Barriers Nationalism - pride of larger conquering nations vs. heritage of the smaller countries that were being conqueredEndless Search for New Forms of Expression - after Beethoven, what more is there to do in composing a [symphony, string quartet, sonata, etc.]
27Romantic HarmonyChromaticism - notes other than the standard notes in the scale that are added in for “color”.Romantic harmony is more full, thick, colorful, surprising, deep, etc. than Classical harmony. Tonality (key) is “stretched”.
28Romantic RhythmRubato - modifying the tempo for expressive purposes. Speeding up or slowing down. “Robbed time”
29Romantic MiniaturesSmall scale (short works played by 1 or 2 performers)1. Piano character piece - short piece for piano solo that is not developed. It just introduces a mood, idea, theme, or “character”.
30Romantic Miniatures2. Lied - a Song - only voice with piano accompanimentSchubert’s Erlkönig (Erlking)
31Erlkonig p. 179 Text -poem by Goethe (author of Faust) Mythological/supernaturalLove of natureChildhood and nostalgiaUnknownDeath
32Erlkonig 2 performers: Singer and pianist How many different roles are played?Singer: Narrator, Father, Son, and ErlkonigPianist: Left hand wind and rustling leaves, Right hand horse’s hooves or child’s heartbeat
33Setting Text to Music 2 primary methods 1. Strophic - same music different text (verse form)2. Through-composed - different music for different text (changes throughout)
34Erlkonig Who rides so late through night and wind? It is the father with his child.He holds the boy safe in his armHe holds him safe, he keeps him warm.Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind?Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind;Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm,Er faßt ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm.
35Erlkonig "My son, why do you hide your face so fearfully?" "Father, do you not see the Elf king?The Elf king with crown and robe?""My son, it's a wisp of fog.""Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht?""Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht?Den Erlenkönig mit Kron und Schweif?""Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif."
36Erlkonig "You lovely child, come, go with me! Nothing but beautiful games I'll play with you;Many colourful flowers are on the shore,My mother has many golden robes.""Du liebes Kind, komm, geh mit mir!Gar schöne Spiele spiel' ich mit dir;Manch' bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand,Meine Mutter hat manch gülden Gewand."
37Erlkonig "My father, my father, can't you hear, What the Elf king quietly promises me?""Be calm, stay calm, my child;It is the wind rustling in the dry leaves.""Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht,Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht?""Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind;In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind."
38Erlkonig "Do you want to come with me, fine lad? My daughters should already be waiting for you;My daughters lead the nightly folkdanceAnd rock you and dance and sing.""Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehn?Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön;Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reihn,Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein."
39Erlkonig "My father, my father, and can't you see there, The Elf king daughters in the gloomy place?""My son, my son, I see it well:It is the old grey willows gleaming.""Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dortErlkönigs Töchter am düstern Ort?""Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh es genau:Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau."
40Erlkonig "I love you, your beautiful form entices me; And if you're not willing, I shall use force.""My father, my father, now he takes hold of me!The Elf king has wounded me!""Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt;Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch ich Gewalt.""Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt faßt er mich an!Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan!"
41Erlkonig It horrifies the father; he rides swiftly, Holding in his arms the moaning child.He reaches the yard with great difficulty;In his arms, the child was dead.Dem Vater grauset's, er reitet geschwind,Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind,Erreicht den Hof mit Müh' und Not;In seinen Armen das Kind war tot.
42Large-scale Romantic works Wagner Ring Cycle (4 operas performed on 4 consecutive nights)Verdi & Puccini OperasOrchestral worksLarge-scale - long works using many performers on a grand scale.
43Symphonie Fantastique Hector BerliozIdee fixe, “fixed idea” through each movement, transformed as needed.Notable orchestrationRomantic symphonyProgram music - autobiographical?
44Symphonic Poem One-movement programmatic work for orchestra Composed as an “alternative” to Beethoven’s symphonic works!
45Symphonic Poem The Moldau by Bedrich Smetana pp. 228-229 Symphonic Poem about a river in Czech Republic (then Bohemia)
57Italian Opera Melody (I) predominant and beautiful Role of voice (I) main melodyRole of orchestra (I) secondary accompanimentLibretto and source(I) pre-existing source w/librettistSubject matter and characters(I) realistic, human characters, believableLanguage(I) ItalianAria and Recitative(I) yesName (I) OperaPerformed in (I) traditional theatre
58German Music Drama Melody - polyphonic, and of secondary importance Role of voice - another instrumentRole of orchestra - symphonic w/polyphony & voice “Leitmotif” are musical clues that are played to provide additional insight to the drama on stage.Libretto and source - creates his own story and librettoSubject matter and characters - fantasy, non-human characters - supernatural elements, gods, etc. unbelievableLanguage - GermanDistinction between Aria and Recitative -no - endless melodyName - Music DramaPerformed in specially redesigned theatre