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Presentation on theme: "BIODIVETRSITY: A RESOURCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS Seminar for Postgraduate students, Wangari Maathai Institute, 23."— Presentation transcript:


2 BIODIVETRSITY: A RESOURCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS Seminar for Postgraduate students, Wangari Maathai Institute, 23 rd September 2015 By Dr. Dan Kiambi, ABCIC

3 Biodiversity which is the totality of genes, species and ecosystems Humanity derives most of its food, many medicines and industrial products from both wild and domesticated components of biodiversity However, the reduction of this biodiversity has been an inevitable consequence of human development BIODIVERTSITY

4 BIODIVERSITY  Biodiversity defined “ The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems (CBD)” It is considered at three levels: a.Genetic diversity: variation in genes enabling organisms to evolve and adapt to new conditions a.Species diversity: the number, kind and distribution of species within an ecosystem a. Ecosystem diversity: the variety of habitats and communities of different species that interact in a complex web of interdependent relationships

5 Management of biodiversity Maintaining the right balance between conservation and sustainable use

6 Major ecosystem types in Kenya

7  Kenya has 6,506 higher plants, 359 mammals, 344 breeding birds, 261 reptile; 63 amphibians and 314 fish species (WRI, 2003)  The diversity of species and their ecosystems play a significant role in Kenya’s economy, peoples’ livelihoods and human well-being – Ecosystem resilience – Food provision (wild food plants and animals) – Watershed protection and energy resources – Diverse environmental goods and services (pollination services, air purification etc) Value of biodiversity

8  Human survival may depend upon reversing the accelerating threat to species diversity  When a species vanishes, we lose – Access to the survival strategies encoded in its genes through millions of years of it existence – The opportunity to understand those strategies, which may hold absolutely essential options for our own future survival as a species – We lose emotionally; we loose the unique beauty and the unique spirit, socio-cultural and aesthetic values associated with that life form Value of biodiversity

9  Major food crops, maize, beans, rice, wheat and potatoes etc, depend on genetic material to remain productive and healthy  Breeders and farmers rely on genetic diversity of crops and livestock to increase yields and respond to environmental changes  Plant breeding using wild genetic stock and other sources, account for half the gains in agricultural yields Biodiversity is essential for ensuring food security

10  Wild relatives of crops and animals are important sources of genes for development of improved crops and animal breeds  Earth's oceans, lakes and rivers contain fish which is the single largest source of animal protein in the world

11  79% of top-selling 150 prescription drugs in US originate from biodiversity  Many synthetic drugs, including aspirin were first discovered in wild plants and animals  There are roughly numerous pure chemical substances that are extracted from 90 species of higher plants that are used in pharmaceuticals Biodiversity safeguards human health

12  Traditional medicine 80% of people in developing countries relies on species of wild and cultivated plants for their primary health care Only 2% of the 250,000 described species of vascular plants have been screened for chemical compounds

13  Provides recreational opportunities and aesthetic value  Saltwater recreational fishing in the U.S. generates more than $15 billion annually and provides over 200,000 full-time jobs  Tourism in Kenya amounted to $400 million  The economic value of viewing elephants alone totaled $25 million in 1989  Large economic revenues reflect the high value people place on recreation involving biodiversity Biodiversity provides recreational opportunities


15 Nature-based enterprises  There is a high potential for entrepreneurship and employment through nature-based enterprises  These are business ventures that can be exploited to support biodiversity utilization, conservation and equitable benefit sharing from derived resources  Expanding nature-based enterprises can increase income for the Kenya’s rural poor  This approach, as outlined in the latest World Resources Report 2008, can also enhance the rural poor’s resilience to social and environmental threats such as climate change

16 Nature-based enterprises  The global, natural products industry, including the key sub-sectors of – Food and beverages – Cosmetics – Herbal medicines – Pharmaceuticals  Currently valued at US$65 billion per annum and is booming with a 15–20 percent annual growth rate in the last few years (Keynote, 2005)

