Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY ByMulokozi Emmanuel (MEMA-UDSM 2012)
2 Course DescriptionThis course is designed to introduce education students to the concept of ;Production and application of instructional media materials for effective teaching and learning .It provides students with an opportunity to develop prototype instructional materials based on their areas of specialization and using not only local resources, but integrating newly incoming electronic technology into effective classroom interaction.Both undergraduate and PGD-Education students are introduced to EMT in the teaching and learning.
3 Learning OutcomesIt is anticipated that at the end of the course each student should be able to;Define various terminologies used in the coursePrepare and use various educational media for teaching and learningUtilize creatively local resources to improvise teaching-learning media relevant to their class needsExplain and apply basic and relevant theories of human communicationMake effective use of modern educational technologies in teaching
4 Learning Outcomes Cont… Identify basic benchmarks/ criteria for selecting media for teaching a heterogeneous classEstablish the applicability of the communication models to the classroom setting
5 Module 1: Basic Concepts and types of EMT 1.1 Background of EMTThe growth of EMT can be traced so many years back esp. when the need for education emerged, but the exact time can be difficult to state.As time passed, education discovered different methods of transmitting information from one generation to another.Due to the rapid expansion of education globally, so many things got involved E.g; diverse content, more students in classes, more teachers etc
6 Background of EMT Cont…. Arrangements were needed to meet the diverse demands.EMT has undergone a series of progressive change since the 14th C.The pre 17th C period was confined to oral and later to manuscripts technology in which more emphasis was placed and then followed by the art of printing.The period of was marked by the introduction of text books but within a limited circulation. A learner was put a the centre of Instructions
7 Background of EMT Cont… Learners like Dewey, Spencer and Thorndike advocated for scientific methodologies in teaching and learning processes.Another period lies btn The first 20 yrs of this period, technology of teaching and learning was conducted through;Gymnastics,Drama,Role playing. These were introduced by people like Plato in Athens. These were employed as teaching and learning methods.
8 Background of EMT Cont… In The last 35 yrs of this period, hardware in curriculum and teaching were introduced.- models, overhead slides/film projectors, computers and radio receivers came into existence in learning and teaching.A combination of hardware paved a way to audio-visual media.Btn 1955 and 1990 software were developed e.g transparencies in the OHPs. This came in use after a Numbers of students in class began to swell.
9 Background of EMT Cont… By 1970, the content of EMT gained another shape with the first work in Computerized Applied Instructions (CAI)Another period is the period that covers the year 1990 to date- Characterized by education expansion global wise.Today education has become more highly electronic, with the inventions in laptop computers, web cameras, internets, s, search-engines e.t.c in which EMT is driven by ICT
10 Background of EMT Cont… Based on this period, terms like technology of Education, Technology in Education, hardware, software and courseware are emerging.
11 1.2 Conceptual Definitions of key terms (a) MediaMedia is a plural form of medium.Media can be defined as means through which information is shared or communicated among people. E.g; language, newspapers, radio, TV, and internet.Brown (1959), views media as things/vehicles that carry information between the source and receiver e.g.A computer, diagram, film so as to facilitate communication between two parties. In this case, the media help the learner’s sensory organs to comprehend the planned content and thus improve the teaching-learning process.
12 (b).Educational MediaThese are any means of communication between the teacher and learner that allow interaction and feedback between the two parties (Angelo et.al,1993).Halverson (1992)define educational media as things used in the classroom to aid teaching and training .The author looks at the concept as synonymous to instructional media, that is objects, premises, events, machines, models or computer programs with which learners interact to form concepts ,practice, skills and then draw conclusions out of verbal explanations so as to change their behavior or attitude.
13 (b). Educational Media Cont… The media is intended to change a learner’s behavior in a classroom setting sooner or later and to enable him/her to interact with the media. These media could be printed or non-printed, projected or non –projected or could be traditional or modern. It is good to bear in mind that too many materials and too many different themes can serve to confuse the class. It is thus best to stick to few techniques and perhaps follow one theme, example or case study.
14 (c). TechnologyThe word technology is derived from two Greek words; -Techno (technique/how) and-Logy (knowledge/study).Technology = Technical know-how or technical knowledge.Man uses materials sources of power, machines and tools to make work easier and productive in the sake of satisfying his/her needs/wants.Whereas science tries to explain why things happen technology is concerned with how things happen.
15 (d).Educational Technology Bruce & Marsh (1996) looks at it as a logical arrangement of educational activities aimed at improving the learning – teaching process.Richmond (1970) views the term as a scientific approach in solving, organizing, implementing and evaluating educational activities (teaching-learning).The National Council for Educational Technology-UK defined the term as the development, application and evaluation of educational system for improving human learning process.
16 (d). Educational Technology Cont… The commission on instructional Technology-USA views the concept as a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the teaching-learning process in terms of learning outcomes. The author looks at the term as scientific application of science/knowledge and different media so as to improve the teaching-learning process so as to achieve and evaluate the preset learning outcomes.
17 (e).Educational Media and Technology Rowtree (1990) says EMT is the development (process involving learners from start to evaluation) and evaluation (how much has the learners achieved given the applied media and technology) of system of techniques (technology) and aids (media) so as to improve the teaching – learning in conveying the content (message) to learners.Coffey (1977) defines the concept as a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the total teaching-learning process by employing a combination of human and scientific equipments to bring about effective instruction.
18 Examples of EMT may include All books and their illustrations,Magazine/Newspaper,Documents,Programmed Materials,Pictures,Films, Strips,Sliders,Projectors Of All Kinds,Charts/Graphs/Maps/Drawing,Writing Boards And Board Materials,Tape Recorders,RadioCameras,Videos,Televisions Computers,Models Etc.
19 (f). Technology of Education This refers to the methodology (pedagogy) of teaching in classroom setting. This involves also the designing and evaluation of systems of teaching – learning or the psychology of learning and communication theories that involve;Identification of objectives and content;(what do students learn?)Designing appropriate learning experiences;(How well is the teacher going to teach and students going to learn?Effective evaluation in practice( how well will the students learn?)
20 (g) Technology in Education The concept refers to the availability of materials (gadgets) or audio-visual equipment in schools e.g. audio cassettes, models, radio etc. Such gadgets are increasingly integrated into the classroom teaching-learning process
21 (h). Hardware, software and courseware Hardware is the physical equipment or mechanical/electrical that make for a medium system operate e.g. a central pressing unit (CPU), mouse and keyboard.The hardware is used to run devices e.g motion pictures, video tapes, DVD players, radio TV, tape recorder, projectors, cameras and laptops. The hardware enables teacher to deal with more learners at least cost.
22 SoftwareSoftware refers to data or programs not forming part of the hardware but used when operating the hardware eg a film in a camera, a transparency in an OHP, a cassette in a tape recorder or a program in a computer. It controls the computer’s operation.
23 Courseware The courseware is specific instructional software that addresses the content eg specific films usedin teaching environment.
24 (i). Motivational media These are media that are meant to arouse the interest of the learnerExample: Computer, Tv, etc(j). Informational mediaThese are kind of media that are mainly aimed at giving information without an opportunity of interaction; they are one way traffic eg TV, newspaper or books. However behind these media there must be a hidden message.
25 (k). Instructional media These are kind of media intended to change a learner’s behavior in a classroom setting and the learners can interact with them eg photos, models, projectors and regalia.
26 (l). MultimediaThese are different types of media that are used in hardware or in a separate arrangement to present educational material (s) of the same topic concurrently.More than two different media are sequentially used in teaching a single package e.g a combination of VCD material, slide and film strips, OHP and transparencies.The media arranged in singles to show material being taught in the session or can be in a combination of various media emanating from a single presentation source (think of a computer with multimedia facilities)The multimedia could be traditional or modern as well.
