Ppt on water scarcity in india

Growing Enough Food Without Enough Water David Molden.

for food, livelihoods and the environment. Where we work: Headquarters: Colombo, Sri Lanka In Africa : Ghana, Southern Africa, Ethiopia In Asia: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Central Asia, Syria Water Scarcity 2000 1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcity Other Water Pressures Population & Diet – food grain production projected to increase by 100% by 2050 Urbanization - Cities are projected to/

Water scarcity in rice environments Crop and Environmental Sciences Division International Rice Research Institute Los Baños, Philippines.

……. The Big Picture of water scarcity IWMI Global Water Scarcity Study, 2000 Projected Water Scarcity in 2025 IRRI Data base (GIS laboratory) Asia WS irrigated rice 2025: 15-20 million ha irrigated rice will suffer some degree of water scarcity Physical scarcity: decreasing river flows Reduced river flows Tubewells and pumps for irrigation Bangladesh; Source: Pitman, 1993 Source: Barker and Molden, 1999 Percentage well (pump) irrigation India (2000): 5-6 million/

FAU Center for Economic Education Economics in World History.

AROUND THE WORLD Activity Reasons for Migration: Environmental and Political Environmental Examples: Floods, water supply, climate, food supply for animals Political Examples: Political freedom, laws, wars /the goods and services that are produced. LESSON 6 – INDIA AND THE CASTE SYSTEM IN 200 B.C.E. FOCUS MIDDLE SCHOOL WORLD HISTORY © / Sparta solve their food problems? Societies must make choices because of scarcity. Scarcity: The condition that exists because human wants exceed the capacity of available/

Global Food Security In the coming decades. Introduction These Lectures will cover three topics –Food Production and Distribution –Threats to the food.

considered an infinite replenishing source 44,000 terawatts of solar energy are used by the planet to run the water cycle Agriculture accounts for 71% of global water withdrawal Today many countries get their water from fossil aquifers (charting our water future,2009) Water Scarcity Approx 175 million people in India and 130 million in china dependant on food from fossil aquifers Along with much of the middle east/

Contested Planet Topic 2.0 water Conflicts OY3lg&feature=related 2.1 The Geography of Water Supply 2.1.1 Where does.

. There is often a growing mismatch between water supply and demand, which can lead to water stress either locally, or across whole regions eg economic growth in the RICs such as China and India. http://maps.grida.no/go/collection/water-stress-in-europe Water stress in Europe http://www.fao.org/nr/water/issues/scarcity.html Global water scarcity http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/water/water-resources/impacts-due-to- over-abstraction/

Talent Gap Study for the Communications Sector in Malaysia Final Report Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) Institute of Labour Market.

sets. Other than the scarcity in skill sets in emerging areas, local graduates also lack the relevant behavioural competencies to perform effectively in industry setting. A / four (4) chosen countries (UK, USA, South Korea and India) Consolidate and analyse the findings from the surveys and focus interviews Develop/Health Education Empowerment Community Cohesion GHG & other air emissions Water pollution Waste Land use Water use Environmental taxes Property taxes Production taxes People taxes Profit/

Managing Climate Extremes &Disasters in Asia: LESSONS FROM THE IPCC SREX REPORT With CC impact becoming more dramatic; the effects of climate extreme.

conditions, poor development, more population density and socio- economic conditions. Glaciers in Himalayan region receding; water scarcity in rivers and ground water; 750 million people residing downstream are at risk. Frequent flood and droughts in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Afghanistan. Frequent disastrous cyclone in Bay of Bengal, Orissa and Bangladesh Severe heat waves frequent phenomenon, even in coastal region . Adverse impact on crop production and other livelihood resources. Impact/

Earth Observation for Water Management

observations for vailidation, calibration and development of EO-derived products. Africa Water Atlas Modeling of Africa’s surface water systems (water balance data), identifying: “hotspots”: tenuous food security situation “hopespots”: potential for rainwater harvesting “water towers”: areas with upstream water surplus Africa Water Atlas Key Facts: Millions of people in Africa suffer water shortages throughout the year Water scarcity is not simply due to geography: population growth, poor planning and/

Strategic challenges in India’s water management Presented to Green Business Council, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Hyderabad,

, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Hyderabad, 17 June 2004. Strategic Challenges in India’s Water Management Christopher Scott International Water Management Institute www.iwmi.org Absolute Water Scarcity: India’s Upcoming Challenge 3/4 th of India, Pakistan, West Asia, North Africa and North China will be in the throes of absolute water scarcity over the coming 25 years Low rainfall/capita is the crux; 80% of it/

Energy Security and Natural Resources

.. Saudi Arabia Somalia Iraq Afghanistan Libya India Ecuador Colombia Myanmar Nigeria Angola Sudan Indonesia Global Military expenditure goes beyond $1 trillion a year 1 per cent of this could provide safe water for 7 billion people in the earth (Source: UNDP, 2000)/Erosion of national capability. Number speaks: construction of myth to rationalize grabbing Two arguments behind bringing MNCs in Energy sector: 1. capital scarcity and 2. lack of technical ability. But, Every year one at least 500 MW power plant/

COREY REPASY Water and Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

which includes approximately 300 transboundary aquifer systems.  “UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon cautioned that water scarcity could spell an increase in future conflicts, and added that ‘[p]opulation growth will make the problem worse. So will/ total GHG emissions in India*) *Source: UNESCO – Institute for Water Education Financing for Sustainable Development in Post-2015 Development Agenda GSO 10 th Anniversary Event History: from Monterrey to Busan Monterrey Consensus Adopted in 2002 The major /

Food Policy Challenges and Opportunities 2011 and Beyond Per Pinstrup-Andersen The Willard W. Cochrane Lecture in Public Policy, University of Minnesota.

, March 2010. Stock of Rice, Maize, and Wheat in Percent of Use in China, 2005-2011 (%) Source: USDA, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Projections, Several Years. India – Grain Stock 2005/06 – 20011 Million Tons 65 /Lack of government commitment, policy failure  Increasing water scarcity and soil degradation  Climate change  Falling productivity growth rates, large losses  Poor rural infrastructure  Poorly functioning markets Projected Growth in African Food Systems, 2010-2050 Source: Haggblade, /

| World Bank Group Support for IWRM in India William Young Lead Water Resources.

www.worldbank.org/water | www.blogs.worldbank.org/water | @WorldBankWater World Bank Group Support for IWRM in India William Young Lead Water Resources Management Specialist New Delhi Presentation outline Introduction –Key water resources issues in India –The IWRM Challenge WBG Portfolio –Size, scope, geography, progress Future directions –Changing needs and opportunities India’s Water Resources Increasing relative water scarcity –4% of the world’s renewable water resource –2% of the global land mass –but/


water Water ScarcityWater is life” Prof Kader Asmal, Chairman, World Commission on Dams “Whiskey is for drinking, water is for fightin’ over” Mark Twain, commenting on water conflicts in the American Midwest “We have one common goal: to provide water security in the 21st Century” Ministerial Declaration of The Hague, World Water Forum, April 2002 What is Scarcity? Water shortage, water scarcity, and water/ 1950 (Poza rica) England 1952 &19662 (London) India 1984 (Bhopal) Air Quality Index The AQI is an/

Combating Climate Change : India’s Concerns and Policies Dr. Arvind Jasrotia Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Jammu INDIA Dr. Arvind.

measures. With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply, are/

Unit 4 Earth and Environment. Part I Warming Up Part I Warming Up Training focus: Select information: “What, who, how” in news items. News Item 1 Pre-listening.

according to Arthur Askew? 1 billion people could suffer from a scarcity of water. 1 billion people could suffer from a scarcity of water. 4. In which areas could water shortage problems most probably develop? 4. In which areas could water shortage problems most probably develop? Middle East, parts of Africa, western Asia, northeastern China, western and southern India, large parts or Pakistan and Mexico, parts of the Pacific/

Water Crisis in the Middle East. Contents The Importance of Water The Water Problem Water Scarcity Climate Water Sources Politics and Conflict Use of.

