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IComp Ubiquitous Computing. M2M Wireless Communication Dr. P.C.Jain.

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Presentation on theme: "IComp Ubiquitous Computing. M2M Wireless Communication Dr. P.C.Jain."— Presentation transcript:

1 iComp Ubiquitous Computing

2 M2M Wireless Communication Dr. P.C.Jain

3 Outline Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Network M2M Communication Machine Type Communication M2M Applications C-DAC WSN Projects Conclusions

4 Introduction Current wireless technology is optimized for Human- to-Human communication (H2H) voice, SMS, Internet, and not for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication In M2M communication, objects can talk to each other without human intervention Today there is insufficient integration of real physical world with virtual world (computers, servers, etc) Today Human translates physical world information in to digital world information to use computers

5 Integration of Real World with Virtual World RFID maps real world into virtual world Sensor acts as a bridge between physical world and digital world

6 Computers have become smaller in size and cheaper due to VLSI and thus can be embedded into everyday objects, results in ‘smart things’ Connection between objects will be made through a sensor or a RFID tag embedded in to the object The objects could be cars, household appliances, toys, pencils, clothes etc. The new computing devices are equipped with different sensors to collect data from environment The technology trend is towards integration of tiny processors with sensors and wireless communication ability


8 Internet has revolutionized our lives. Internet has enabled people to connect and share information with other people and to say connected to the world A new era now has been created for everyday objects to communicate through Internet and is referred as Internet of Things (IoT) M2M is next stage in this revolution when connected people move to connected objects M2M concept is to network every thing. This will drive a new round of transformation for social function and living style M2M and IoT combined together will drastically modify the way our societies function at every level

9 Wireless Sensor Network Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a pre-requisite for M2 M communication WSN is collection of small randomly dispersed devices that provide the ability to monitor physical and environmental conditions WSN support low data rate, low power consumption, and are of small in size WSN node consists of sensors, micro-controller, transceiver, and independent power source (battery)

10 Sensor Node

11 Sensor nodes collects and transmit information about surrounding environment Sink or gateway collects information from group of sensor nodes and pass it to control system through Internet or Wireless WAN In control system, middleware collects and stores sensory data and pick out relative information, perform processing to make decision on situation, and forecast future situation

12 (Base Station) Multi-hop WSN

13 RFID RF Identification (RFID) determines location of sensor nodes or objects RFID tag is powered by an electromagnetic field generated by reader RFID reader reads information of RFID tag and passes it to host for analysis

14 RFID System

15 Sensor Node integrated with RFID Reader

16 Wireless Network Wireless network can be divided into 3 groups A) Near Field Communication (NFC): Covers very short distances (2-3m) Can work for RFID B) Wireless personal Area Network (WPAN): Covers short distances (20-70m) Bluetooth is used for wireless audio head-sets ZigBee is used for objects like wireless lamp, smart fridges, home appliances, etc.

17 Star-Mesh Topology

18 C) Wireless Wide Area network (WWAN): Covers large distances (10-35kms) Used for telemedicine, environment monitoring Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G standard and will play a central role in future of M2M communication Its high data rate (300Mbps) enables high value services 3GPP-LTE is designed basically for H2H communication The architecture need to be improved to accommodate M2M services without sacrificing the quality of H2H services Mobile Internet can provide nation wide coverage with mobility support

19 Broadband Network

20 StandardsWCDMAWCDMA3GHSDPAHSDPA3.5GLTELTE4GIMT-AIMT-A5G Deployment2003200620122015 Peak rate (bit/s) 384 k14 M100–320 M1 G Bandwidth (MHz) 552040–100 Tx antennas in a macro-cell 222–44–8 ParadigmReliabilityData ratePeak rateAverage rate Spatial processing Spatial diversity: circuit Spatial diversity: packet Spatial multiplexing (2–4) Spatial division (2–4) Comparison of 3G to 5G

21 M2M Communication There can be billions or trillions of everyday objects connected, each with only a small amount of data needed for transmission ( as in WSN) Reliable transmission (low BER, low latency) are critical Large overheads of LTE and Internet addresses may introduce considerable energy consumption in M2M devices

22 Machine Communication

23 M2M Communication

24 Generic M2M Solutions

25 M2M communication Network: It is based on collaborative efforts of many small WSN nodes WSN can not operate in complete isolation but needed to be connected to external network to monitor and control sensor networks It is quite reasonable to connect WSN with TCP/IP network to provide meaningful services for large number of Internet users Further Wireless WAN 3GPP-LTE will help nodes to be mobile All kinds of heterogeneous WSN and current IP based Internet should be integrated Gateway based approach is common solution to integrate sensor networks with an external networks