17 Nature-based enterprises  Commercial nurseries Tree nurseries Flower nurseries Small scale Large scale Individual Groups (youth or women)

18 Nature-based enterprises  Bee keeping – Big market for honey  Bamboo products

19 Nature-based enterprises  Silk farming  Butterfly farming

20 Nature-based enterprises  Baobab and tamarind  Aloe  Medicinal plants

21 Nature-based enterprises Biodiesel Bio-fertilizers Pesticides

22 CONCEPTUAL VIEW OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES Plant genetic resources Wild relatives of crops Wild species e.g wild food plants Landraces /farmer varieties Obsolete cultivars Modern cultivars BIODIVERSITY

23 PGR economic value ◆ Genetic diversity is the basis for stable agricultural productive systems ◆ Cushions farmers against environmental risks ◆ Basis for plant breeding and crop selection ◆ Important raw material for biotechnology

24  Single Ethiopian barley plant happened to have the one gene that now protects California’s US$160 million annual barley crop from yellow dwarf virus  A gene (Xa-21) for bacterial resistance has been transferred from O. longistaminata into rice conferring resistance to six races of bacterial blight in Philippines  Tanzania in 1988, the value of all the wild plant resources to rural communities for subsistence consumption or sale was more than US$120 million, about 8% of the GDP  In 1995 South Africa made US $ 1 million from the overseas sales of a wild species of Aloe and over 2000 people are employed as aloe tapers – national market for medicinal plants is US $128 annually PGR economic value

25 Cucurbitaceae  Widely distributed in Africa  Nutritional quality includes micronutrients, vitamins A, C and E, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, iron, oil, proteins and carotenoids Ricinodendrum rautenenii ( sheanut butter tree)  Found in Southern and Eastern Africa  Nutritional value includes edible fruits with 39% sucrose, 9% protein several minerals e.g potassium, vitamins B and C; kernel has 57% oil, could be used in manufacture of cooking oil and paints PGR economic value: nutrition and health

26 The earth’s biological diversity is crucial to the continued vitality of agriculture, medicine and perhaps even to the life on earth’s itself. Yet, human activities are pushing many thousands of plant and animal species into extinction. Two of any three species is estimated to be in decline Threats to biodiversity

27 The major threats facing biodiversity are :  Over-exploitation of both plants and animals e.g. hunting of elephants and rhinos)  Pollution of rivers (e.g case of Nairobi river)  Climate change (the GHGs effect and destruction of the ozone layer)  Invasive species (displacement of native species) Prosopis juliflora, nile perch

28 Threats to biodiversity  Destruction of natural habitats  Deforestation  Overgrazing  Replacement of traditional varieties with HYVs  Natural disasters  Civil unrest and instability  Erosion of culture and indigenous knowledge

29 Threat factor identified from protected area officersNumber of protected areas where the threat factor exist Illegal killing of wildlife for their bush meat96 Human–wildlife conflicts.82 Large mammal poaching for international trade 80 Human encroachment72 Loss, conversion and degradation of wildlife migration and dispersal corridors important 70 Over-exploitation of natural resources (water, plant resources and minerals) 46 Agricultural expansion and other incompatible land use changes to biodiversity requirements. 36 Pollutants from external sources of a protected area that harm biodiversity directly or indirectly. 26 Negative tourism impacts to the welfare of biodiversity and their habitats. 20 Fencing entirely or in part of a protected area and their interference in wildlife movements 10

30  Human driven climate change is now widely acknowledge to be a reality with impacts discernible for a large number of sectors  One of the most vulnerable sectors is biodiversity; which is already under pressure from a wide range of existing stressors  Climate change present an additional challenge on top of and interacting with existing stressors Climate as a major driver on biodiversity

