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Diversification of Sports Nutrition Products Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, BSc, PhD - BSc, Nutrition, Cornell University, USA - PhD, Exercise Physiology, Univ.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversification of Sports Nutrition Products Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, BSc, PhD - BSc, Nutrition, Cornell University, USA - PhD, Exercise Physiology, Univ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversification of Sports Nutrition Products Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, BSc, PhD - BSc, Nutrition, Cornell University, USA - PhD, Exercise Physiology, Univ of Guelph, Canada Canada - Post-Doctorate Fellowship, Univ. of Maastricht, Netherlands Netherlands - Integrating scientific knowledge and research into the development of useful sports nutrition products for the athlete -

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3 2005 World Track and Field Champs in Helsinki

4 2006 Commonwealth Games Melbourne, Australia

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6 Sports Nutrition- Where weve come from; Where were at; Where can we go? Dr. Trent Stellingwerff, BSc, PhD - BSc, Nutrition, Cornell University, USA - PhD, Exercise Physiology, Univ of Guelph, Canada Canada - Post-Doctorate Fellowship, Univ. of Maastricht, Netherlands Netherlands - from the perspective of an athlete, coach, physiologist and scientist -

7 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products I. Historical perspective on sports performance products- from none to millions. II. Research efficacy- what needs to be considered? III. Time and effort- Fat-adaptation training and dietary protocol IV. Future Research Ideas/Directions- development of sport and/or gender specific nutrition recommendations/products. and/or gender specific nutrition recommendations/products. V. Conclusions- Take home message…

8 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products I. Historical perspective on sports performance products- from none to millions.

9 1972 Olympic Marathon Silver medalist - Frank Shorters sports drink - Frank Shorters sports drink Wow…this glucose and caffeine is really maintaining my blood sugar and increasing my CNS stimulation and adipose tissue lipolysis. Cox G.R.et al. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance. JAP. 93: , 2002.

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11 Consumers current options when it comes to sports nutrition: Google searched sports nutrition products and got 54 million hits!

12 The major increase and proliferation of available ergogenic products has far outstripped the scientific communities ability to test for actual ergogenic effects or claims of such products. Is there a lack of brand loyalty due to so much clutter and ubiquity of sports nutrition products that ALL claim ergogenic effects?

13 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products II. Research efficacy- what needs to be considered?

14 Research and Science Principles - What do scientists and the consumer need to think about or examine when weighing the potential efficacy of a sports nutrition product or when evaluating a certain claim or study or when developing new products?

15 Research Design Concerns Amount- too little or too much may show no effect Amount- too little or too much may show no effect Subject- may only be effective in untrained vs. trained or vice versa Subject- may only be effective in untrained vs. trained or vice versa –value is determined by the subject Task- may only work in power events and not endurance or vice versa Task- may only work in power events and not endurance or vice versa Use- acute (short term) may show effect but chronic may be compromising Use- acute (short term) may show effect but chronic may be compromising Sensitivity of method to assess performance in laboratory setting Sensitivity of method to assess performance in laboratory setting (time trial vs. amount of work completed vs. time to exhaustion vs. wattage area under the curve vs. peak wattage etc.) (time trial vs. amount of work completed vs. time to exhaustion vs. wattage area under the curve vs. peak wattage etc.)

16 Assessing sport performance- how thin can you slice? - clinical relevance vs. practical/applied relevance - Atlanta Mens 1500m race Gold- 3:35.78 Bronze- 3:36.72 (-0.44%) 8 th place- 3:38.19 (-1.12%) Sydney Mens m race Gold- 27:18.20 Silver- 27:18.29 (-0.005%!) Bronze- 27:19.57 (-0.08%) 4 th place- 27:20.44 (-0.14%) 2005 NYC Marathon: Tergat wins over Ramaala (winning margin: 0.004%!)