27 (m). Multi-image mediaThese are two or more pictures that are projected or presented simultaneously on one or more screen(s) for group viewing or teaching a single lesson e.g the projection of images using the sound film projector and slide film projector or an OHP and the opaque projector.Most images/pictures are projected from slides or OHP film series.Qn: Discuss the merits and demerits of multi-image presentation.
28 (n). Learning aids/media These are media/resources that are designed to assist individual learners/trainees in which the learners/trainees are guided to follow precise directions for performing a particular educational task. They include checklist of steps to be followed when assembling or operating equipment, lines and drawing. Others include photos along with words to illustrate verbal explanation, books, handouts and specimen.
29 (o) Training materials These are materials that relate directly to instructional materials eg handouts, fliers or video clips, They are sets of pages/video chips that direct the learner how to proceed with a unit or course of study.
30 (p). Interactive mediaThese are media format that allow/need some level of physical activity which much be shown by the learner rather than told eg a learner controlling a computer program.The pace and sequence of information is controlled by the learner.Since these media need the learner’s response, they catch the learner’s attention and interest greatly.The media enable learners to link data, information and ideas and also address learning styles, provide an effective learning environment in which learners can explore, add to and composes new learning at their own pace. However, the media are costly to develop and also require a detailed and careful planning thus they call for specialists
31 Review Questions1.Provide in your own words with one example in each case the definition of the following words in an educational contexti. Traditional media ii. Modern Media iii. Educational Media iv. Hardware v. Technologyvi. Software vii. Interactive media viii. Educational Technology ix. Educational Media x. Educational Media and Technology.
32 2.Differentiate the following concepts in relation to EMT, Where possible give an example in each case.i. Multimedia presentation from multi image presentationii. Informational media from instructional mediaiii. Traditional media from modern mediaiv.Technology in education from technology of education
33 3. What is education media and how does it involve educational technology? 4. Describe how some scholars become convinced to the decision of using the concept educational media and technology. 5. Discuss five principle functions of educational technology so as to improve the overall efficiency of teaching-learning process in classrooms
34 6. Select a topic of your subject area, prepare a prototype multimedia presentation using more than two media materials to deliver the lesson. The content must be the same on each of the media you choose.7. Describe the development in EMT from the earliest times up to the present. Get more examples concerning EMT?8. Multimedia is most recommended for any effective teaching, How do you define multimedia and what merits do you have in the teaching – learning process involving such media?
35 1.3 TYPES OF EMT (1) Traditional and Modern Media (based on time) (i) Traditional MediaThese are ancient and locally produced media used by our grand parents in communication. e,g drums, songs, pictures signs, models, radios, writing boards, books, work cards, maps, globes and atlases.Refers to the simple, cheap and easy media to operate. E.g. books, handouts, fliers, objects and specimen.
36 (ii) Modern MediaThese are local or imported media that appear to be new in the society in their development and use less than 25yrs in schools in Tanzania (Henry 1985). Examples include; electronic equipments such as computers, television, digital radios, video tapes, receivers, flexible OHPs, websites, internets, digital cameras, etc.Any effective communication today combines pictorial images (visual image) and language same way it did in the past but in a more sophisticated technological way.
37 (2) Printed and Non-Printed Media. Printed-Media (Printed Visual Media)These are the kind of media that can be produced by using ink pressed on paper or any other writing material for the purposes of serving instructional motive. E.g. charts, news papers, maps, magazines etc.Though they include many different media for specific use, for the purpose of education, the interest relies on those which are most appropriate for communicative work of educators, teachers and students. These include;
38 Learning media designed by individuals e. g Learning media designed by individuals e.g. photos, drawings, lines or words for better explanations.Training media related to instructional materials that help the learner prepare samples for training purposes.Informational media designed to give information, motivation and attraction.Qn: Discuss the advantages and disadvantage of printed visual media.
40 (b) Non-Printed MediaThese are the media that cannot be printed for serving instructional or informational purposes.They are subdivided into projectable and non- projectable media.For the projectable media, their images can be thrown form one machine to another for example, projectors, overhead projectors (OHPs), sound film projectors, transparencies, video cassettes and tape recorders.
41 (c) Projected Visual Media These are media that use projection equipment to throw an image from one machine to another eg projectors ( slide, video, sound film projectors), video tape recorders ( VTRS), Video cassettes and tape recorders.(d) Non-Projected Visual Media.These are the media that do not have images for projection purposes. Such materials can be simply shown, hung on the wall, touched and handled by any student. E.g maps, chalks, graphs e.t.cMost of the hardware with no images fall in this category.Qn: What are the merits and demerits of the projected Visual Media?
42 (d) Video and DVDsVideo and DVD (Digital Video Disc) can be useful ways of reinforcing on filing in details on the subject being taught. They can be shown to the class as substitutes for a lecture/presentation and be used exactly the same way with the learners are free to take notes as they choose
43 (e) Radio and Television Broadcasting The period stretching from the 1950s to 1970s in Tanganyika/Tanzania, saw many scholars in the country undergoing education/learning through radio broadcasting by RTD (Radio Tanzania Broadcasting). School Broadcasting programs covered most subjects like English, Kiswahili, Geography, History and Civics.For practical based subjects like Mathematics and natural sciences, specimen and equipments were circulated to schools and subject teachers and broadcasting manuals/handbooks.
44 School Broadcasting is the process where the subject teacher (with exceptional teaching skills and expertise), careful selects and transmits lessons through the radio or television to reach many learners.With this mode the intended knowledge is delivered to most targeted learners in the shortest possible time employing few subject experts. The teaching resources e.g. time table, lesson booklets and manuals are distributed in advance to schools.
45 Another broadcasting mode is through television (Instructional Television) or television telecasting. This is a transmission of still and moving pictures and sound over a distance by means of electrical wave through the air. With the advent of a television tech (since the 1950s), television broadcasting has been found superior to radio broadcasting because of the former’s capability to transmit sound and image.
46 Merits and demerits of Radio and Television Broadcasting One expert teacher can save many targeted students at once.Learners can see and hearArouses learners interestsIt is suitable for mass educationA standard understanding of the intended knowledge across school is realizedEvaluation is difficultwithout electrical power, the exercise is next to impossible.In case of poor reception, unclear images are received.Maximum care is needed as the devices involved are fragile and delicate
47 Merits and Demerits Cont….. It doesn’t stop and clear the learner’s doubt and it tends to reduce learners to passiveness as the technology is not a two way communication, no immediate feedback,Slow learners are left behind. In fact, individual learners’ differences aren’t put into account.It brings the distant world to the classroom.A solution to limited number of experts over a fast growing school population and educational seekers is minimized.It is an authentic course of information transmission
48 Merits and Demerits Cont….. Motivation to teachers and learners. To subject teachers it is a form of in service training i.e. learning of new things e.g. new and interesting delivery approaches.To learners it is interesting, there is a change from the physical teacher who may not be as good as imagined personality of an invisible teacher.Initial capital investment and infrastructure is high to many schools leave alone the air time paid by episodes.Each school has to be equipped with good quality receiver set that is to be replenished regularly.
49 1. 4. Role/Functions/Importance of. traditional and modern media in 1.4 Role/Functions/Importance of traditional and modern media in teaching and learning processes.A. To teachers, EMT can help to:Helps teachers to carefully plan and organize the content. For example, usually teachers use some specific criteria to select media in relation to a nature of a topic i.e. are media available to carter for a given topic.Deliver instruction that are standardized. All students receive the same amount and type of learning materials when videos or computers re used.