31 30

32 Global climate change scenarios  Without interventions to reduce emissions, global annual temperatures will increase by 2.5- 7 o C above pre-industrial levels by 2100  Temperatures higher than 2 o C are predicted to lead to – irreversible and potentially catastrophic impacts to which societies and ecosystems will not be able to adapt

33 Global climate change scenarios  Some further warming (about 0.6 o C by 2100) due to past GHGs is unavoidable even if present day concentrations of GHGs were held constant  It will be necessary to adapt to climate change resulting from global warming

34 Africa climate change scenarios  Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability  a situation aggravated by low adaptive capacity and interaction of ‘multiple stresses occurring at various levels  In most of the African continent, there is a clear manifestation of climate change with observed temperatures indicating a greater warming trend since the 1960s – An increase in the number of dry spells over southern and western Africa between 1961 and 2000 – Rainfall patterns exhibited notable spatial and temporal variability with inter-annual rainfall variability being large over most of Africa

35 Africa climate change scenarios  In West Africa, a decline in annual rainfall has been observed since the end of the 1960s – A decrease of 20-40% noted between the periods 1931-60 and 1968-90  In southern Africa, inter-annual variability has been observed in the post-1970 period – Higher rainfall anomalies, more intense widespread droughts reported

36 Africa climate change scenarios  During recent decades, eastern Africa has been experiencing an intensifying dipole rainfall pattern – Increasing rainfall over the northern sector and declining amounts over the southern sector  Droughts have also increased both in frequency and intensity – Mostly adversely affecting the Sahel, parts of east Africa, Horn of Africa and southern Africa, particularly since the end of the 1960s

37 Overall climate change effects on agriculture: crops  Redistribution and occurrence of new crops and livestock disease and pests  Loss and re-distribution of crops and their genetic diversity  Adverse effects on agro-biodiversity leading to large scale extinctions of wild relatives of crop plants

38 Overall climate change effects on agriculture: crops  Projected reductions in yield in some countries could be as much as 50% by 2020, and crop net revenues could fall by as much as 90% by 2100, with small-scale farmers being the most affected  IFPRI study on climate change impacts on agriculture and costs of adaptation – 25million more children will be malnourished by 2050 if there are no serious mitigation efforts or adaptation expenditures

39 Overall climate change effects on agriculture: crops  Irrigated wheat yields will be reduced by around 30% by 2050 and irrigated rice yields by 15% in developing countries  Climate change will increase prices by 90% for wheat, 12% for rice and 35% for maize by 2050, on top of already higher prices  At least US$7 billion a year are necessary to improve agricultural productivity to prevent adverse effects on children

40 Overall climate change effects on agriculture: livestock  Climate change will have major impacts on the millions of African livestock farmers, particularly pastoralists  Possible effects of climate change on tropical forages and crop residues may be little understood – the strong relationship between drought and animal deaths combined with the possibility of a warmer and drier climate in regions such as southern Africa and Horn of Africa is likely lead to bigger livestock losses under climate change scenario.  Global warming will alter heat exchange between animals and their environments. – potentially jeopardizing animal feed intake, growth, reproduction, maintenance and longevity

41 Effects of climate change on biological life forms  Climate change is one of the major factors influencing the distribution of wild plant species with the following effects – Physiological constraints on growth and reproduction Indirectly through ecological factors such as competition for resources – The distribution, abundance, phenology and physiology of a wide range of species

42 Effects of climate change on biological life forms Losses and or changes in genetic diversity Extinction of species Increased occurrence and redistribution of insect pests and diseases Mara ecosystem has a 50% reduction in wildlife numbers between 1970 and 1990 due to expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture

43 42 On Mt. Kenya and Kilimanjaro snow cover and ice extent have decreased by 92% within the last 100 years Reconstitution of ecosystems and habitats