17 Ergogenic Aid Potential?? What a researcher needs to know… Is it degraded in the stomach? –the stomach is VERY acidic! Can it be absorbed in the intact in the blood? Liver Processes (first crack at everything)- metabolized or broken down? Kidney- how much is lost into the urine? How large is the original concentration in the blood and how long is it elevated? (if there is elevation, then there may be potential ergogenic effect) FINALLY, does it interact with the target site OR is it taken up by the target organ? How much of it is taken up?

18 Research Design Concerns Research needs to be completed by an unbiased outside source, in well establish and controlled laboratory setting using well established methods and then published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal to be truly valid.Research needs to be completed by an unbiased outside source, in well establish and controlled laboratory setting using well established methods and then published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal to be truly valid.

19 Research Design Concerns So many issues and specific intricacies with each and every product, and there are thousands of products. + ? HOW DOES THE GENERAL CONSUMER WADE THROUGH SO MANY POTENTIAL ISSUES/PRODUCTS? HOW MUCH TIME DOES THE CONSUMER HAVE FOR STUDIES TO COMPLETED?

20 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products III. Time and effort- Fat-adaptation training and dietary protocol- 8 + years of ideas and testing…

21 Decreased PDH activation during exercise following short-term high-fat dietary adaptation with carbohydrate restoration. Trent Stellingwerff 1, Lawrence L. Spriet 1, Matthew J. Watt 3, Nick E. Kimber 2, Mark Hargreaves 2, John A. Hawley 3, Louise M. Burke 4

22 Initial idea….about 10 years ago… Only a finite amount of stored glycogen, therefore a shift towards increased fat oxidation at a given exercise intensity should spare glycogen for later in a sporting event, and in theory increase endurance sport performance.Only a finite amount of stored glycogen, therefore a shift towards increased fat oxidation at a given exercise intensity should spare glycogen for later in a sporting event, and in theory increase endurance sport performance. What if you could shift metabolism towards the oxidation of more fat, yet still have ample stored carbohydrate available?What if you could shift metabolism towards the oxidation of more fat, yet still have ample stored carbohydrate available?...best of both worlds!...best of both worlds!

23 So what is this FAT-adaptation (FAT- adapt) nutritional & exercise intervention?

24 Diet FAT or CHO FAT or CHO FAT or CHO FAT or CHO FAT or CHO CHO Restoration Training Interval 3-4 h long 2-3 h Interval 3-4 h long rest training ride hill ride training ride Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Testing Trial General schematic of FAT-adaptation protocol Two experiment trials: Hi FAT (FAT-adapt) vs. Hi CHO (HCHO)Two experiment trials: Hi FAT (FAT-adapt) vs. Hi CHO (HCHO) –Two diets while training for 5-days HCHO: 10.3 g · kg -1 · day -1 CHO or ~70% of total energy (total intake of ~18MJ daily (4300 kcals)HCHO: 10.3 g · kg -1 · day -1 CHO or ~70% of total energy (total intake of ~18MJ daily (4300 kcals) FAT-adapt: 4.6 g · kg -1 · day -1 FAT or ~67% of total energy (total intake of ~18MJ daily (4300 kcals)FAT-adapt: 4.6 g · kg -1 · day -1 FAT or ~67% of total energy (total intake of ~18MJ daily (4300 kcals)

25 Unlike previous high fat studies, unique FAT-adapt protocol, with a day of CHO restoration, has shown: - Persistence of an ~ 2-fold increased whole-body fat oxidation despite CHO restoration (Burke et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2000; Burke et al., Med. Sci. Sports Ex., 2002; Carey et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2001; Staudacher et.al, 2001). - These shifts in fuel utilization still present during a 4-hour ride that included glucose supplementation of ~100 g/ hour (Carey et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2001) glucose supplementation of ~100 g/ hour (Carey et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2001) - Fully restored glycogen stores so ample CHO available during exercise and it abolishes the effect of elevated FFA normally present after a high-fat diet. it abolishes the effect of elevated FFA normally present after a high-fat diet. Potential mechanisms responsible for these shifts in fuel utilization are equivocal, but would be expected to involve either an up and/or down regulation of key regulatory enzymes in the pathways of skeletal muscle fat and CHO metabolism. - Strong trend towards sparing glycogen with biopsy measurments (P=0.06) and statistical glycogen sparing via indirect tracer methods (Burke et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2000; Carey et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 2001)