26 M2M System Architecture

27 Machine Type Communication: In ETSI, M2M is called Machine type communication (MTC) To enable M2M communication two network elements MTC Device (MTCD) and MTC Gateway (MTCG) has been introduced MTCG facilitate communication among many MTCDs and provide connection to backhaul to reach Internet MTCDs are connected directly to eNB cellular base station or indirectly through MTCG The eNB to MTCG is based on 3GPP-LTE specs, and MTCG and MTCDs communicate through WPAN IEEE802.15.4 specs

28 M2M and H2H communication are carried out in orthogonal channels In mixed M2M and H2H network there are 5 links: eNB to MTCD, eNB to User Equipment (UE) H2H, enB to MTCG, MTCG to MTCDs, and MTCD to MTCD eNB to MTCG link is assigned with orthogonal channel whereas all other links are directly associated with eNB to share the channel eNB first estimates total data rates of all MTCDs attached to the MTCG Then BW is allocated between eNB and MTCG accordingly

29 MTC Devices Link with eNB Base Station eNB: Evolved Node B

30 M2M with LTE (4G)

31 In IEEE standard M2M Area Network consists of large number of MTCDs as M2M nodes and MTCG as M2M gateway M2M devices make intelligent decision and transmit the sensory data packets using WPAN to the Gateway in single hop or multi-hop pattern. MTCG collects data and manage intelligently the packets and forward data to the remote back-end server using Wireless WAN via 3G/4G or wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) This provides cost effective and reliable channels for transmitting the sensory data packets

32 M2M Communication IEEE Standard

33 M2M Network Architecture

34 The system automatically switches between, 3G/4G, WLAN when quality of reception changes called ‘seamless vertical handover’ M2M communication explore key functions like ID (who are you?), Location (Where are you?) and Monitoring (What are you doing?) ID determines identity of a person or an object using RFID

35 Location determines location of object. It can be realized using GPS with the help of signals from network of satellites. Cellular mobile techniques can also be used for localization by measuring field strength of more than two base stations. If network topology is known the position can be estimated Monitoring displays information about past or present state of physical goods and their environment. Information can be derived from sensors

36 36 M2M Applications

37 1. Fleet Management: It is a remote monitoring of a vehicle fleet Black box in vehicle collects information of a location (using GPS), vehicle speed, vehicle maintenance data, etc and send periodically to Auto management server at HQ via 3G/4G communication link If black box fails to communicate, it stores and send information back when black box senses the communication link again When vehicle reaches destination the trip information (driving time, distance, petrol usage) will then be transmitted to Auto management server and customer account is automatically charged

38 2. Vending Machine: One can buy soft drinks, flowers, etc from vending machine in self service manner Once the vending machine detects the item in out- of-stock, it sends message to order management server through 3G/4G communication link which further send information to vendor The vendor re-stocks the vending machine Vending machine stores daily sales data in internal database and sends information to vendor Vendor will know which product has been sold and the total daily revenue

39 3. Smart Metering: Monitors and controls utilities (electricity, gas, water) consumption Smart meters collects utility consumption in the house and inform metering server periodically located at Utility company Smart meter is equipped with WPAN module. It communicates with home appliances using ZigBee network User can monitor electricity consumption in his house by login the portal of utility company. The user can see consumption and cost data transmitted by a metering server

40 Smart Metering

41 Global Utility Meters

42 Smart Metering

43 Smart Grid

44 Smart meter collect power consumption and demand status from home appliances Control center gets information from smart metes about power consumption and demand from houses. This data is used to optimize the electricity generation and/or distribution Control center establishes a contract with the power generation periodically to buy power supply according to the power consumption If estimated power is larger than actual power consumption the supplied power is wasted, and if lesser than actual power consumption then additional power required charges will be at higher cost


46 4. Surveillance Video: It can be used for home security, healthcare monitoring, outdoor security Wireless camera is equipped with 3G/4G module, transmits wireless video to a server. It allows for remote observation of objects For home surveillance, video camera is installed in home environment It is also equipped with motion sensor that can sense an object’s movement. Camera is ON when it detects object

47 The broadband connection can promise wider BW to transmit high quality video Video can be transmitted in real time using 3G/4G broadband connection Video is stored in server of home security Company Home owner can observe home environment in his office or away in his laptop or mobile phone by login Server forwards video to owner and adopt variable encoding rate based on congestion in broadband network

48 Video Surveillance

49 User Scenario Resolution & Frame Rate Example Data Rates Mobile Content 176x144, 10- 15 fps 50-60 Kbps Internet/Stand ard Definition 640x480, 24 fps 1-2 Mbps High Definition1280x720, 24p5-6 Mbps Full High Definition 1920x1080, 24p 7-8 Mbps Video Bit Rates