44 Climate change: Drought and Floods 11yrs 8rs 4yrs

45 Economic costs of droughts  Huge financial expenses – 1999-2000 – US $ 340 million (Ksh 25 Billion) – 2004/2005- US $ 400??? Million ( 32 billion) – 2008/2009- US $ 600 Million (Ksh 48 billion)  Loss in livelihoods – 30-40% Cows – 25-30% sheep lost – 15-30% of goats  Social costs – Damages social safety nets – Desperation and helplessness – Drop from production systems – Family breakdowns

46  How people preserve or abuse biodiversity could largely determine whether living standards improve or deteriorate  Growing human population, urban expansion, resource over exploitation do not auger well for the future.  Without practicing sustainable development, humanity faces a deteriorating environment, diminishing of biodiversity and may even invite ecological disasters e.g Mau forest Taking action

47 Using resources more efficiently Better management of resources i.e. energy, water, forests, coastal and marine resources Protection of biodiversity hotspots Sustainable development -“development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 1987). Taking action

48 Climate change adaptation strategies  Collection and conservation of germplasm  Breeding and development of climate ready varieties – Wide adaptation – Drought resistance – Multiple resistance to diseases

49 Promotion of alternative crops o Replacing maize with more drought resistant crops Altering timing of crops o Development of short duration crops Integrated crop pests management Integration of indigenous knowledge and modern science Mixed cropping systems Climate change adaptation strategies

50 Conservation of traditional livestock breeds Weather index crop insurance schemes – provide a safety net to mitigate risk for subsistence farmers (Malawi, ILRI ) – provides compensation to smallholder farmers climate extremes

51 Climate change mitigation: Carbon sequestration Also known as “carbon capture” The process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed naturally by plants through photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass and soils Plant biodiversity has a major role to play in carbon sequestration

52 Carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation  Conservation of forests and natural habitats  Reforestation and ecosystem rehabilitation  Agroforestry practices

53 Case for biodiversity conservation: Ex situ and In situ methods Ex situ conservation “ Conservation of components of biodiversity outside their natural habitats” (CBD) “The preservation of germplasm away from its natural environmental selection pressures to a steady state of conservation” (Bennet, 1986 ) Objective – The collection, maintenance, documentation and regeneration of germplasm to ensure its existence and long term availability  collection captures maximum variation initially  conservation and regeneration minimizes loss of alleles through time

54 Ex situ conservation methods  Seed Gene Bank  Field gene bank  In vitro storage – Slow growth – Cryopreservation  Pollen storage  DNA storage  Botanical Gardens

55 Types of seed gene banks  Base collection  Long term storage -usually 50-100 years;  Sub zero temp. (preferably -18°C); 3-7% mc (FAO/IPGRI, 1994)  Active (or working) collection  Accessions available for multiplication and distribution for use  Conditions that ensure viability maintain above 65% for 10-20 years  MC depends on species but generally 7-10%, temperature range 0-10°C.

56 Other storage techniques Ultra dry seed technology – Low-input alternative for medium to long term cold storage – Involves the maintenance of very dry seeds under ambient or partly cooled condition – Seeds (of various species) can be dried to very low mc (1-2%) and kept in moisture proof containers can be stored at room temperature for long periods – Not be practical to all species

57 In vitro storage  Complementary ex situ method for species propagated vegetatively,or with recalcitrant seeds and  Germplasm are kept as sterile plant tissue or plantlets maintained either under slow growth on nutrient gels or cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen  Long term conservation of animal genetic resources (ova and sperms)

58 Botanical gardens  Early collections of plant diversity of the world  Ex situ collections in the field or in green houses  Limited intra-specific diversity  Only a few accessions per species or taxon.