26 GlucoseFFA-ALB Glycogen G-6-PG-1-P blood cytosol FFA-FABPTG PyruvateLactate Glucose PHOSHK fatty acyl-CoA CAT CPT-I CPT-1I PDH fatty acyl-CoA acetyl-CoA -oxidation TCA cycle CO 2 NAD NADH NAD NADH NAD ETCETC O2O2 H20H20 H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ ATPADP PCrCr ATPADP NAD NADH PFK LDH ATPADP PM OM IM matrix HSLIPASE ATP Lactate

27 Regulation of PDH Pyruvate Dehydrogenase a (active) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase b (inactive) PDH kinasePDH phosphatase PiPi PiPi ATP ADP+ NAD NADH (at rest)+ acetyl-CoA CoASH + (rest only) pyruvate - pyruvate, CoASH, NAD acetyl-CoA, H +, NADH, CO 2P Ca 2+ + Epi + ? PDK1PDK2PDK3PDK4PDP1PDP2

28 Purpose To investigate the effects of a 5-day high-fat diet with 1 day of CHO restoration (FAT-adapt) as compared to a 6-day isoenergetic high CHO diet (HCHO) on the regulation of key enzymes (PDHa and HSL) involved in skeletal muscle CHO and FAT metabolism.To investigate the effects of a 5-day high-fat diet with 1 day of CHO restoration (FAT-adapt) as compared to a 6-day isoenergetic high CHO diet (HCHO) on the regulation of key enzymes (PDHa and HSL) involved in skeletal muscle CHO and FAT metabolism. Hypothesis 1. FAT-adapt would result in decreased muscle glycogenolysis at the onset of exercise, and decreased PDHa throughout exercise at 70% VO 2peak.1. FAT-adapt would result in decreased muscle glycogenolysis at the onset of exercise, and decreased PDHa throughout exercise at 70% VO 2peak. 2. Decreased pyruvate levels and reduced levels of AMP f, ADP f and Pi f would explain the found enzymatic changes.2. Decreased pyruvate levels and reduced levels of AMP f, ADP f and Pi f would explain the found enzymatic changes. 3. The increase in whole body fat oxidation can partially be explained by increased HSL activation.3. The increase in whole body fat oxidation can partially be explained by increased HSL activation.

29 20 min steady state cycling at ~70% VO 2peak (63% of PPO) 1 min 150% PPO Biopsy Bloodsampling Pulmonary gas collection Experimental Protocol 2 trials: 1) CON vs. FAT-ADAPT

30 Blood, glycogen and respiratory measures FAT-adapt reduced the RER during 70% VO 2peak cycling (FAT-adapt: vs. HCHO: ) Which resulted in a: 45% increase in whole-body fat oxidation and a 30% decrease in CHO oxidation No differences in plasma lactate, glucose, insulin, FFA, epinephrine or norepinephrine

31 G6P + (pyruvate + lactate accumulation)/2 + lactate efflux (20-30% of lactate accumulation)/2 + PDH flux (use 1 min value/2) Decreased calculated glycogenolysis

32 Muscle pyruvate contents p = 0.09

33 Decreased PDHa after FAT-adapt

34 HSLa augmented after FAT-adapt P=0.091 Trial p=0.116

35 High Energy Phosphates No change in any of the high energy phosphates (PCr, ATP, ADP f, AMP f or Pi f ) after FAT-adapt as compared to HCHO during 70% VO 2peak ride.No change in any of the high energy phosphates (PCr, ATP, ADP f, AMP f or Pi f ) after FAT-adapt as compared to HCHO during 70% VO 2peak ride. After the 1-min 150% PPO sprint after FAT-adapt as compared to HCHO:After the 1-min 150% PPO sprint after FAT-adapt as compared to HCHO: - ADP f - AMP f

