Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and the hidden urbanization of Acadians Yves Bourgeois, PhD Director, Urban and community studies institute University of New Brunswick."— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization and the hidden urbanization of Acadians Yves Bourgeois, PhD Director, Urban and community studies institute University of New Brunswick Urbanization in Atlantic Canada colloqium Fredericton, 21 November 2013 1
Conclusion Acadians have been urbanizing for 150 years Motivated by jobs in industrializing regions Hidden urbanization: emigration, now low density 3 overlapping patterns: US (1871-1941), Central Canada (1901- ), NB (1931- ) Challenges: economic space, efficiency, equity 2
World Acadian Congress every 5 years Madawaska 2014 Party, but also collective brainstorming Youth out-migration Language and education Symbols and identity Resource sector development Economic development Quiz: from what year was the above agenda? a) 2014 b) 2009 c) 2004 d) 1994 e) 1884 3
Le petit dérangement 4 Answer… e) 1884 Convention nationale Miscouche 1884 Colonisation Langue et education française Drapeau et chant national Agriculture Commerce et industrie 1884 convention best known for flag and anthem, tho (youth) out-migration and rural colonies were major concerns (news, speeches, corresp, as no surviving transcript of commerce and industry) Consensus to stem youth exodus to US factories, but Acadians divided between retreating to traditional resource sector (agriculture) and venturing into the new economy (manufacturing)
First Acadian urban policy (1884)… Rurification 5 Villes Say no to scale Where would you like to be at 7am?
Urbanization into US and rural colonization, 1871-1941 Mgr MF Richard did not have access to my fancy graphics tools, but his writing rich in imagery Rapport sur la colonisation. Société de colonisation acadienne (1885) p. 4 Acadiens ! Vous avez une patrie; cest la belle Acadie que vous devez avoir et chérir comme une mère, une mère de douleur, qui vous a enfantée dans les larmes et les persécutions. Votre devoir cest de la servir, de la défendre, de travailler à sa prospérité. Or vous ne saurez lui être plus utiles quen préparant le sol pour quElle répande ses rameaux davantage afin quelle puisse élever son front triomphant au soleil des nations. Colonisez, braves fils de braves ancêtres. 6
Propagandist-style fear of industrialization Church has vested interest – internal colonialism, keep tabs on flock in smaller communities Yet clerical nationalism even lay leaders rallied around Church (ex. fight for Acadian bishop), as conflation between the interest of God, Church and Nation (Richard) Acadian / Irish wedge Emigrating to Charles River textile factories was ethnic suicide lose language, customs, morals Urbanizing in NB cities was as much a threat to assimilation (Anglo cities vs Franco villages) young men of Cocagne were returning with new clothes and with "the English of a negro. Soaked in United States' liberty, they forget religion and the taste for agriculture." (Moniteur acadien, 18 May 1888) quoted from Andrew (2005) 7 Urbanization into US and rural colonization, 1871-1941
Socio-economic context Parents subdividing property indebted and indentured to merchants to whom they sold labour and purchased consumer goods. Clearing land for agriculture was onerous red tape and usurious surveyors/commissioners take stumpage fees 1880s sub-prime scandal officials grant lands and later seizing property, unable to pay Richard lobbies GNB against usurious officials… …while establishing sociétés de colonisation, the Equal opportunities Act of its day, agricultural banks subsidizing settlement of new rural communities via donations from parishioners in established communities St-Louis Rogersville, Bouctouche Ste-Marie 8 Urbanization into US and rural colonization, 1871-1941
At critical juncture of NA industrialization and urbanization, Acadians debated paths forward (ex Poirier proponent of industry) Planned response rural colonization Unplanned response sustained urbanization / emigration to US Assomption Vie (1903) by Acadian émigrés to Waltham as testimony of Acadian US emigration May have slowed assimilation of Acadians staying in NB (16% of NB in 1861 to 36% in 1961), but did not stem out-migration Would NB urbanization have propelled industry and entrepreneurship ? 9 Urbanization into US and rural colonization, 1871-1941
Relatively little urbanization in NB but explosion from industrialization in Central Canada SJ had 45% of T.O.s pop in 1861. 3% 100 yrs later Between 1931 and 1971 NB lost 140k NBers net Local institutions buttressed rural (Caisses pop, Coop) 10 Urbanization into Central Canada, 1901- City population in 000s 18611901193119611991 Toronto6523885718242276 Montreal13026881912021018 Saint John2941485575* Moncton0.69214457 Fredericton6792048* Miramichi56712 Campbellton3789 Edmundston0.4161311 Bathurst0.613514
Urbanization at the fringes, 1931- Puzzles NBs %pop living in rural communities was 51% in 1961, 43% in 1971, 52% in 1991, 48% 2011 Between 1961 and 1971 alone, employment fell in Ag (7 to 3%), For (9 to 5%) and Fish (2 to 1%) 1961-2011 SJ,-Fred-Mon city growth moderate (20%), but their CDs (Westmorland +50%, York +100) and adjacent (Albert 250%, Kings 300%) Hypothesis Urbanization of rural communities, transformation from resource to post-industrial and bedroom 63% work in CAs and CMAs Gentrification of rural communities (professions, income, specialized services, retail) Low-density urbanization 11
12 New Brunswickers you know ?
13 Is this a village, town or city ?
Summary Todays debates on urbanization, youth migration are anything but new Acadians as all NBers have long been urbanizing – we do near our cities now Many rural communities were planned as a counterweight to urbanization Leaders have planned them for 130 years; people have been urbanizing for 150 Industrialization, including hybrid of digital and staples economy, exerts pull on our workers and firms We debate scale of local service delivery, but need to think scale differently when it comes to economic planning to prosper in global production networks 14
Implications NB north-south, urban-rural debates distract from global challenges More useful to think of connected-remote continuum than rural-urban dichotomy Communities within earshot of CA/CMA – connectivity, transportation, taxation Outside earshot, sustainability Whats new? The arena got refurbished. Now its back to survival Where do we locate schools, hospitals, arenas? Who pays for amenities and roads to get there We underinvest in amenity quality and overinvest on quantity and roads 15
Gérald LeBlanc (1977) Kouchibougouac […] Yen a qui veniont ici Y nous disiont : « Restez! Restez! Vous allez mourir si vous sortez Nous autes on est mort dennui. » Yen avait dautes qui nous disiont « On voudrait se revoir icitte Avec la vieille lampe pis le poêle plein de bois On aime mieux ça que yousquon est. » 16