50 Reduce time needed for giving instructions to learners Reduce time needed for giving instructions to learners. It is not necessary for the teacher to be physically present.Make instructions more interesting and focused. For example, if various media such as video, TV programs are carefully prepared by expert teachers, the media can easily capture the learners’ interests.Make a learning cost effective. A teacher can address 100 learners with CTR unlike when she/he is verbal and has to go around in the class to reach learners. In other words, EMT may reduce the number of teachers at the same time increase the number of learners.
51 (b)To learners, EMT can help to; Make learning more interactive in operation looking at the media or by asking questions from fellow learner’s. e.g. when using a video and computer.Make the quality of learning improved as more learners’ senses are involved.Encourage individualized learning i.e. a learner can learn at his or her own time and place of convenience.Make use of the power of pictures, words and sounds to compel attention.
52 Help learners understand ideas too complex for verbal explanation alone. Help learners overcome the limitation of time, size and space when media like computer, video/TV are employed.Evoke learners’ emotions change the attitude and motivate actions when pictures words and sounds are skillfully combined through. For example TV and video.
53 1.4 Criteria for the selection of EMT Selecting the EMT is not a simple task because it based on interrelated factors.There is no simple foolproof formula that match any specific medium with any particular course objectives. This means, there is no single medium that can cater for all needs required in the teaching and learning processes
54 1. Audience/class levelHere we are trying to identify the target group.Important questions to ask are;Who are they in terms of class level?How old are the learners-are they children/adults?What is the learner’s physical characteristic-are they blind, deaf or dumb (somebody who can completely not speak)?Do learners represent a homogeneous mental group or do they have diverse skills- are they slow or fast learners?What is the class size/big or small?
55 2.Objective analysis beyond the teaching Why am I teaching this class?What do I want the learners to achieve at the end of this presentation?Am I developing any skills, knowledge or experience among learners by the use of the medium?Will this enable the learners to attain grades?Will the medium be for motivation, information or instruction achievement?
56 3.Content of the lesson(subject matter) What am I teaching or what is the topic/sub-topic in that subject?What media will the topic need?Are the media appropriate according to the topic/subtopic?Approach/methodology to be usedHow will I teach the topic? (analytical consideration)What teaching method should be used (lecture, group discussion, demonstration or simulation (drama, games, songs e.t.c)What do I want learners to do during the lesson?
57 5. Environmental analysis Will the time to present the topic be enough?Is the morning, afternoon or evening convenient?What is the season about (rainy or sunny)How is the classroom structured- can the sitting arrangement allow learners share/view the materials at once?Class condition- availability of power e.t.cDoes thee school have the OHP?
58 6. Supply analysisAre the media readily available and within the easy reach?Does my budget for money and time allow?Is the teacher capable and experienced enough in using the available media?
59 1.5 Simulation LearningLearning can also be achieved by simulation. In simulation, learners make a mental jump back to reality; they use imagination to relate what they are seeing, hearing or doing in relation to real life.So we can take them as audio-visual media. Some examples in this media include games, songs and drama as briefly explained here below.
60 SongsA song is a lively or an attractive way in communicating a content drawn on a local talent and expressing local views.A simple song can encourage learners to join in and sing themselves which in turn may help learners to understand and remember the content.Though songs can’t convey complex contents, they are cheap and can have impact. They are good for reinforcing content through repetition, simple message and catchy tunes stick in the memory.Also its relationship in traditional forms of communication can encourage understanding and acceptance of the content.
61 Story tellingWhen the narrator tells a story, he/she points out details, explains underlying themes, sum up or leads a discussion. In this way an educational message is effectively communicated.Though complex information can’t be conveyed, it is cheaply made and can have impact. Its relationship to traditional forms of communication can encourage understanding and acceptance of the content.
62 DramaDrama gives learners opportunity to look at possible courses of action before committing themselves. They receive information in an entertaining form and learn through emotion and reason when they watch a performance.The content learnt can be more effective if learners are called to react to the ideas presented and give views in discussion and in this way, learners can analyze problems and identify solutions. Though drama is expensive in terms of time an effort demanded for dramatizing, it is good for exploring the merits and demerits of different ideas and for studying a conflict /problem in depth
63 GamesGames like Drama and Songs are used to convey messages or impact knowledge, skills and values.A game based on an activity like selling crops or developing dairy unit can include most of the choices and problems faced in real life.Given that, there are many different kinds of games, different materials/aids are also employed, despite that it may be difficult to design a game that works well.
64 1.6 Problems /challenges associated with the use of EMT Guiding Question: With examples discuss the Problems /challenges associated with the use of EMT.
65 Review QuestionsOutline the strengths and weaknesses of using computer, video and instructional TV in teaching and learning.Discuss the role of a computer in educational Industry.Discuss with clear examples how modern media such as TV, Computer and CD Rom can be used in education.In clear sentences outline five ways in which audio-visual media help in teaching and learning processes
66 Given the limited resources here in Tanzania, analyze the view that education broadcasting is a necessary evil.Create a small presentation of not more than five slides. The presentation should have the following features;(a) An original background created by yourself(b) contains a title, subtopic and text(c) Contain at least one graphic created by yourself, one picture, movie and sound throughout the presentation.(d) contains visual transitions and special effects
67 7. Critically and analytically discuss the relevance of EMT in developing countries like Tanzania in relation to education sector.Discuss with specific examples the contribution of EMT in teaching and learning process.Discuss with examples the criteria for media selection based on efficiency and effectiveness.(a) What is simulation learning?(b) with specific examples discuss how simulation learning is practiced in Tanzanian schools.
69 MODULE 2 COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS 2.1 BackgroundCommunication is intertwined with all human life. Life cannot go on without communication. All things we do must be done through communication and this presupposes that language gave birth to communication. Development of language and programs of communication necessitated evaluation of communication technologies.Successive invention in telegraphs, telephones, moving pictures, television satellites and computers have brought revelation impact and solution to some communication problems in many sector inclusive.
70 Today it is possible to covey words, sound images and even data to enable people communicate irrespective of the distance and national boundaries.Effective teaching is possible when one applies communication theories combined with the use of various media technologies. New forms of expression and arts, new technologies of persuasion, new ways of teaching, new ways of international communication and business have emerged as a result.
71 2.2 Definition of Human Communication Communication has been variably defined by different scholars based on their field of study or schools of thought;For instance, Behavioral School of thought looks at communication as a process of transferring thoughts, facts, skills, knowledge and values from a source to a receiver so that the latter changes behavior (John, 1983).Sociologists define human Communication as a social affair of sharing information in terms of knowledge, emotion, attitude and skills.
72 Those with transmission perspective e. g Those with transmission perspective e.g. militarist to them communication is a process of transmitting orders.The businessmen look at communication as ability of an individual in presenting his/her thoughts/ides to others such that the two parties understand what is intended by the speaker and finally be persuaded.Educationalists view the concept as an intentional process of formulating educational experiences and interactively sharing this experience between educator and learners in the sake of achieving the set learning outcomes or specific educational objectives.
73 Generally, Human Communication is the process that has got interrelated and interdependent sets of elements e.g. source, message, channel, receiver, feedback and noise, has basic features, faces barriers/ limitations, is either verbal or nonverbal and has a settings in which people communicating find themselves.