36 in PDHa after a high-fat diet despite CHO restoration in PDHa after a high-fat diet despite CHO restoration Pyruvate Dehydrogenase a Pyruvate Dehydrogenase b PDH kinasePDH phosphatase PiPi pyruvate, CoASH, NAD acetyl-CoA, H +, NADH, CO 2 (active) (inactive) PiPi Ca 2+ + EPI acetyl-CoA CoASH + (rest only) NO CHANGE ATP ADP + Pyruvate - Hi-Fat Diet = inc. in PDK protein/activity p=0.09 p=0.09 NADH/NAD (at rest and exercise onset) increase in redox state with high fat diet? +

37 cytosol FFA-FABP PyruvateLactate CAT CPT-I CPT-1I PDH fatty acyl-CoA acetyl-CoA -oxidation OM IM matrix Oxidative ATP Provision NADH O 2 ADP + Pi + Over-riding hypothesis TCA cycle NC Glycogen G-6-PG-1-P Glycogenolysis + + IMTG ?

38 There is now evidence that what was initially viewed as glycogen sparing after FAT-adapt may be, in fact, a down- regulation of CHO metabolism or glycogen impairment. [Stellingwerff et al.] recently reported that FAT-adapt protocols are associated with a reduction in the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase; this change would act to impair rates of glycogenolysis at a time when muscle CHO requirements are high…. [it may] compromise the ability of well-trained cyclists to perform a high-intensity sprint when they need it most- at the end of a race.

39 IV. Future Research Ideas and Directions- development of sport, age, training status and/or gender specific nutrition recommendations and products. development of sport, age, training status and/or gender specific nutrition recommendations and products. I.Tapping into fat- the holy grail? II. Exercise optimization of protein balance and energy stores- a secret formula? III. Other ideas- in brief.

40 Future Research Ideas & Directions I.Tapping into fat- the holy grail?

41 Body Energy Stores of a 155 pound (~70kg) person

42 What regulates mitochondrial lipid oxidation? Contemporary mechanism (s) that have been suggested to help explain the shifts in fuel utilization found during increasing exercise intensity or durations:Contemporary mechanism (s) that have been suggested to help explain the shifts in fuel utilization found during increasing exercise intensity or durations: - Mitochondrial NADH regulating fuel utilization? - Muscle decrease in pH down-regulating CPT-1? - Availability of free-carnitine for CPT-1 reaction? - Muscle cystolic malonyl-CoA (M-CoA) inhibition of CPT-1? - Interaction of CPT-1 with fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) ? - AMPKs role as a fuel-sensing molecule for regulation?

43 ACT CPT-1 CPT- II carnitine carnitine CoASH CoASH LCFA-lcarnitine LCFA-lcarnitine CPT - I cytoplasm mitochondriaLCFA-CoA -oxidation -oxidation Acetyl-CoA units TCA cycle OM IMLCFA-CoAFFA-albumin IMTGs +PPARs LCFA (?) Contract (?) Acetyl-CoA ACC (active) MCD ACCP M-CoA - pH+ Feeding = Citrate & InsulinFAT/CD36? + AMPK Exercise Fasting LCFA (Watt, epud, 2006) ?

44 Pyruvate, CoASH NAD + Acetyl CoA, H +, NADH, CO 2 PDH OM IM TCACycle Acetylcarnitine, CoASH, NAD+ CAT Role of acetylcarnitine- buffer for Acetyl CoA? carnitine cytosol

45 (Odland, AJP-Endo,1998) (Roepstorff, AJP-Endo,2005) Increasing exercise intensity Inc. glycolytic flux

46 BUT, correlation does not always mean causation! What is the actual concentration of free carnitine between the outer and inner mitochondrial membrane? Is it actually limiting?(compartment methodological issues) As K m of CPT-1 for carnitine is very low (0.5mM at pH 7.4) (carnitine (1 to 4mM) (Kiens, Physiol Rev, 2006) Correlation between acetylcarnitine and fat oxidation

47 Endurance performance effects with carnitine supplementation? - No clear consensus - 1) IF there is an positive metabolic / performance effect, long-term supplementation seems to be needed to get very small increases in muscle carnitine contents. 2) Improvements in performance may be too small to clinically detect. 3) Seems to be no negative side-effects.