world’s renewable freshwater Water Scarcity By 2025, 25% of the world’s population will live in regions that will experience severe water scarcity A large proportion of this 25% includes 17 countries from the Middle East Water Scarcity ‘the point at which/basin infrastructure; 3.Technical and institutional assistance; 4.Provision of intermediaries/negotiators Indus Water Agreement between Pakistan and India was a success Summary Water crisis set to get worse Use of irrigated agriculture at the moment is not/


was held during 24-29 December 2003.  Training was carried out by consultants from Public Affairs Foundation (PAF) India. Participants were as follows: 3 from Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs 10 from Office of Chief Government Statistician/ comparatively higher scores for quality & quantity  Dissatisfaction with the quantity of water from domestic connections is markedly high in CC (42%) as compared to West(22%)  Scarcity has a strong impact on satisfaction. 95% of dissatisfied users of domestic /

Water Quiz 946916.stm.

, it is estimated that nearly 230 million Africans will be facing water scarcity, and 460 million will live in water-stressed countries (Falkenmark, 1989). Today 31 countries, accounting for less than 8% of the worlds population, face chronic freshwater shortages. Among the countries likely to run short of water in the next 25 years are Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Nigeria and Peru. Parts of other large countries (e/

Water Literacy For All… By : Dr S K Srivastava Chief Engineer. National Water Academy – Pune India Water Week 2016.

grows, so will thrust on water  Low Water Use Efficiency  Uneven availability of water in space and time: leading to water scarcity … Ministry of Water Resources, IndiaWater Sector Challenges  Rising Multi Sectoral Demands  Equity in Supply of water for irrigation  Lack of appropriate sites for Storage Projects  Environment and Water Quality Degradation  Over-exploitation of Ground Water  Conflicts on ownership of water Ministry of Water Resources, India Strategies in Water Sector  Developmental/


related to natural heritage degradation and to health issues (scientific papers on chronic diseases and cancer prevalence) In India, growing water scarcity related issues like groundwater depletion (ex. Punjab) => consequences on agricultural yields and general access to water multiple water conflicts, at all scales Conditions for emergence? Public opinions in Europe in favor of strengthening environmental legislation + Since 1986, the environment has been a clear competence of the/

New Thinking for California Water

at this range – others 10-20X higher. Water scarcity in 2030 based on the Falkenmark Indicator Source: Wallace 2000 4 Physical scarcity: Not enough water. Physical and Economic Water Scarcity: a third of the population will suffer from stress in 2025 Physical scarcity: Not enough water. Economic Scarcity: Not infrastructure to make water available to people. Source: IWMI, 2000 Environmental Water Stress Growth in withdrawals for irrigation though has led to another problem – stress/

Promoting a Wastewater Management Revolution in Asia-Pacific Dr. Anand Chiplunkar Principal Water Supply and Sanitation Specialist Asian Development Bank.

Nam) Sihanoukville (Cambodia) Technology Drive Can address water scarcity and food security: Source of water for irrigation : VietNam, China Source of water for industrial use : India Biosolids/Organic fertilizers : Philippines Feeds for aquaculture : Bangladesh, India Source of energy Biogas for electricity, lighting and cooking: India, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal Potential for carbon credits CDM : Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Project in Fiji Biogas:Cambodia Fertilizer:Philippines PROMOTE REUSE OF/

In less convoluted terms: 1.Look at the ways that water is used at the regional scale. 2.Examine the environmental and human factors affecting where and.

has collapsed and residents health worsened due to inhalation of salt, a lack of clean water and food shortages. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3107915.stm Economic Scarcity Case Study – Coca Cola in Rajasthan, India Coca-Cola established a bottling plant in the village of Kaladera in Rajasthan at the end of 1999. Rajasthan is well known as a desert state, and/

 Study of scarcity and choice.  People, firms, and governments make choices because of scarcity.

into four areas  LAND ▪ Water, minerals, oil, and other natural resources  LABOR ▪ The effort of workers  CAPITOL ▪ Machinery, buildings, and tools used in production of goods and services  ENTREPRENUERSHIP/Points beyond the PPC Frontier are considered to be unattainable due to scarcity of resources.  A change in the amount of resources will change the frontier.  The curve will/2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 5 Chocolate (in tons) Textiles (in thousands of yards) Nepal India A B C McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-/

Our Water Systems: Public, Private, or Both? by K. William Easter Professor of Applied Economics University of Minnesota Seminar - February 7, 2009.

