Presentation on theme: "Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for Languages of the Wider World School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,"— Presentation transcript:
Multilingualism, Regional & Minority Languages: Paradigms for Languages of the Wider World School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 16–17 April 2009 Once isolated; now multilingual? Language practices & attitudes in Volendam and Inner Mongolia Lisa Lim, Anna Karregat & Wu Yuncang University of Amsterdam
Once isolated… Volendam C.1462: poor fishing village, part of Edam, in North Holland, on Zuiderzee, with poor connections to Edam and rest of NL Individual cultural identity: traditional costume, special customs, catholic religion, Volendam dialect : Zuiderzee dammed to become IJsselmeer Post WW2: connections outside Inner Mongolia C.12thC: Mongol tribes, 13th C: Great Mongol Empire After 14th C Ming Dynasty: expelled to N or S of Great Desert: the latter --> Inner Mongolia horse-back tribe, with nomadic pastoral life, hunting & herding, diet distinct from agricultural people, traditional dress, own ethnic history, music, poetry, Mongol language 1947: autonomous region of PR China Modern day assimilation into larger nation state --> ?
Institutional support Media: Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant –Volendams: 1 (/25) radio channel, 3 (/31) TV channels which use Dutch –Mongol: 1 radio & 1 TV channel (provincial level) Education: Std Dutch, Putonghua dominant –Volendams prohibited –before Cultural Revolution 1965, own Mongol education system; present support for minority languages but encouragement of Putonghua; Putonghua (and English) compulsory from primary sschool, necessary for college entrance exam; decrease in Mongol MOI schools
Demography Volendam High group concentration in Volendam (74% within Edam- Volendam; but 0.13% in NL); pop. c. 21,000 Little immigration/emigration; Volendammers want to live in V their entire life, including young people Typical dense and multiplex social network Inner Mongolia Substantial Han Chinese immigration (industry, settlement in developing area); Mongols --> farming ~15% Mongol; pop. c. 4.2 mill Public domains: 95% Han Chinese Migration of Mongols to urban regions (occupational, economic opportunities in industrialising China) Substantial mixed marriage (38% of minority group mixed marriage with Han Chinese)
Another LWW: Enter English Volendam English dominant on radio (popular music), frequent on TV Inner Mongolia 1949: one of compulsory courses from primary school to college College entrance exam Jobs require English (not Mongol)
Language use (domains, interlocutors): Inner Mongolia
Language use (domains, interlocutors): Volendam
Language use (daily activities): Inner Mongolia
Language use (daily activities): Volendam
Attitudes: Inner Mongolia
Attitudes towards transmission: Inner Mongolia
Attitudes towards transmission: Volendam
… Now multilingual? Volendam Increase in Dutch, via Parents with children in home domain Increase in English, via Internet (40-50% cf. 20% in parents generation), and chatrooms etc (5% cf. 0) Leakiness between Volendams and Dutch with youngest generation (mid teens) –leaky diglossia; glocalisation Inner Mongolia Increase in Putonghua, via Parents in home domain (1/4 cf. 1/10 in parents generation) Media (3/4 cf. 1/4) Increase in English, via School (100% cf. 0 in parents generation) Media (1/4 cf. 0) Bilingual CS (Mongolian-Putonghua) as increasingly frequent code amongst younger generation –CS as unmarked; monolectal CS
References Karregat, Anna Language maintenance or shift in Volendam. MA dissertation, University of Amsterdam. Wu Yuncang Language Maintenance or Shift: The Mongols in Inner Mongolia of China. MA dissertation, University of Amsterdam.