74 2.3 Basic elements/ components of Human Communication Based on the author, human communication has a structure with five basic elements/ components namely;Source [ sender and/ or receiver]Message,Media,[ channel],ReceiverNoise andFeedback.Each element/ component has its characteristics. The relationship of one element to the other element, determines the failure or success of the communication,
75 SourceThis is the place where the information originates. It includes the sender and / or the receiver of the massage content. The source can be an individual [e.g. a teacher] or a group of people [ e.g. School board, parents, ministry e.t.c ]In order the source to encode the message the following activities must be done;Think about the messageOrganize the message into wordsSelect the best mediumEvaluate the messageTransmit the message through the medium selectedTo get the feedback of the message sent to the receiver
76 MessageThis is a purposive or an unintentional idea/fact/information/topic that is communicated between the sender and receiver of whose meaning can be expressed orally in written form, diagrams, pictures, by movements, gestures or facial expressions.Apart from being abstract or physical in nature, a message has a given structure and content. Communication takes place through sending and receiving a massage sent or received. So always think of the approach/ method of treating/ communicating the message and how to distribute it.
77 The message has the following aspects Purpose- What is going to be communicated and develop specific objectives.MeaningThis refers to ideas/ feelings in one’s mind. The meaning of a massage is sometimes perceived wrongly or unintended. Thus the learner’s interpretation of the meaning may be different from the teacher’s. To avoid this, materials given to learners should be within their field of experience so that they can get what is taught. How far will instruction extend beyond learners’ ability depends on the ability of the learners (slow or fast).
78 It has Symbols. This means words / sounds/ tones of voice, facial expressions and gestures which are used to convey a message.Structure/ form / organization. For a complex massage people may need to Communicate it in a given form/ order.Encoding, that is changing and organizing ideas/ feelings into symbols. OR putting the information in a code or express it in a different form or system of language. For example, if you are teaching and you realize that learners do not understand the point you are putting across you may go over gain.
79 Decoding means changing a message back into ideas/feeling the sender meant. You are trying to get a meaning from symbols the sender used so as to get what the sender meantMedia/ChannelsThis is any vehicle/means through which a message is communicated from the source (e.g. a teacher) to the receiver (e.g. a learner). The media may be physical (e.g. a microphone) or abstract (e.g. language) and must act as a carrier of message/information.They are found in different formats (could be traditional or modern, small or big, visual, audio or audio-visual, projectable or non-projectable and printed or non-printed.
80 They are man-made with intention e. g They are man-made with intention e.g. airwaves, newspapers, TVs, radio, gestures, facial expression etc.Channels of CommunicationThe way we communicate a message/content through different channels could be:Vertical- A one way (bottom-up or top-button) kind of communication in which two people of different ranks/levels e.g. (a teacher and learner) communicate.
82 Fig: Horizontal Communication Horizontal- A two way kind of communication in which two parts of the same level of education are involved in communication e.g. exchange of information between two undergraduates or btn two teachersL L T TFig: Horizontal Communication
83 Diagonal- Two or more learners are involved in communication in kind of a triangle All the communicators are active senders and receivers in exchanging the message/information e.g. a group discussion in a classroom setting.DiagonalVertical comm.comm.Horizontal Comm.
84 ReceiverThis is a person or anything that receives a message- A person must process and react to the message- the receiver does the decoding which involves different factors.NoiseHenry (1985) defines noise as anything or stimulus that interferes with the message and stops it from getting to the end i.e (receiver or sender). This can take place in number of ways and at any point in the communication process. Communication depends also on how one copes with noise.
85 Practical examples of noise in the teaching learning process include; Unwanted sound from inside the classroom during teaching. This may negatively affect the learner’s concentration in learning depending on the nature of the sound concentration.Bodily discomforts a teacher and /or learner is experiencing.Uncomfortable environmental factors e.g. bad climate and poor classroom conditions that affect class effective interactions.Biological disorder. Teachers and learners with hungry stomachs can’t pay much attention to classroom works. “An empty stomach is not a good political advisor” A wise saying goes.
86 Feedback (Response)This is a response/reaction to a message by the receiver as observed and used by the communicator.The response (feedback) may be either by words, a yawn, and shrug of the shoulder or just being silent. We do not communicate through/signs and signals alone but even silence. Think of a case where a teacher enters a noisy class without any word and suddenly the learners keep silent. The learners’ silence suggests their respect or fear to the teacher.Suppose a learner requests his/her lecturer to add the learner more marks for a test done and the lecturer keeps silent. The implication is that the lecturer has refused to honor the request. So silence is a kind of a feedback.
87 The originator of the message can only be sure that the message has been received and understood through the audience’s feedback/ response. The more the feedback is taken into account, the more effective will be the communication.Feedback can be:Immediate e.g. a learners’ facial expression may show if they have understood or if the message is relevant or not.Long-term e.g. an ultimate change in learner’s behavior for improvement or for the worse.Positive – in this case the audience seems to have received and understood the message and taken the desired action.
88 Negative-in this case adjustments are need implying that communication is /was unsatisfactory. In an educational setting, a teacher can get feedback from learners through tests/homework, quizzes, facial expression, discussion responses and learners’ experience. A feedback ascertains the teacher if his/her instructions were successful (heard, seen, understood) or not.It also takes off the learner’s burden to the teacher. The teacher normally blames learners when instructions were not successful.
89 This is unrealistic because it can be that the instructions were not designed appropriately to the learners’ level it could be that there was noise when instructions were given or that there were errors in appraising learners’ fields of experience.
90 (Fig: Simple Communication Model (Linear) SOURCEMESSAGEMEDIUMRECEIVER
91 Fig: Simple Communication Model( cyclic) SOURCEMESSAGEMEDIUMFEEDBACKNOISERECEIVERFig: Simple Communication Model( cyclic)
92 Review Questions(a).With example discuss how the elements of communication relate to each other.(b).How do you relate the elements of communication in teaching and learning process?2. Think of any five messages in teaching and learning process then encode and decode the messages.
93 COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING (C.I.T) AND COMMUNICATION IN GENERAL (C.I.G) Qn: Are there Similarities and Differences between Communication in general and Communication in Teaching?SIMILARITIES1. Both of them need/involve the basic element of elements of Communication i.e Source, Message, Channels, Receiver and Noise.2. All of them use communication language. i.e sound, words, symbols, especially in non- verbal communication that have understandable meaning.
94 3. Both are relational and have got an intended purposes 4 3. Both are relational and have got an intended purposes 4. All have a given structure e.g C.L, G.S, e.t.c 5. In both there is no zero feedback
95 DIFFERENCIESC.I.TC.I.G1.Needs special groups of people e.g teachers, learnersSpecial groups are not necessary needed2Needs highly special place and special time for discussion and communication. e.g classes, lecture halls, school time table e.t.cNo special place and time needed.
96 Evaluation is always necessary. e.g during reinforcement stage 3.It has got specific objectives or learning outcomesNo specific objectives needed.4.Communication is interactive and they require specific feedbackFeedback is not necessary. e.g when reading a book.5Communication in teaching is highly planned and structured. e.g teaching methodology, lesson plan e.t.cCan be planned but not as in C.I.T6.Evaluation is always necessary. e.g during reinforcement stageEvaluation depends on the nature of communication.
97 Human Communication Barriers. A barrier is anything (stimulus) which negatively affects sharing meaning of the message intended between a teacher and a learner (Abbat, 2000). These barriers could be physiological, psychological and sentimental as briefly expounded below. (a) Physiological/Environmental/External BarriersThese include visual and audio distractions that draw one’s attention away from the intended meaning .They can be:
98 Geographical features e. g Geographical features e.g. location, time /season, light, distance between a teacher and a learner, sitting arrangement, airplane’s sound overhead a classroom, photograph of an attractive person in front of a classroom or a latecomer in a classroom in high heel shoes and coming to sit in front of a class/lecture roomHistorical experience of learners where examples given are unfamiliarPolitical / cultural differences e.g. in terms of language and values/norms. These tell us what kind of a message or behavior is proper in a given context or with a particular people. These values could be accepted social qualities or developed within a given setting.
