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MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 29th, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 29th, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 29th, 2013

2 4–2 Making Job Specifications (Contd.)  Specifications Based on Judgment –Educated guesses (by looking at the job description) –By looking at standard job specifications of similar jobs on the Internet (O*Net, SOC etc.)  Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis –Statistically finding out if the behaviour (or trait) in question has any effect on actual job performance (for example, by correlation analysis)

3 Job Analysis is Changing  Previously, Jobs referred to a “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay”  Writers of the past used to emphasize the advantage of being highly specialized, (i.e. not doing a lot of things, but doing one thing very very well, usually by doing it over and over again)  This resulted in fixed, boring and repetitive jobs (even if they were done well)  But nowadays, the focus has shifted to creating more diverse, interesting jobs which are not that fixed or monotonous  This is what we call Dejobbing © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–3

4 Job Analysis is Changing  Dejobbing is broadening the duties and responsibilities of a job, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to the job description  In other words, it is expanding the job  Why is this happening?  For a lot of reasons. Externally, rapid product and technological change (i.e. shorter product life-cycles), increased global competition, deregulation (privatization), demographic changes, and a shift to a service economy  All this has increased the need for firms to be more responsive, flexible and competitive (internally) in order to survive in the business environment  Thus, narrowly defined jobs are a weakness in this environment, and firms need employees who can “do anything” 4–4

5 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–5 Why Managers Are Dejobbing Their Companies  Dejobbing –Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs –Encouraging employee initiative. (to do more)  Internal factors leading to dejobbing –Flatter organizations –Work teams  External factors leading to dejobbing. –Rapid product and technological change –Global competition –Deregulation, –Political instability, –Demographic changes –Rise of a service economy.

6 Job Analysis is Changing  Therefore, firms have to use some specific internal techniques to survive in this environment –1. Use of a Flatter Organization Structure A flat organization is one which has less management layers. The advantage of a flat organization is that it can respond more quickly to changes in the environment, as opposed to a tall organization which has many layers and takes a long while for information to pass through. Another advantage is that top management is more in touch with customers, because the no. of layers is less. So, they can better react to customer needs and wants. Lastly, there is less bureaucracy and red tape, so decision-making is faster. Therefore, to make a flat organization, we have to reduce the no. of layers (or positions). As a result, each employee has more duty and responsibility. Therefore, we have…….Dejobbing! 4–6

7 Job Analysis is Changing 2. More Self-managed Work Teams Nowadays, a lot of companies organize work around self- managed work teams, rather than individual work. For example, there are teams which manage the factory work, marketing, or cost control by themselves (with little supervision). Working in teams encourages productivity, and improves morale, as employees can jointly solve a problem or situation (two heads are better than one) Therefore, to work in such a team, one needs to be flexible and multi-talented. (if you are not, you will become so) As a result, an employee needs to be able to do much more than his personal job description says… we have Dejobbing! 4–7

8 Job Analysis is Changing Reengineering is the use of self-managed work teams to increase performance in areas such as cost, quality, service and speed. Since businesses are reengineering their processes nowadays, naturally dejobbing is taking place. Some key terms of Dejobbing:- 1. Job Enlargement 2. Job Rotation 3. Job Enrichment 4–8

9 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 1.Job Enlargement Job enlargement means giving workers more work of the same type, thus increasing the no. of activities they perform. Ex- A carpenter who makes chairs, will now also make tables. So, job enlargement involves horizontal expansion of the job, not vertical 4–9

10 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 2. Job Enrichment Job enrichment means giving workers freedom to do their jobs so that they experience a feeling of accomplishment, growth and recognition. Ex- The carpenter who makes tables, will now also be allowed to put the finishing, such as paint, polish etc. As a result, he can see what his final product looks like, and therefore give him some satisfaction So, Job enrichment involves vertical expansion of the job, i.e. new activities to do. (as well as making the job more fun, engaging, and interesting to do). 4–10

11 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 3. Job Rotation Job Rotation involves moving workers from one job to another (ex- from department to department) to broaden his experience, scope and ability. It also improves team-working skills as the person has to learn to work with different colleagues in each dept. Job rotation can identify a person’s strengths, as well as his weaknesses, as he is moving across a lot of departments. It is usually used to prepare a person for a leadership role in the company (in the future) Ex- The MTO (Management Trainee) program of different companies. Here, the employee works in different departments, gathers experience, and is finally put in a strategic role in the organization

12 Competency-Based Job Analysis  Competency-based job analysis happened as a result of dejobbing…..i.e. broadening of the duties and responsibilities of a job  Since jobs are getting broader, the standard job description is no longer an accurate description of the job (as employees continuously have to learn new skills and switch roles)  In such a situation, no specific duties and responsibilities are required for the job, but a general set of skills and abilities are required (such as problem-solving ability, adjusting ability and leadership ability)  This is called a competency-based job analysis, and results in the creation of a competency-based job description 4–12

13 Competency-Based Job Description Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.

14 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–14 Competency-Based Job Analysis  Competencies –Required KSA’s (Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes) to do a job properly –Also, different generalized behaviours required to do the job  Competency-based job analysis –Describes a job in terms of the competencies, or skills required to do that job (not the specific duties and responsibilities required to do the job)

15 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–15 Why Use Competency Analysis?  General Skills are more flexible –Fixed duties and responsibilities of an employee don’t encourage learning or moving across departments  Maintain a strategic focus –General competencies are more easily matched with the firm’s long term strategic plans.  Measuring performance –Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.

16 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–16 Performance Management  Performance management –Managing all elements of the organizational process that affect how well employees perform.  Types of competencies –General competencies reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning. –Leadership competencies leadership, strategic thinking, and teaching others. –Technical competencies specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs and/or occupations.

17 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–17 Background Data for Examples Figure 4–10 Example of Job Title: Customer Service Clerk Example of Job Summary: Answers inquiries and gives directions to customers, authorizes cashing of customers’ checks, records and returns lost charge cards, sorts and reviews new credit applications, works at customer service desk in department store. Example of One Job Duty: Authorizes cashing of checks: authorizes cashing of personal or payroll checks (up to a specified amount) by customers desiring to make payment by check. Requests identification—such as driver’s license—from customers and examines check to verify date, amount, signature, and endorsement. Initials check and sends customer to cashier.

18 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–18 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World  Job –Generally defined as “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay.”

19 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–19 From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs  Job enlargement –Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.  Job enrichment –Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.

20 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–20 From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs (cont’d)  Job rotation –Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role with the company –Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance.

21 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–21

22 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–22

23 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–23

24 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–24 HR Scorecard for Hotel Paris International Corporation* Figure 4–11 Note: *(An abbreviated example showing selected HR practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the competitive strategy,“ To use superior guest services to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus boost revenues and profitability”)

25 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–25 Key Terms job analysis job description job specifications organization chart process chart diary/log position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) job analysis procedure functional job analysis Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) job enlargement job rotation job enrichment dejobbing boundaryless organization reengineering competencies competency-based job analysis performance management

26 Thank You!

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