buildings and power plants (biggest use in Minnesota) 8 2. Water Services and Dis-services, cont’d c. Dis-service –Flooding For example in India flooding covered 25 million hectares in 1960, 40 million in 1978, and 58 million in the mid-1980s. (The problem /price water at its scarcity value c. How much to allocate for environmental uses? 30% of stream flow in dry season to 50% in wet season 12 5. How water was developed in the 20 th century In early stages of settlement, people located near water sources/

**This Presentation is a Work in Progress**

nations By 2025 it is forecasted that 2/3 of the worlds population will live under water stressed conditions with 1.8 billion people living in areas of absolute water scarcity In many arid regions surface water sources and shallow wells being depleted at an unsustainable rate Drilling to access the water table is costly and requires specialized drilling and pumping equipment Additionally shallow wells and surface/

Global Water Market 2008: Opportunities in Scarcity and Environmental Regulation A comprehensive 10 year forecast for the international water market as.

over the next decade. Section 1: The Countries 161 Countries are covered in Global Water Market 2008: Opportunities in Scarcity and Environmental Regulation. Choose a country from the drop-down menu or click/Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Dem. Rep, Korea, Rep. Kuwait, /

Water Issues In India by Vijay Kumar Eppakayala. India on the globe.

Water Scarcity, Demand and Usage Water Usage and Demand Of the total water usage 92% - Agriculture 5% - Domestic 3% - Industrial The overall water demand is supposed to increase from 552BCM to 1050 BCM by 2025 Average urban water /water management was never considered as a serious issue until 2000. Advanced water treatment technologies are only limited to highly developed urban cities. Advanced water treatment technologies are only limited to highly developed urban cities. All the major 18 rivers in India/

Water Harvesting Sangati CPR work group. Why is Water Harvesting especially important for India? In India, most water reaches the ground through rain.

Water Harvesting especially important for India? In India, most water reaches the ground through rain. –In contrast, in Western countries (mid-latitude regions), 50% of water coming down (precipitation) is in the form of snow Snow melts slowly and percolates into the ground and recharges ground water What about rain water? Rain Water Pattern in India Total annual rainfall in India: 400 million hectare- meters (area x height) India/in Rajasthan’s Alwar district, which was a desert. To solve the water scarcity/

TREATED WASTEWATER REUSE INTRODUCTION: 1. MANAGING WATER SECURITY BY WATER REUSE Water Reuse for Irrigation (Agriculture, Landscape and Turf Grass), Valentina.

regions with absolute water scarcity. MANAGING WATER SECURITY BY WATER REUSE The term ‘‘absolute water scarcity’’ means water availability of less than the 100m 3 / inhabitant/year that is necessary for domestic and industrial use. Today, most countries in the Middle East and North Africa can be classified as having absolute water scarcity. By 2025, these countries will be joined by Pakistan, South Africa, large parts of India and China, and/

INTRODUCTION Desalination is considered a source for drinking water and a mitigation action for water scarcity. The increase of desalination plants is.

Hazards Arregoitia Sarabia, Carla Adriana carla.arregoitia@arrher.com Figure 2 Population Changes in China, India, Japan, Mexico and Spain in 2050 [3] Figure 3 Countries with projects in construction with a more than 150,000m 3 /d capacity [4] Figure 4 World Desalination Capacity up to 2010 [5] Figure 1 Projected Water Scarcity in 2025 [1] The most important aspects for a desalination plant are the/

Water Conflicts and the Future What are the possible conflicts and solutions to increasing demands for water? This section looks at 4 themes: 1.Trends.

CLIMATE CHANGE Q - Explain why climate change might lead to problems of water scarcity in some countries. Climate change and water Inequalities in access to water Health will vary Food and other resources may be harder to access Inland Africans will /MDGs, + highlighted need for more integrated management The role of NGOs such as Water Aid or GLOWS has been crucial in managing water supplies Countries such as India, have mounted successful massive community-led campaigns on things like elimination of open /

WATER SCARCITY. Water stress and Water scarcity occur when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period or when poor quality.

UN states by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, Two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions "water stress" is when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 cubic meters per person per year, according to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator PHYSICAL SCARCITY When consumption exceeds 60% of the usable supply Physical access to/

Global Land Use Modeling for Analysis of the Food-Energy- Water Nexus Thomas W. Hertel Purdue University Building on collaborations with Uris Baldos, Keith.