48 Future Research Ideas & Directions II.Post exercise optimization of protein balance and energy stores- a secret formula? protein balance and energy stores- a secret formula?

49 What drink causes the highest insulin secretion? (van Loon et al, J Nutr, 2000) Drink 1: CHO only (1.2g/kg/hr) Drink 2: CHO + PH (0.2g/kg/hr) PH= protein hydrolysate Drink 3: CHO + PH (0.4g/kg/hr) Drink 4: CHO + PH (0.1g/kg/hr) + leucine (0.05g/kg/hr) + phenylalanine (0.05 g/kg/hr) Drink 5: CHO + PH (0.2 g/kg/hr) + leucine (0.1 g/kg/hr)

50 AA w/ CHO supplementation on glycogen replenishment (van Loon et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2000) CHO (0.8g/kg/hr) CHO + PRO (PH+leucine+phenyl) 0.8g + 0.4g CHO + CHO 1.2 g/kg/hr * *113% 170% -The addition of protein hydrolysates and AA to CHO containing solutions can further stimulate glycogen synthesis HOWEVER, Glycogen synthesis can also be accelerated by just increasing CHO intake to high levels when supplements are provided every 30 min.

51 Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases post-exercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. (Koopman et al., AJP-Endo, 2005 / 45 resistance exercise, 3 drinks, 6 hours recovery) So what is it about leucine ?--- molecular signalling ?

52 Leucine ?

53 Increase in S6K1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle following resistance exercise occurs mainly in type II muscle fibers. (Koopman et al., AJP-Endo, 2006 / 45 resistance exercise, 4 biopsies )

54 Leucine ? ?

55 Future Research Ideas & Directions III. Other ideas- in brief.

56 General Summary: Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products II. Possibility for different products for different athletic situations… - speed and power athletes vs. endurance athletes - speed and power athletes vs. endurance athletes - nutrition pre, during and post event - nutrition pre, during and post event - aerobic vs. anaerobic - aerobic vs. anaerobic - weight dependant vs. weight independent pursuits - weight dependant vs. weight independent pursuits III. Development of different products for different times of the season… - ie. base training versus tapering before big events - ie. base training versus tapering before big events I.Possibility for development of different products for different sub-section of the population… - professional athletes vs. recreational - professional athletes vs. recreational - male vs. female differences - male vs. female differences - young vs. elderly - young vs. elderly

57 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products VI. Conclusions- Take home message…

58 Is there currently too much selection and choice, in terms of sports nutrition products, for the consumer? OR are there too many products without the proper scientific testing supporting their claims? How does a company gain the trust and support of the consumer through the development of ? additional sports nutrition products?

59 Final Thoughts… I. Many companies make claims on their products, but you cannot trick consumers/athletes over the long term. Ultimately brand loyalty comes from well researched reputable products that work! III. Knowledge/education coupled with brand identity results in empowerment and trust for the consumer or athlete… II. Further establishment of consumer contact with research center and experts: - helps develop trust in the brands/ shows consumer that company - helps develop trust in the brands/ shows consumer that company supports sound unbiased research of their products. supports sound unbiased research of their products.

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62 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products III. Time and effort- Fat-adaptation training and dietary protocol- 8 + years of ideas and testing…

63 Decreased PDH activation during exercise following short-term high-fat dietary adaptation with carbohydrate restoration. Trent Stellingwerff 1, Lawrence L. Spriet 1, Matthew J. Watt 3, Nick E. Kimber 2, Mark Hargreaves 2, John A. Hawley 3, Louise M. Burke 4

64 Chronic effects of high-fat diet while training, despite CHO restoration on PDHa and whole body fuel utilization shifts. in PDHa due to a chronic in PDK after a high fat diet (Peters et al., 1998 & 2001) BUT current study had a 24 hour CHO restoration period… Increase in IMTG leading to an increase in HSL? (20% differences between trials?)

