2 The Evolution of the Roman Military Prior to Marius, Roman soldiersConsisted mostly of small landownersHad to supply their own arms and armorWere drafted from time to time when soldiers were neededWhat changedThe landowning class had dwindled by 107 BCThere were masses of unemployed in the RepublicRome was threatened by Germanic tribes
3 Marius Reforms the Military In 107 BC, Marius implemented many reforms out of necessityArmy was now all volunteerPaid well, including $$$, war loot, landServed enlistments of yearsService appealed to the unemployed masses in Rome
4 Pre-Marius: Maniple Structure Consisted of several rowsEach row armed differentlySoldiers supplied own weaponsRookies up front, veterans in the backRows based on class of citizen
5 Post-Marius: Cohort Structure MANIPLE structure replaced with COHORTEach cohort consisted of six identical centuries of 80 men10 cohorts made up a LEGIONCohort allowed greater flexibilitySoldiers armed identically, no longer supplied own weaponsState & generals standardized equipment
6 Maniple vs. Cohort COHORT MANIPLE LEGION (4800 men) Maniples of 120 men drawn from different social classes.Each maniple had three different linesEach line armed differentlyLEGION (4800 men)COHORT (480 men)CENTURY (80 men)All soldiers armed identically (excludes combined arms)
7 The Cohort System in Combat Long lines of maniple system replaced by a tiered, 3 cohort deep battle lineAllowed for quicker support and rotation of troops in battle
8 “Marius’ Mules” & Other Changes Soldiers now carried all their equipment with them, including weapons, armor, tools, food, tents, etc.Not as weighed down by slow, cumbersome baggage trainsAll Legions adopted the eagle as their standardRepresented Jupiter (Zeus)
9 Consequences of Marian Reforms ProsArmy became efficient and viableProvided opportunity to lower classesArmy not as divided by classConsGenerals gained influence with soldiersSoldiers became fiercely loyal to generalsGenerals split loot with them, equipped them, etc.Led to endless civil wars and the rise of the EmpireAbove: a general who benefitted from Marius’ reforms…his nephew J. Caesar!