59 Animal sanctuaries, zoos and orphanages  Threatened animals species eg Rhino  Artificial breeding  Release into the environment upon attainment of population threshold

60 In-situ conservation Definition - “ The conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive characteristics” (CBD)

61 In situ conservation Can be viewed in two different context: - Natural ecosystems - On-farm

62 Ecosystem conservation  Protected areas – Legally protected – Different categories (IUCN, 1994) – National Parks  Genetic reserves – Intra-specific variation – multiple population  Biosphere reserves – UNESCO - MAB- rational use and conservation of resources – Conserve various representative ecosystem of the biosphere – BR consist of undisturbed core zone surrounded by buffer zones  Habitat/ecological restoration

63 Process of in situ conservation Initial surveying Formulation of conservation objectives Determination of minimum requirements for conservation of targeted species Assessment and choice of sites Reserve design Reserve management Monitoring Access

64 On-farm conservation Definition: “the continued cultivation and management of a diverse set of crop population by farmers in the agroecosystem where a crop has evolved.” (Bellon et al., 1997)  Set include weedy and wild relatives of crop  Dynamic and is aimed at maintaining the evolutionary processes  Recognition that farmers developed and nurtured the crop genetic diversity

65 Complementary conservation strategy Strategy utilizes more than one conservation technique Includes both in situ and ex situ methods Advised for several reasons: – Makes conservation durable and flexible – Cost effective and biologically sustainable – Provides options in support of crop improvement – Security and safety of germplasm

66 Biodiversity policies and legal frameworks  International level The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 1992) o Conservation o Sustainable use o Sharing of benefits International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA, 2004) The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

67 Biodiversity policies and legal frameworks National level – Constitution of Kenya Chapter 5 Part 2 — Environment and Natural Resources, Section (69) which states that, “(1) The State shall  (a) ensure sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources, and ensure the equitable sharing of the accruing benefits  (b) work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya  (c) protect and enhance intellectual property in, and indigenous knowledge of, biodiversity and the genetic resources of the communities

68 Biodiversity policies and legal frameworks National level  (d) encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of the environment  (e) protect genetic resources and biological diversity  (g) eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment  (h) utilize the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of Kenya

69 Biodiversity policies and legal frameworks Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act of 1999 The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) National Climate Change Strategy The Kenya Climate Change Action Plan.

70 National institutional framework Biodiversity conservation institutions o KALRO - Genetic Resources Research Institute) KEFRI – forestry genetic resources National Museums of Kenya (in situ conservation, partly ex situ) Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) – in situ protected areas Kenya Forestry Services – forests in public domain Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Agriculture

71 Key issues and constraints  Lack of domestication of international agreements  Lack of proper coordination of development of biodiversity policies  Poor coordination among and between institutions in implementation of activities  Duplication and overlap of institutional mandates  Weak policy and institutional frameworks enforcement mechanisms  Institutional competitions and niche protection

72 Conclusion Biodiversity is critical for environmental conservation, sustainable livelihoods and economic development A careful balance needs to be maintained between conservation and sustainable use There is need to strengthen policy, legal and institutional frameworks Need for greater involvement and empowerment of local people in conservation, sustainable use and sharing of benefits We all have a responsibility for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for the present and future generations

73 References Given D. 2012. Principles and practice of plant conservation. Springer Anne E. Magurran 2003. Measuring biological diversity. Wiley-Blackwell Frankel, O.H, Brown, A.H.D and Burdon, J.J. 1995. The conservation of plant biodiversity. Cambridge University Press Jarvis D.I, Padoch, C and Cooper, HD. 2007. Managing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems. Columbia UniversityPress Castri, F and Younes T. 1996. Biodiversity, science and development. CAB International

74 References John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair, & Graeme Caughley. 2014. Wildlife ecology, conservation and management. Wiley Blackwell. 508pp Paul R. Krausman & James W. Cain. 2013. Wildlife management and conservation. Contemporary principles and practices. JHU Press 360 pp. Vold, T. and D.A. Buffett (eds.). 2008. Ecological concepts, principles and applications to conservation, BC. 36 pp. Available at: Ford-Lloyd B and Jackson M. 1986.Plant genetic resources: an introduction to their conservation and use. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd, London.

75 l m THE END

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