, produce rice. When it is scarce, sell water rights instead of growing rice!” (Will Fargher, National Water Commission) Water scarcity Water scarcity Scarcity at global scale is a larger challenge Index of irrigation water availability Year 2030 Increased water scarcity of water for irrigation – particularly in South Asia and China Source: Liu et al. (2014) Year 2000 Water scarcity leads to reductions in irrigated area in key producing regions – shortfalls in supply Source: Liu et al. (2014/

Photo: David Brazier/IWMI Photo :Tom van Cakenberghe/IWMI www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Governing groundwater for sustainable irrigation in.

by 545 km 3 groundwater In India 60% of India’s net irrigated area of 60 million ha is served by groundwater; in North China, 70% area is served by groundwater, in Bangladesh 88% www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world /the solutions? In areas of over-exploitation: –Indirect approaches and second best solutions work better, e.g. energy-irrigation nexus solutions –Farmers respond to scarcity when scarcity signals are not dulled by other policy distortions –Informal institutions, like water markets are/

Why river linking project in India INDIA having total land area is 3,287,263 sq km in this Irrigated land is only 558,080 sq km, rest of the land are un.

September, 2009), there was an overall deficit of 23 per cent in rainfall. Why river linking project in India Number of districts declared by States as affected by drought/scarcity/drought-like situation(1 June, 2009 to 30 September, 2009) Andhra/job newly created by doing agriculture transferring water from surplus river basins to ease the water shortages in western and southern India Major benefits Envisages diverting water from surplus river basins to water deficient areas project would boost the annual/

In less convoluted terms: 1.Look at the ways that water is used at the regional scale. 2.Examine the environmental and human factors affecting where and.

has collapsed and residents health worsened due to inhalation of salt, a lack of clean water and food shortages. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3107915.stm Economic Scarcity Case Study – Coca Cola in Rajasthan, India Coca-Cola established a bottling plant in the village of Kaladera in Rajasthan at the end of 1999. Rajasthan is well known as a desert state, and/

Community Participation in its Development Programmes.

24 8 Odisha 3025 9 Bihar 38 Drought in India (2015-16) - A Challenge Facing the Challenges - Ways 1.Mass Awareness (using all ICT mediums and tools) on the Issues of Water Scarcity and Water as Scarce resource 2.Encouraging More and More Community Participation in all the stages of Water Resources’ Development cycle 3.Incorporation of Syllabus of “Water Awareness” since primary education 4.Enforcing stringent penal/

Strictly Confidential Catching The Wave in the Middle East Water Market GIL Middle East October 7 th, 2009.

United States Employees worldwide – approx. 500 – North America – Europe – Middle East (UAE, Oman, and KSA) – India – China Complete Focus on Solutions for Water Scarcity – Desalination – Effluent Treatment and Recycle – Zero Liquid Discharge and Resource Recovery Growing Key Player in the Global Water Industry Strictly Confidential Solutions for Water Scarcity Desalination Capability to offer all major technologies Thermal – MED – MSF – MVC Membrane – SWRO Hybrid – The best of both/

Weather, Climate & Water Services

] Consumption [ ] SCARCITY Industrial Growth [ ] Economy-Industry [ ] Water Business[ ] Agriculture [ ] Health & Environment[ ] Future [ ? ] The Indian situation Challenges …. Public Wasting Water Polluting Water Challenges …. Safety of industrial establishments from surplus surface water and floods Lack of proper draining facilities Uncontrolled exploitation of ground water by some industrial establishments Challenges … 2020 India will become a water stressed nation. 66 million Indians in 20 states are at/

Gurgaon First Challenges in Water and Sewerage October 2013 www.pwc.com.