99 (b) Psychological Barriers The manner in which learners perceive themselves will affect the meaning which is to be shared. For instance a learner’s negative attitude towards a teacher may affect the learner’s performance.Difficult learner’s mood e.g daydreaming when a teacher is teaching or a flash back on previous strike when a subject is in session could be distractive to a learning process.Poor social relationship (poor interpersonal skills) between a teacher and learner based on sex and harshness could negatively affect the communication process.
100 (c) Sentimental Barriers These are alternate meaning aroused by certain symbols that inhibit meaning.Suppose your friend describes a 49 years old woman secretary in your headmasters’ office as the girl in that office. You may not be ready to listen to what he is going to say soon on another subject matter but you will dwell on what really he meant by calling the 49 year old woman a girl.
101 HUMAN COMMUNICATION MODELS Timothy, Newby, Donald, Stepich, James, Lehman and Russel (2000), look at human communication model as a summarized preposition that tries to explain how information takes place verbally (using oral or written form), graphically (using diagrams graphs or drawings) or mathematically (source = receiver =1) so as to avoid communication breakdown.In this context, the model is defined as a consciously simplified description in a graphical or in a verbal form showing how communication takes place.
102 Importance of ModelsHelp to explain a reality in a simplified way. Information that would otherwise been complicated or ambiguous, is simplified /understood.Have an organizational function that relates systems to each other in mages that might otherwise been perceived. They give a general picture of a range of different particular circumstances.They predict outcomes of events and this helps to gauge different alternatives to achieve the goals.Summarize large information into graphical form or well-focused main points upon which learners can easily build up wider conceptual understanding.
103 There are many models proposed by different scholars but few of these are going to be discussed. Shannon-Weaver’s model.Wilbur Schramm’s modelDavid Berlo’ s model,Harlod Lass well's model,
104 1. SHANNON-WEAVER’S MODEL. Shannon was an American mathematician- Electronic engineer andWeaver was an American scientist.Both of them joined together to write an article in “Bell System Technical Journal” called “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” and also called as “Shannon-Weaver model of communication”.
105 The model was developed in 1949 and it reflects features of telephone technology since Shannon one of its developers, was an American telephone engineer.The model (linear structure), depicts the message flow in an electric communication system
106 Shannon and Weaver had in mind that, Telephone users where the source of a message (information source provider),The transmitter being the medium andThe message being converted to electric impulses so as to travel though electric wires.The Noise (message interrupter) e.g; electricity cut, rain/sound wave is expected on the line and the received signal reverted to the original message by the receiving equipment of a telephone and sent to the, Telephone receiver.
108 In the education context The message source is the surrounding environment (e.g. books, learners, teachers etc.).The initiator of communication could also become the transmitter andThe noise could be physical, psychological and social in nature.The model possess two important questions:Which kind of medium/channel can bring enough/maximum amount of information?How much of the transmitted information/message be lost between interpretations and how can that be solved?
109 Application of the model In everyday life, the model can be applied in;Military context-sending and receiving ordersMass media communication e.g radio-school curriculum broadcasting and newspaper tuition programs for learners.Preaching in churches or mosquesLectures using a mike as a mediumEducational/political speechesDescribing interpersonal communication
110 Weaknesses of the model Through the idea of the model has been used analogically by behavioral and linguistic sciences, the model has nonetheless, been criticized in that itIs linear hence unable to provide feedback. To some scholars like Schramm, communication to occur ther must be feedback.Doesn’t explain details of communication.Is too mechanical i.e it doesn’t explain human interaction but concentrates on machines.Doesn’t show how the message is produced in a human context. Communication needs to start and end somewhere, but where does it end in this model?
111 Review questions 1. In their communication model, Shannon and weaver include noise and information source components among others. Using practical examples, explain the two components in a teaching-learning context. 2. What is communication in an education setting? With clear and relevant examples explain what communication calls noise. Categorize the noises into physical, intellectual and psychological ( emotional ) noises.
112 3. Critically examine the relationships of the components in the Shannon-Weaver’s communication model in relation to classroom setting. What is the position of the teacher in the model represented by noise source and what are the things and situations represented by noise source?
113 2.Wilbur Schramm’s Communication Model Trying to criticize previous linear model of Shannon and Weaver, Schram and Osgood, (1954) came up with a two-way (circular) communication model. They argued that for communication to take place, Feedback is a must.The model mainly focuses on the behavior of the chief actors in the communication process the;Sender and Receiver.The two actors are treated as equals as both perform identical functions of encoding, decoding and interesting the message. So the model concentrates on two points/levels.
114 (a) Before the message is sent (a) Before the message is sent. In this case, the source has to encode that is:Think/formulate the ideal message mentallySelect and organize the ideal message into words/sentences. These two take place atomically.Select the method of releasing out the message/informationOrganize the best method of releasing the message/information.Release the message/information out
115 (b) Interpretation of meaningful symbol by receiver i (b) Interpretation of meaningful symbol by receiver i.e decoding upon receiving the message/information. The receiver has to;Listen and receive or perceive the message/informationRecognize/understand the message/informationAnalyze the message/informationIntegrate (decode) the message/information
117 Criticisms on Schramm’s Model Though Schramm’s model appears as an improved model over the Shannon-Weaver’s model, it also faces some weaknesses as follows:The model doesn’t show the medium of communication.It doesn’t show the context/setting in which communication takes place. There are things like cultural or technological factors to put into account that stand as noise to communication.
118 Communication is purposeful Communication is purposeful .Is it to persuade impress/convince, inform, entertain or to educate? Communication is not necessarily a-two –way traffic (horizontal, vertical or diagonal) but also multidimensional as illustrated below.The model looks mechanical though it seems to be a two –way trafficFrom text books, schramm’s model conveys a feeling of equality between two people something which doesn’t necessarily exist in practical life. For example, a parent talking to his/her child could reveal power she/he has on the child but communication between loving wife and husband could depict affection.
119 Review questions 1. Despite its application in the classroom setting, Schramm’s communication model has got weaknesses .Clearly with examples, explain five such weaknesses. 2. Discuss fully what is happening in each component in Schramm’s model and relate it to classroom situation.
120 3.David Barlo’s Communication Model David Berlo was a behavioral psychologist and one of the first few scholars who did studies in the theory and practice of communication related to education.To him, effective communication occurs if it considers human behavior and the social cultural relations.He argued that communication is content based and that the context has at least four dimensions:
121 Physical dimension that includes concrete environment e Physical dimension that includes concrete environment e.g classroom, furniture in classroom teaching materials and geographical features (e.glocation, temperature, sitting arrangement, distance between communication etc)Social dimension that includes group lists norms to facilitate interaction in group discussion, cultural values, status etc( But should bright learners be separated from the dull ones and girls from boys?)
122 3. Psychological dimension This includes attitudes, friendliness, formalities/rigidity, poor relationship between teachers and learners, difficult moods, manner in which learners perceive themselves and others etcTemporal dimension e.g time of the day, date, season of event. Some subjects need to be taught in the morning not in the afternoon eg Mathematics.
123 Berlo (1960) develop a model in which he included many communication skills affecting communication;
125 Berlo (1960) and Devito (1982) comments that: Communication is dimension in nature ie it projects different factors working together to influence communication between a teacher and a learner. The scholars argue that these factors are interdependent; a change in one factor brings in a change in other factors.Communication is a process of changing is not realized after communication, then there is no communication at all. They argued that communication should enable interaction between the teacher and learner and show meaning in order to influence each other. Psychological is needed in understanding learners we communication to/interact with.
126 Breakdown in communication is caused by intertwined factors from both the source (teacher) and the receiver (learner). A change in the communication skills affects communication at large. A failure in communication needs analysis of the SMCR and other related elements which are interdependent.The model could be applied in a classroom setting by placing the learner at the centre. Thus the teacher, the subject matter and the whole environment ranging from the school and the society are broad stimuli directed towards the learner.