50 5. Remote Patient Diagnosis: Patient monitoring during en-route to the hospital for emergency treatment Ambulance is equipped with 3G/4G enabled bio- sensors measure ECG, BP, blood sugar, etc while Ambulance is moving towards hospital Bio-sensor transmits data to the medical server located in the hospital The patient medical data is sent to relevant Doctor for immediate treatment arrangements Dr. prepares emergency treatment according to patient medical status With this when patient arrives hospital Dr. start treatment without any delay Medical servers stores patient’s medical information which can be used for future treatment

51 6. Traffic Information: Bus management system (BMS) and Bus information system (BIS) provides real time arrival information of buses at each bus stop BMS/BIS terminal is equipped with 3G/4G module in each bus along with GPS module BMS/BIS terminal sends GPS coordinates to BMS/BIS server located at Bus company BMS/BIS server sends estimated arrival time of bus to bus-stop which is displayed for the passenger information

52 Other Applications: By adding localization feature, integrating GPS module, using short range radio (WPAN), RFID tag and reader functionality to the cellular phone, it becomes base station or control center for various devices and smart things Mobile phone will become user friendly device for convergence of smart real space and electronic cyber space

53 53 (M2M Devices )

54 Current M2M Players AT&T: Launched M2M developer kit for emerging devices organization Nokia: M2M Gateway Vodafone: M2M platform T-Mobile: German company to develop M2M solutions for BMW car Telenor: Provides M2M solution

55 C-DAC WSN Projects Provides an overview of following projects carried out in Ubiquitous Computing group 1. Real Time Monitoring of Harmful Gases 2. Acoustic Eavesdropping Devices 3. Health monitoring of Environment Sensitive Objects in Transit

56 Real Time Monitoring of Harmful Gases: The project is sponsored by DIT in collaboration with Delhi University (DU) who is developing sensors for harmful gases like LPG and CNG, and C-DAC develops WSN system using DU sensors for monitoring of harmful gases This system will be useful for Apartments, houses, gas exploration industries, mines, environmental pollution, etc. This system will prevent accidents due to leakage of gases

57 The system will sense presence of trace-level concentration of gas to generate alarm if it is above acceptable (e.g. 10% LEL for GAIL) limits The system developed is a network of wireless sensor nodes, receiving unit, and control system The system will be tested initially in apartments where sensor node is deployed in each kitchen Each node will communicate with neighbor node using ZigBee mesh network The receiving unit or sink will be connected to central control station to receive RF packets from nodes The central control station will analyze the RF packets to take corrective actions

58 The system will also monitor the health of entire network and provide information of failed nodes (due to low battery charge) so that maintenance staff can take corrective action (to replace the battery) The monitoring station will be setup using laptop high-end PC along with large screen display and printer The speakers will be wired for alarm in guard room, gates, etc. The development includes hardware and software of sensor nodes, and the control software and GUI for control station

59 Acoustic Eavesdropping Devices (AED): AED system sponsored by NPOL will monitor and mitigate unauthorized activities in the forest area AED consists of Wireless acoustic sensor node (WASN), Master wireless senor node (MWSN) as sink node, and vehicle mounted control station The control station does on-line analysis on the data packets received from MWSN for providing alarm/instructions to the paramilitary forces The control station also communicate to handheld units used by security personals in the field in 8- 10kms range The master control display in the vehicle provides status of nodes along with their location and details of acoustic signals collected by them

60 Health monitoring of Environment Sensitive Objects in Transit The project is sponsored by DIT Number of environment parameters such as temperature, humidity, vibration, light intensity, radiation, etc affects quality of various valuable items like food, dairy products, life saving medicines, vegetables, blood packets during transit when items moved from one destination to another and poorly maintained To protect such items it is necessary to constantly monitor valuable items and generate alarm to take corrective measures to protect items for getting damaged

61 There is a need to develop a low cost electronic device which continuously monitor and log the environmental parameters. When item reaches at remote destination the logged data can be analyzed to confirm the quality and condition of valuable items Customization needs features like accuracy of physical items, time interval, and time duration to monitor the items

62 Conclusions Combining everyday objects with identification, localization, and communication technologies will have a significant impact on private life of millions of people Millions of smart objects communicating with each other, the data traffic will easily overtake voice traffic M2M communication will allow automation in laborious routine activities, such as stock inventory, repeat orders, cash transaction, etc.

63 M2M will allow higher margins and lower sales prices Multiple devices from multiple vendors with different technological capabilities equipped with varying communication technologies must cooperate in an ever changing environment The challenge is low cost connectivity and management of billions of objects The 3G/4G wireless technologies will play a central role in the future of M2M The above trend will influence way of life in few years Market is expected to increase from $65 million in 2009 to $133 million in 2014 as iSupply 2009

64 Intelligent home appliances in smart home will minimize energy use and cost Connected cars react in real time to prevent accidents Body Area Network track vital signs and trigger emergency response when life is at risk This is a beginning of a development of M2M communication using 3G/4G and there are number of issues still remains open for further investigation


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