Ministry of Water Resources, industrial water use in India is about 50 BCM or ~6% of total freshwater abstraction. This demand will only increase, given the forecasts and thrust on industrial/ urban growth. While some of India’s water-related problems are due to scarcity, many can be directly seen to be due to mismanagement of water usage PricewaterhouseCoopers Private Ltd Impacts of scarcity of water & competition for water allocation Environmental/

Socio-economic Aspects of Groundwater Use in India M. Dinesh Kumar Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy, Hyderabad

tend to be underestimated Who controls the groundwater economy? Pump ownership in India Nature of Groundwater Economy Water markets are an important socio-economic feature that determines the nature /in: a] securing electricity connections in farm sector easy; and b] accessing pump subsidies easy for poor farmers In water-scarce regions, the selling price of water reflect the scarcity value of the resource, and not the pumping cost aloneIn water-scarce regions, the selling price of water reflect the scarcity/

Adapting to water scarcity and changing climate Presented at University of Arizona Environmental Summit, 22 April 2009.

University of Arizona Environmental Summit, 22 April 2009. Adapting to water scarcity and changing climate Christopher Scott Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, and Dept. of Geography & Regional Development udallcenter.arizona.edu/wrpgcascott@email.arizona.edu http://www.stormeffects.com Growing demand, shrinking supplies Expanding, thirsty cities Threatened ecosystems Irrigation for food security Water to generate power Amenity value, recreation Drought, early runoff/

A Drop of Water and Blood Spillage Zulfadhli Nasution Poster Presentation Asia – Pacific Forum: Youth Action on Climate Change Bangkok, 24 th January 2010.

dynamics will increase the social crisis potential in a region which is already characterized by cross-border conflicts (India/Pakistan), unstable governments (Bangladesh/Pakistan) (UNEP, 2007) Cases China: Climate change will intensify the existing environmental stress (e.g. air and water pollution, soil degradation) due to the increase in heat waves and droughts, which will worsen desertification and water scarcity in some parts of the country. (UNEP/

Global Residential Water Treatment Equipment Market 2015-2019.

a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. Global Residential Water Treatment Equipment Market 2015-2019 USA – CANADA – UK – CHINA – INDIA Market Overview Water treatment equipment helps in removing impurities found in water bodies. Sea water, groundwater, municipal water, and wastewater are treated using water treatment equipment. Given its huge benefits, water treatment equipment can be used to address the issue of water scarcity in various parts of the globe. Moreover, wastewater/

Lesson 15: Freshwater Issues Part I – Water Scarcity Amy Duray EVPP 490 003 March 31, 2010.

Increasing scarcity in certain regions due to either an increased supported population or decreasing hydrologic flow DPSIR Framework (2 of 2) C. State-and-Trends: Increasing sea temperatures (effects water density, which effects sea levels, salt water intrusion into estuarine areas AND effects storm frequencies along coastal regions) Changes in precipitation/Increasing variability especially with respect to monsoons. (UNEP, 2007) Increasing personal access to water (in aggregate/

Thierry Facon, RAP-NRE and Chen Zhijun, TCIO Workshop on Water Resources Demand Management Learning Forum for Irrigation 26-28 July 2011 JW Marriott Hotel,

energy Gujarat restructuring of electricity grid ► Innovative legal instruments Regulating ET by banning transplanting in hottest season (Punjab, India) Exploring opportunities for “water savings” at system level is still worthwhile ► Water management is far from being moderately good everywhere ► IWRM will engineer “water scarcity” by decreasing allocations/abstraction ► More erratic supply (climate change) ► There will be financing and it should be put to good use if/

Debating Effective Solution for Water Constrained Future of Pakistan Dr. Zaigham Habib.

after accounting for evaporation. 91*10 3 km3 in natural lakes 5 10 3 km3 in man made storage -7 fold increase since 1950. 2,120 km3 in rivers – constantly replaced from rainfall and melting snow and ice. Fresh Water – Global Picture Physical water scarcity -- A water based Economy --- Irrigation per Hectare close to World Average Physical and economic water scarcity Per capita Eastern rivers Groundwater catchments Some Facts/

Unit 4: Women and Water Module: Environmental Justice and Freshwater Resources.

countries of the Global South. Use the hydrologic cycle to explain why some people lack access to a reasonable supply of fresh water. TrinidadKenya India Principles of the hydrologic cycle affect water scarcity and quality in Trinidad, Kenya and India. (Click on the name of the country to access the Google Earth file if desired). Precipitation (mean monthly value, inches) Trinidad and Tobago Month 2.9January/

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