127 v. Communication situations analysis must take into account how teachers intend to influence learners and how learners intend to affect themselves. Check briefly some attributes in relation to the source (teacher) and the receiver (learner) based on the model in the table below;
128 Review questions 1. Discuss the relevance of Berlo’s communication model in the teaching-learning context. 2. During lectures, you were able to relate Berlo’s communication model and classroom teaching and learning using a good teacher you liked most and a bad teacher you dislike most. On the basis of what you gained from the lecture, answer the following questions. a.Briefly discuss three main independent variables of classroom communication focusing on the teacher. b.Discuss three main dependent variables of communication based on the learner.
129 4.Lasswell’s Communication Model Harold Lasswell was an American political scientist mostly versed in political communication/propaganda i.e how could one interact in public meetings.He described communication in the form of five questions.Since it was not in graphic form, some scholars called the model Lasswell’s formula of communication.For Lasswell, communication to take place depends on five questions; WHO says WHAT by WHAT to WHOM with what EFFECT?
130 1. WHO? (Source/sender) –Teacher Knowledgeable?Competent? Confident?His/her personality?Planning skill of materials and deliverance?Punctuality? Having communication skills (clarity)?
131 2. Says WHAT? (Message/concept) – Content/topic Subject matter practical/realistic/relevant?List of objectivesWhat should the audience (learners) be able to achieve at the end of the presentation?
132 3. by WHAT/ in WHICH CHANNEL? –Media Which medium to be used – any multimedia/language?Factors to consider when choosing a particular medium?
133 4. to WHOM? (Receiver/decoder) – Learner Level of understanding? Goal or purpose? Age/sex?Ability /knowledge? Time/season of event?Distance between the source and receiver (teacher and learner?)
134 5. with what EFFECT? (Strategies/techniques) – Teaching methodology What will be the impact /outcome of the content?What method to be used for better achievement/performance?Outcome evaluated by what technique?Feedback (short or long term) how forth coming?
135 Critique to the modelLasswell took for granted that communication is a persuasive process which is not necessarily true. There are many purposes of communication eg entertaining, education or information.Lasswell’s model assumed that messages always have effects especially mass communication. This is not surprising as he was a political propagandist. How much is it true that after a company/presentation the target audience will positively change behavior?The model is misleading because it doesn’t have a short or long term feedback.
136 Review questions 1. Make a comparative analysis between Lasswell’s model and Berlo’s model in relation to a teaching-learning situation. 2. Describe how knowledge on communication can help you to become an effective classroom teacher. Relate your discussion to Lasswell’s communication model.
137 4. Draw with examples the relevance of Lasswell’s model of communication in a teaching-learning. Then comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the model. 5. Choose any communication model you have studies during lectures and discuss with specific examples how it relates to classroom teaching and learning. 6. Recall the teacher you liked or hated most in your school life. Give reasons why you did what you did to the drawing your arguments from any communication model you studied in this course.
138 7. As teachers, we are expected to like all learners at equal levels 7. As teachers, we are expected to like all learners at equal levels. Is this practical? If yes, say why and if not practical, say why not. 8. Why is it that the same teacher may be liked by some learners and yet be hated by others in the same class in the same subject? ( Consider personality, behavior and attitude, teaching methods, dressing, love/kind of humanity the teacher has and social interaction of no favoritism).
139 OVERHEAD PROJECTOR/OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCY PROJECTOR (OHP/OTP) MODULE 3:OVERHEAD PROJECTOR/OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCY PROJECTOR (OHP/OTP)Instructional media greatly differ but essentially reflect pictorial images, electronic equipments etc, that facilitate running software programs.Pictorial images could be printed or projected e.g films, slides, filmstrips, transparencies and Overhead Projector (OHP).
140 An OHP, ( a common feature in many schools) is a soundless or a sound motion picture machine that is used to project an image from the transparency to white wall/screen for a class view. (Russell et al 2000).Normally during presentation the presenter is supposed to sit down and the image thrown to the screen pass overhead of the presenter, hence Over Head Projection.
141 At the end of this subtopic (OHP), the learner should be able to; Setting up of an OHPOperation /presentation techniquesMaterials preparation for an OHPTranspierces storage for future useServicing OHP/simple maintenance of the OHP
142 TYPES OF OHPThere are various types of projectors e.gSlide projector,Sound film projector,video/computer projector or LCD andEPI or Opaque Projector.
143 Parts of the OHPMirror-Reflects the image on the screen or the beam light from the source to the screen.Concave/convex lens-Magnifies the image thrown from the platform before it reaches the mirror so that the picture can be seen at a distance.Elevation adjustment- Adjusts the image position of the picture on the Screen.The arm/handle- Holds the head of the OHP and the focus knob. The focus knob focuses the image sharply on the screen.
144 Glass plate platform- For placing transparency during the projection or used as a table for un used transparencies.Fresnel ( convex lens)-Adjusts light thrown from the bulb (lamp) to the glass plate or collects enough light to reach the projected material or lowers temperature produced by the lamp not to reach glass plate.
145 Fan– Cools down the lamp (bulb ) to prolong its life span .viii. Lamp– Produces light for projection.ix. Control switch/ lamp switch–Turns on and off the power in the projector(could be one for the fan or three for few, dim and bright light).
146 1. SETTING UP AN OHPFor the screen, the setting depends very much on the availability of the materials, nature /design of the classroom and the position of the OHP. However the following need to be adhered to;
147 Place the screen at the at the corner near the wall in front of the classroom to avoid the incoming reflection of the light.-In a special darkroom the screen can be placed at any position in front of the classroom to avoid the possibility of the teacher obscuring the screen from some learners.2. Tilt the screen if it is a fixed at an angle of 2 degree forward by mounting its topside forward of its base position or by hanging it forward from the top (if it is portable).
148 N. B. If you do not have an economic/commercial N.B. If you do not have an economic/commercial screen, you can use any white bed sheet or white painted wall.For the OHP put into account the following/Before Presentation)Make sure all switches are off.Uncoil the projector cable and tie it on leg of the table to avoid disturbance of the OHP and then connect the cable to the power point. If the power point is far from the OHP, look for an extension cable that will have to be covered by a wooden material, box or an insulator but not by a metal material that may damage the cable and in turn cause an electrical fault/accident.
149 Open the OHP head before switching on the projector to avoid overheating /damaging the mirror and mirror and to help to see the image immediately after switching on the OHP.Switch on starting with the main power before turning on the projector (why?)After switching on the OHP and the image is out of the screen, align (twist) thoroughly the OHP such that the image goes to the center of the screen.Focus sharply the image on the screen by using the focus knob. The image edge needs to be sharp. When you are contented that then image is adequately sharp, turn off.
150 N.BWhile waiting for the presentation switch off the projectorSetting up the OHP and this screen should be done before the presentation time.The idea of switching off and on now and then protects the lamp (bulb).When you are not using the medium, switch off and continue discussion.An electric material should be kept in a cool place in plastic material.In rewinding a cassette (for/audio) place the cassette in a longitudinal way with loaded side down to arid soldering of the tape.
151 2. OHP PRESENTATION / OPERATION TECHNIQUES This subtopic aims at formalization learners with basic procedures of operating an OHP but specifically enabling them to the operational functions of the buttons on an OHP and use of a variety of OHP presentation techniques.Given that presentation is a complex process, care is needed. However, OHP presenting techniques are the same all over the world. What differs is the presenter’s sitting arrangement
152 Positioning of the presenter The right-handed presenter should stand / sit on the left side of the OHP facing learners (audience) to allow him/her add any added information needed during the presentation or point at information requiring clarification.The left –handed presenter should stand/sit on the right hand side of the medium using his/her left hand to add or point at information that is needed to be visible to the class without turning the transparency or changing the sitting /standing position of the presenter.The projection across corners is better than forward as it will remove any possibilities that the learner will obscure the screen from some learners.
