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Presentation on theme: "THE MILITARY REFORMS OF MARIUS"— Presentation transcript:

107 BC

2 The Evolution of the Roman Military
Prior to Marius, Roman soldiers Consisted mostly of small landowners Had to supply their own arms and armor Were drafted from time to time when soldiers were needed What changed The landowning class had dwindled by 107 BC There were masses of unemployed in the Republic Rome was threatened by Germanic tribes

3 Marius Reforms the Military
In 107 BC, Marius implemented many reforms out of necessity Army was now all volunteer Paid well, including $$$, war loot, land Served enlistments of years Service appealed to the unemployed masses in Rome

4 Pre-Marius: Maniple Structure
Consisted of several rows Each row armed differently Soldiers supplied own weapons Rookies up front, veterans in the back Rows based on class of citizen

5 Post-Marius: Cohort Structure
MANIPLE structure replaced with COHORT Each cohort consisted of six identical centuries of 80 men 10 cohorts made up a LEGION Cohort allowed greater flexibility Soldiers armed identically, no longer supplied own weapons State & generals standardized equipment

6 Maniple vs. Cohort COHORT MANIPLE LEGION (4800 men)
Maniples of 120 men drawn from different social classes. Each maniple had three different lines Each line armed differently LEGION (4800 men) COHORT (480 men) CENTURY (80 men) All soldiers armed identically (excludes combined arms)

7 The Cohort System in Combat
Long lines of maniple system replaced by a tiered, 3 cohort deep battle line Allowed for quicker support and rotation of troops in battle

8 “Marius’ Mules” & Other Changes
Soldiers now carried all their equipment with them, including weapons, armor, tools, food, tents, etc. Not as weighed down by slow, cumbersome baggage trains All Legions adopted the eagle as their standard Represented Jupiter (Zeus)

9 Consequences of Marian Reforms
Pros Army became efficient and viable Provided opportunity to lower classes Army not as divided by class Cons Generals gained influence with soldiers Soldiers became fiercely loyal to generals Generals split loot with them, equipped them, etc. Led to endless civil wars and the rise of the Empire Above: a general who benefitted from Marius’ reforms…his nephew J. Caesar!



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