Presentation on theme: "Case studies about multiple use of water from Colombia Cinara Institute – Universidad del Valle June 12 th 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Case studies about multiple use of water from Colombia Cinara Institute – Universidad del Valle June 12 th 2006
MUS Project Approach Various community-level case studies –Undergraduate students –Post graduate students –CINARA researchers Focussing on a range of topics, including technology, livelihoods, water use and financial aspects Analysis at household and water supply system level
MUS Project Case studies location La Palma – Tres Puertas water supply system (Restrepo) Cajamarca and San Isidro water supply systems (Roldanillo) Los Sainos microcatchment (El Dovio) Water supply systems in settlemets located at El Chocho microcatchment: La Castilla, Montebello, Golondrinas, Campoalegre (Cali) Suramérica Colombia Valle del Cauca SettlementPopulation (inh) Rainfall (mm/year) Los Sainos290 Cajamarca and San Isidro La Palma – Tres Puertas La Castilla Montebello Golondrinas Campoalegre
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL ANALYSIS
MUS Project Households with agricultural activities No 27% Si 73% Livelihoods (I) La Palma – Tres Puertas Golondrinas Montebello Cajamarca La Palma – Tres Puertas (Colombian goverment, 2005)
MUS Project Livelihoods (II)
MUS Project Livelihoods (III) Distribution of the number of animals per household
MUS Project Livelihoods (IV)
MUS Project Livelihoods (V)
MUS Project What does the law say? There are different categories of users (Res / 2000, RAS): –Domestic –Commercial –Industrial –Institutional –Public But, where does small-scale productive use fit in?
MUS Project Sources of Water Multiple uses NOT Multiple sources
MUS Project The sources for water supply systems are groundwater and surface water. Just in exceptional cases rainwater or seawater could be used. (Res de 2000, RAS) Rainwater could be used when there are no other sources. It is necessary to ensure sufficient quantity of water according the complexity level of the system (Res de 2000, RAS) What does the law say?
MUS Project Water consumption The average water consumption for all uses over all cases 213 lpcd
MUS Project Water consumption (II) UseMínProm.Máx. Toilet91320 Washing dishes41117 Cooking and drinking2413 Taking shower71215 Washing hands and teeth026 Washing clothes Cleaning house2411 Total Water for domestic use (Los Sainos) (lpcd) Just around 6 lpcd need to ensure drinking water quality
MUS Project What does the law say? The quantity of water necessary to satisfy all basic needs of one person is (Res. 1096/2000, RAS): 100 – 150 lpcd (< 2500 inh.) 120 – 175 lpcd (2500 – inh.) In places with population higher than inhabitants water can be used for any use and there is no maximum water allocation
MUS Project Those are causes to cancel the water service (Dec. 302 de 2000 ): Use of the service for an activity which is not considered in the contract with the service provider Make connections between pipes of the water supply system with other sources of water What does the law say?
SYSTEM LEVEL ANALYSIS
MUS Project Water Supply Systems La Castilla CajamarcaMontebello La Palma – Tres Puertas
MUS Project Quantity and Continuity Water supply systemUsersQuantity (lpcd) Continuity (%) Villa del Rosario Las Palmas Cajamarca *100 La Palma - Tres Puertas Golondrinas Campoalegre Montebello * Water supply system + Irrigation system
MUS Project Quality Water supply systempHColour (UPC) Turbidity (UNT) Alkalinity (mg/l) Faecal Coliforms (UFC/100ml) La Castilla6,8 1,1170 Golondrinas Montebello Campoalegre Las Palmas El Pinar Villa del Rosario Lomitas Cajamarca Los Sainos Act. 475/ < 15< 50 – 1000 Just 20% of the systems evaluated supply drinking water to people, although 60% of them have treatment plants or desinfection
MUS Project What does the law say? In places where multiple uses exist, the quality criteria for the water source are the most restrictive between the different standards for all the uses considered. (Act. 1594/1984) Water for human consumption has to attain quality criteria set by Act. 475 / 1998 (Res de 2000, RAS) Settlements less than inhabitants have to make two times a week test of: pH, color, odor, suspended solids, turbidity, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, total iron, hardness and free residual chlorine, when it is used for disinfection. (Act. 475/1998)
MUS Project Tariffs Water supply system Tariffs (US$/month/hh)Default rate (%) Villa del Rosario1.1High La Palma - Tres Puertas1.2High Golondrinas2.825 Montebello3.130 Campoalegre3.650 Las Palmas Cajamarca Systems which have higher and differential tariffs have smaller default rates
MUS Project Tariffs Tariff ($US/month/subs.) Households (%) Tariff ($US/month/subs.) Susbcriber (%) 1.814%6.02% 2.037%6.44% 2.61%8.61% 2.87%8.82% 3.010%9.01% 3.28%9.21% 4.42%9.62% 4.61%10.81% 4.82%11.02% 5.21%18.01% 5.61%22.01% Bills are delivered every three months, they recognize as default rate when people have not paid two bills, they considered this period reasonable for people who have their income from agricultural activities. The default rate in this system is 7%. Everybody consider as fair the water service tariff. Block tariff system in Cajamarca There are 22 different tariff levels, depending on: Homestead area Wealthy Livestock activities at homestead Having lakes at homestead
MUS Project What does the law say? Tariffs has to include a consumption charge, fixed charge, connection charge, reconnection charge and reinstallation charge. It is allowed to apply interests for default rate. (Law 142 / 1994)
MUS Project Conclusions and questions In Colombia existing legislation to design, manage and operate rural water supply systems, does not recognize the multiple water needs of rural people
MUS Project Conclusions and questions (II) The typical needs of water in a poor rural Colombian family could be: –Water for domestic uses –Water to irrigate during the dry season a cultivated area until m 2 –Water to keep 10 chicken, 2 pigs, 2 cows, 1 dog and 1 cat The amount required for all those uses would be around 250 lpcd – but less if water were used more efficiently Should we use this as the new parameter, or have a flexible range in design?
MUS Project Conclusions and questions (III) It is important to use multiple (alternative) sources for multiple uses in designing water systems However, many water professionals lack skills and understanding about this
MUS Project Conclusions and questions (IV) The water quality standards for water supply systems in rural areas need to be more flexible, based on the different uses at the household level Community level treatment often has poor performance Could household treatment be an alternative?
MUS Project Conclusions (V) Official tariff regulations are difficult to apply in rural areas There are successful systems, where community have set their tariff models by themselves, with excellent results in terms of financial sustainability How to use local criteria in tariff regulations?