153 Presentation Techniques Revealed techniqueThis technique allows the presenter to project information in pieces, that is, some information or one diagram is given at a time .Place the transparency on the OHP glass platform/projection stage and then cover the unwanted information with a cardboard, hard paper or an opaque material (not another transparency).The unwanted information is that one you don’t want to reveal at that particular time as illustrated bellow.The advantage of this technique is that it helps to control students’ concentration on one point at a time because faster learners may be in line 4 or 5 when you are still discussing a point in line 2
154 ii. Overlay techniquesThis technique allows the presenter to project information written or more than 2 or 3 transparencies step by step especially in laboratory settings. In other words ,several transparencies are mounted together, one over the other so that during presentation information overlaps stage by stage to make one complete diagram.
155 N.B:Use sharp pointer (not a finger) in presentation when discussing/ pointing to a given information/point. The pointing should preferably be done to the OHP glass platform and in this case, a knitting needle or a sharp pencil would be a good pointer, Pointing to the screen is not recommended because;The screen materials are too delicate to be scratchedThe pointer may leave marks on the screen or cause a lot of dots on the screenThe presenter is required to face learners/audience not the screenThe pointer should not be hanged on the screen as it can obscure the viewers /learners
156 Some screens are placed high on walls you can’t reach Some screens are placed high on walls you can’t reach. They are too high to be touched / reached.3. PREPARATION OF MATERIALS FOR AN OHPIn this subtopic, concentration is put on how to prepare materials for OHP (e.g. transparencies and other accessories) that can make effective presentation in the classrooms.
157 TransparenciesTransparencies can be produced easily, quickly and cheaply by hands or by photocopier.With an aid of a felt/marker pen designer for an OHP, you can prepare a transparency. Find a hard but smooth surface e.g a top a table and on it place an unwritten transparency.Cover the transparency with a clean piece of paper to avoid any dirt spots from your hand on the transparency. Such smudges may make the pen slide where there are the dirt spots. Start writing whatever you like putting into consideration the following guideline.
158 Making the letter capital: the letter size be at least 5mm Making the letter capital: the letter size be at least 5mm.Thiscan make the words to be seen clearly.7 words are to be written in a single line and not more than 8 lines be made in a transparent sheetMain points be written on the transparency not notes. One transparency for 1 main topic/idea be used; the transparency be of an A4 size.Colors used be black, blue or green; the red, yellow and the orange be avoided for their brightness or inability of being seen from afar by learner sitting at the back.
159 NB:Transparencies could be heat-resistant (hence be used in a photocopier/computer printer) or non-heat resistant (hence can’t turn heat inside the photocopier). They could be found in rolls or in single sheets.If special transparencies aren’t available you can use card frames, pieces of glass, transparent materials and used x-ray films after boiling and washing them with soap after cutting them according to the size of a transparency.
160 Transparencies can also be prepared by machines e Transparencies can also be prepared by machines e. g a photocopier or a computer printer. The original work is carefully prepared by typing , printing or hand writing and then be photocopied on heat-resistant transparencies. It is easy to identify heat resistant.
161 4. STORAGE OF TRANSPARENCIES The intention of this subsection is to enable learners know how to store material for OHP without losing their quality for future use. Given that transparencies can be used more than once, they should be stored in a way that can be of longer use. The following steps can be made;For heat-resistant transparencies put them together before use and after use, separate them to avoid sticking/destroying the images. The separation can be made by placing a piece of paper between two transparencies.
162 Put the transparencies in a protective/plastic wallet/folder or special files to avoid being destroysMake sure the transparencies are numbered alphabetically or numerically to avoid confusing/mixing information/topics/ideas written.Keep the material (transparencies) in a cool place say in an air conditioned room below 20c servicing or simple maintenance of an OHPMore attention has to be given to the optical parts(parts that produce/allow light to pass e.g the lamp/bulb, glass plate , mirror and Fresnel lens so as to ensure efficient product/image. The following are some steps to be put into account.Clean the optical parts before or after use because dust during blackboard cleaning may reach and soil them
163 Clean the inner parts of the projector e Clean the inner parts of the projector e.g the glass plate Fresnel lens on the head of the mirror, the top cover and then test if it is operating.If light from the project lamp unexpectedly goes off due to blown up bulb, turn off the OHP and put out the project plug, open the project stage and using a soft material/handkerchief, hold the blown bulb formally and pull it out slowly. touching a hot OHP bulb with bare fingers may result into serious burning). Place a new bulb close the projector stage and plug the cable to the power supply and then continue with your presentation. Insert a video clip showing the process, a screen tilted forwardIf the lamp is operating but the fan is not, the technician to handle the matter
164 Use the marker pen to trace the lines on the tracing paper. Based on the Alberta University (1995), there are several useful rules to follow when developing overheads to support lecturing, teaching or presentation. These includeDon’t have too much information on each overhead (slide). Put not more than 8 lines to a page and 7 words per line. Avoid irrelevant informationUse a large font size (at least 20pt) that is easy to read
165 Don’t use too many overheads; University students don’t need everything to be written down for them Don’t read the entire contents of the overhead aloud; students should be able to read it finally by themselvesDon’t fill the overhead with rare/undefined acronyms.Avoid handwritten overhead; If possible type out the information.
166 FAMILIARIZATION WITH NEWLY-INCOMING TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION MODULE 4FAMILIARIZATION WITH NEWLY-INCOMING TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATIONINTRODUCTIONWith more inventions today, education has become highly electronic. There is a use of high-tech equipment like laptop computers, radio and television broadcasting, projectors, audio-visual media, e-learning/mobile learning and many others.Thus, education is highly driven by ICT.
167 4. 1. Displaying and demonstrating some 4.1 Displaying and demonstrating some selected modern electronic equipment in EducationHere are some newly electronic equipment in Education.ComputerProjector,Educational Radio and Television Broadcasting.External Hard Disk,Digital Video Disk (DVD),Visual Compact Disk (VCD),Compact Disk (CD),E-Learning/Mobile LearningFlash DiskMemory Card
168 COMPUTERA computer is a multimedia composed of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), a monitor, a key board and a mouse.A computer performs many functions in teaching and learning like, writing, drawing, e.t.c.Since 1940’s when the simplest computer came into being, to date, computers have passed at least into five stages of development.
169 To day, there are about five types of computers Main-framed Computer,Mini-computer,Micro-Computer,Laptop Computer,Super-computer/Multiprocessor.
170 In education industry, the computer can help the teacher to perform the following functions; Helps in management and AdministrationKeep students’ recordsInvestor Lists,Staff establishment,School accounts,School almanac,Management of learning e.t.c
172 Educational ResearchA source of different search engines, e.g yahoo, Google, Mozilla, etc,Stores different applications for research e.g statistical packages i.e SPSS, e.t.cGraphs,Data bases,Computations e.t.c
173 Used as a source of library/moving library Storing literatures,Research reports,Internet facilities,Resource centre for educational materials e.g the e-books.
174 2. PROJECTOR/POWER POINT PRESENTATION A projector is an electronic device that projects the slides, films, pictures e.t.cThe power point is one of the most empowering computer-based programs that is surely replacing the traditional “talk and chalk” method.It helps the teacher to make notes/sketches for a class.Apart from enabling learners to locate a Power point on a computer, its mastery can equip a student teacher with basic skills for using the facility in his/her teaching career.