65 Major conclusions by Louise Burke…. Indeed, so concerned about the possibility of making a type II error, we embarked upon testing six more subjects with the same study design. Our interim results show [nothing]: 1 hour time trial: CON 41.92km; FAT-ADAPT= 41.94km (P=0.98). …[even though] our FAT-adapt strategy, which has consistently been shown to spare muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged submaximal exercise, it does NOT appear to provide a clear benefit to performance

66 Performance Improvement?

67 Body Energy Stores of a 155 pound (~70kg) person

68 Fuel Utilization at Different Exercise Intensities 25% VO2max 65% VO2max 85%VO2max (Brisk Walking Pace) (~Marathon Pace) (~5 to 10km race pace) - 30 min of exercise after an overnight fast: Romijn, J.A. et al.- American Journal of Physiology, E380, Romijn, J.A. et al.- American Journal of Physiology, E380, Fats Muscle Glycogen Blood Glucose (sugar)

69 Putative control of skeletal muscle HSL (Spriet and Watt, REVIEW, Proc of Nutr Soc., 2004) HSL and IMTG use- substrate content and gender? - + IMTG LCFA-CoA Aerobic oxidation via TCA Cycle in mitochondria + -

70 (Kiens, Physiol Rev, 2006) Integration between exercise, AMPK, M-CoA, pH and free carnitine on subsequent LCFA-CoA oxidation. pH -

71 NADH pH & CPT-I Free carnitine Malonyl-CoAAMPKFAT/CD36 magical fuel sensing switch tomagical fuel sensing switch to alter mito. fat oxidation? Small parts of the complex metabolic fuel sensing and adapting machinery?

72 Blood shunting during exercise - from Martin and Coe: Training Distance Runners

73 Future Research Ideas & Directions III.Effects of caffeine – mechanism: from increased lipolysis to CNS stimulation

74 insulin nicotinic LEPTIN insulin 1 GsGi 2 AC A1A1 ATPcAMPAMP inactivePKAactivePKA HSLHSL-P TGdroplet TG FFA & glycerol EPI, NE adenosine caffeine + + phosphodiesterase ? ? ? ? ? ? leptin phosphatase nicotinicacid AMP kinase LEPTIN + ? ? - EPI, NE PKA, protein kinase A Sensitivity: 2 > 1 2 > 1 Caffeine supplementation and increased adipose tissue lipolysis? FFA & glycerol to working muscle (6-8 mg /kg BW) NOTE: Need high dose to get FFA differences, BUT get ergogenic effect with low doses ? (Graham & Spriet, JAP, 1995)

75 Caffeine ingestion does not alter skeletal carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise. (Graham et al. J.Physiol, 2000– 6mg/kg, 1 70% VO2peak, 2 trials: CAF vs. PLA, a-v lines) But no difference net flux (uptake or release) across the working leg for FFA or glycerol, or whole body and leg fat and CHO oxidation.

76 Low dose-caffeine supplementation results in increased CNS stimulation and decreased RPE

77 Future Research Ideas & Directions IV. Gender differences in fuel metabolism

78 Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise. (Horton et al. JAP, 1998– 14 females vs. 14 males; 2 hrs of cycling at 40% VO2peak; 2 hr re ) Men Women

79 Biochemical IMTG extraction from muscle biopsies (Roepstorff et al. AJP, min of 57% VO 2peak ) (Steffensen et al. AJP, 2002 – 90 min of 60% VO 2peak ) Gender specific IMTG use- controversy?

80 IMTG quantification via 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Zehnder et al. MSSE, hours of 50% VO 2peak ) (While et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2003 – 1 hour of 65% VO 2peak ) Gender specific IMTG use- controversy?