175 Effective presentation using a power point To start, turn on your computer to the desktop environment.Locate PowerPoint on the computers desktop or under the program folder.To create a PowerPoint master template, select “Blank presentation” from the “New presentation” window.Choose instructions and start entering your date/text to the frame provided by typing directly into slide by slide, cutting and pasting chunks of text from a word document into the outline view.
176 Choose a name and save your first slide to insert a new frame, click on insert menu. Keep entering your data by selecting insert new slide every time you finish one slide.
177 Inserting background color to a slide, Do the following. Select “Custom Background” from the “Format” menu.Click the down arrow in the “Background” Fill area on the “Custom Background” window. Then select the desired color.Click the down arrow in the “Background” fill area on the “Custom background” Click ok.Click “Apply to All to make the changes to all sides in the presentation.You can also choose a “Textured Fill” as a background by Selecting “Custom Background” from the “Format” menu.
178 Clicking the down arrow in the Background fill area on the “Custom Background” window Selecting “Textured Fill” to go to “Textured Fill” window.Clicking the down arrow in the “Textured fill” area in the Textured Fill window and selecting the desired textured fill and clicking ok.Click Apply to All
179 Inserting a picture “Do the following” Select “Custom Background” from the “Format” menuClick the down arrow in the Background fill area on the Custom Background window.Select “Insert Picture” to go to the Insert picture windowNavigate to the location of the desired pictureClick the picture to be used and click ok.Click “Apply to all” to make the changes to all slides in the presentation. You may also choose a standard/custom text colour scheme for your presentation by doing the following.
180 vii. Select “Color scheme” from the “Format” menu that best suits your background keeping in mind that there must be a strong contract between Background color, text and graphics used. Experiment with the color scheme to achieve the best color effects.
181 Adding graphicsTo do this, select “Slide view” from the “View” menu. Use the tools provided to create graphics-Importing graphics- Importing graphics into power point. If you want to insert graphics from clip art or scanned pictures to your power point,Select “Slide view” from the “View” menuSelect “Clip Art” from the “Insert” menuSelect categories of the clip art.Click the clip art usedClick insert and resize the graphic to the desired dimension.
182 Importing pictures from scanned files Select “Slide view” from the “view” menuSelect “pictures” from the “Insert” menu.Navigate the folder containing the pictureSelect the pictureClick “Insert” and then resize the graphic to the desired dimension and position.Importing video clipsSelect “Slide view from the “View” menuSelect “Movie” from the “Insert” menuNavigate the folder where is the movie is stored.Select the file and click OK
183 Adding visual transition to make the presentation attractive Select “Build slide text” from the “Tools” MenuSelect “Other”Select the Build and options and effects and then click ok. You will need to do this for each slide that contains text that you want the build effect on or you can select“Random Transition” or select one and “Apply to All”
184 Functions/roles of a projector in teaching and Learning Qn: With examples, discuss the functions of a projector in teaching and learning.
185 3. Radio and Television Broadcasting School Broadcasting is the process where the subject teacher (with exceptional teaching skills and expertise), careful selects and transmits lessons through the radio or television to reach many learners.With this mode the intended knowledge is delivered to most targeted learners in the shortest possible time employing few subject experts. The teaching resources e.g. time table, lesson booklets and manuals are distributed in advance to schools.
186 Advantages of Radio Broadcasting The coverage is wide as a radio transmits information across distances regardless of literacy level and it is immediate.The message from the resource person, consultants and experts can greatly contribute to the content transmitted.It is authentic in that many people believe in it and hardly doubt the message broadcasted.For mass education, it creates public awareness, warning e.t.c
187 Television Telecasting. (Instructional Television) This is a transmission of still and moving pictures and sound over a distance by means of electrical wave through the air.With the advent of a television tech (since the 1950s), television broadcasting has been found superior to radio broadcasting because of the former’s capability to transmit sound and image.
188 Advantages of Television Broadcasting One expert teacher can save many target students at once.Learners can see and hearArouses learners interestsIt is suitable for mass educationA standard understanding of the intended knowledge across school is realized e.g. a standard punctuation of a word height/hait vs /heit is realized.It brings the distant world to the classroomA solution to limited number of experts over a fast growing school population and educational seekers is minimized.
189 It is an authentic course of information transmission Motivation to teachers and learners. To subject teachers it is a form of in service training i.e. learning of new things e.g. new and interesting delivery approaches.To learners it is interesting, there is a change from the physical teacher who may not be as good as imagined personality of an invisible teacher.
190 Digital Video Disk (DVD) Video and DVDs can be useful ways of reinforcing on filing in details on the subject being taught.They can be shown to the class as substitutes for a lecture/presentation and be used exactly the same way with the learners are free to take notes as they choose. Interactively, the media can be used in conjunction with exercise.
191 Functions/Roles/Advantages of DVD Allow instant replay after recordingMoving images have obvious advantages over the visual media portraying concepts.Operations in which movements are critical can be shown more effectively by means of motionVisual recording allow learners to observe a phenomenon that might be dangerous to view it directly e.g. sun eclipse, warfare or volcanic eruptionBecause of their great potentiality for emotional impact, video can be useful in showing personal and social attitude.A large amount of content and variety of information are made available to the learners.
192 e-Learning/Mobile Learning e-Learning can be defined as “the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance , Marc Rosenberg (2001).The definition has currently expanded to include wireless as well as internet technologies.In e-Learning environments learners interact with learning materials, their instructors and other learners from various locations and often at various times using network technologies. So by its nature, e-learning offers significant flexibility as to when and how learning occurs.
193 Advantages of e-learning consistency of content,ease of customization, learner control, and reduction or elimination of travel costs to attend learning events.E-learning can reach an unlimited number or people virtually simultaneously… Everyone gets the same content, presented the same way. Yet the programs can also be customized for different learning needs or different groups of people.”Because of its digital nature, eLearning can be cost and time-effectively customized to individuals or small groups.
194 Video Compact Disk (VCD) This is a CD that contains moving pictures and sound.In order to store video information on a CD in a practical fashion, the data must be compressed for storage and then decompressed for replay in real time.
195 Differences between a VCD and DVD Subtitles are found on many VCDs but cannot be removed, unlike DVDs.VCDs are often bilingual unlike the DVD which is limited to 2 languages, due to the fact that there is only two audio channels (left and right).VCD's most noticeable disadvantage compared to DVD is image quality, due both to the more aggressive compression necessary to fit video into such a small capacity as well as the compression method used.Additionally, VCDs are available only in stereo, while DVDs are capable of six channels of discrete surround sound.
196 Compact Disk (CD)One new way to cost-effectively distribute educational materials is through the use of CD-ROM At home, CDs have tended to replace the tape cartridge although the latter is still widely used in cars and portable playback devices.Initially, CDs were read-only, but newer technology allows users to record as well. CDs will probably continue to be popular for music recording and playback.
197 USB (Universal Serial Bus)Flash Drive A storage Device of which the content can easily be erased/flashed.Because USB drives contain no moving parts, they are more durable than hard drives, and it is this durability, combined with their very small size that makes them easy to carry around.USB drives also provide transfer speeds and memory capacity that equal or surpass those of other storage devices. This enables users to move data around more quickly and to store a large number of media files, computer files, and even programs on USB drives. USB flash drives do this all while consuming less power than standard hard-disk drives.
198 USB drives can be connected to essentially any type of computer USB drives can be connected to essentially any type of computer. As a result, USB drives offer many advantages not only to individual buyers but also to business owners, who often use these devices for promotional purposes9. External Hard Disk- Qn: what is the external hard disk?- what are the functions of this device in teaching and learning?10. Memory Card- Qn: what is the memory card?