81 Future Research Ideas & Directions III. Other ideas- in brief.

82 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products II. Continued research on high MW sports drinks… - does MW change gastric emptying rates? - does MW change gastric emptying rates? - and/or CHO uptake rates? - and/or CHO uptake rates? - Recent evidence says NO (Rowlands et al. MSSE (37): 2005) - Recent evidence says NO (Rowlands et al. MSSE (37): 2005) III. Addition of antioxidants into products to decrease ROS or cortisol inflammatory responses post-training or cortisol inflammatory responses post-training - time course, short-term vs. long-term supplementation, amounts - time course, short-term vs. long-term supplementation, amounts - or is the cortisol response a necessary for training adaptation? - or is the cortisol response a necessary for training adaptation? I.Post-exercise optimization of protein balance and energy stores- a secret formula? - how many calories and types of calories post-exercise? - how many calories and types of calories post-exercise? - insulinatrophic amino acid supplementation (eg. Leucine) - insulinatrophic amino acid supplementation (eg. Leucine) - molecular protein signalling pathways (insulin vs. protein) - molecular protein signalling pathways (insulin vs. protein)

83 Diversification of Sport Nutrition Products IV. Gender differences - differences in CHO and fat metabolism? - differences in CHO and fat metabolism? - differing protocols/products needed for CHO loading? (evidence - differing protocols/products needed for CHO loading? (evidence suggests females need >8 g CHO per kg BW) suggests females need >8 g CHO per kg BW) - differences in caffeine responses/supplementation? - differences in caffeine responses/supplementation? VII. Bicarbonate, pseudoephedrine, taurine, green-tea ??? V. Caffeine - gender differences in CNS responses? - gender differences in CNS responses? - dose-response at start of exercise vs. fatigued (late in race)? - dose-response at start of exercise vs. fatigued (late in race)? - chronic supplementation = habituation effects? - chronic supplementation = habituation effects? VI. G.I. favorable / stable sports drinks and nutrition - ultra endurance sport athletes and blood shunting issues. - ultra endurance sport athletes and blood shunting issues.

84 Effects of carnitine supplementation on metabolism and performance.

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86 Future Research Ideas & Directions I.Tapping into fat- the holy grail?

87 What about replenishing IMTGs post-exercise? (similar to glycogen replenishment?)

88 IMTG use during exercise- No longer a controversy. Biochemical extraction with mixed muscle (Watt et al. J. Physiol, 2002 – 4 hours of 57% VO 2peak ) Time (hours)

89 Histochemical with immunofluorescence microscopy methodology- fiber type specific (van Loon et al. J. Physiol, 2003 – 2 hours of 60% VO 2peak ) IMTG use during exercise- No longer a controversy.

90 Even IMTG utilization during resistance exercise Significant 27% decrease in Type I IMTG after resistance exercise. (Koopman et al. EJAP, 2006 – 45 min of resistance exercise)

91 Postexercise fat intake repletes intramyocellular lipids but no faster in trained than in sedentary subjects. (Decombaz et al., AJP-Reg, 2001; 2 hrs at 50% VO2max with 55 and 15% fat diets for recovery measured via 1 H-MRS) 55% fat in recovery diet15% fat in recovery diet

92 Influence of prolonged endurance cycling and recovery diet on intramuscular triglyceride content in trained males. (van Loon et al., AJP-Endo 2003; 3 hrs at 55% Wmax with 39 and 24% fat diets for recovery measured via 1 H-MRS) 39% fat in normal fat24% low fat diet

93 Could a lack of IMTG replenishment lead to decrements in training or performance over time? (Watt et al. J. Physiol, 2002 – 4 hours of 57% VO 2peak )

94 (van Loon et al. J. Physiol, 2003 – 2 hours of 60% VO 2peak ) BUT, could an initially low IMTG store cause a significantly greater glycogen use during the first min of exercise?


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