Ppt on water scarcity in africa


concentration by the dialogue which could yield good results within acceptable period:  Focus on the potential for the massive development of renewable energy projects, calculated to enable Africa to help itself  Debating and finding solutions for the water scarcity dilemma. In my view this is more of a technical problem, and the technology is here. LIST OF DIRECTIONS  The problem of climate-related decline/

Promoting R&D in North Africa Expert Group Meeting, 15 – 17 July 2008, Rabat International and National Collaboration to Enhance the Effectiveness of Agricultural.

Africa K. Shideed, ICARDA The Context of Agriculture in Developing Countries in Dry Areas Food and feed insecurity Rural poverty (majority of poor are in rural areas) Natural resources Scarcity/ degradation Declining share of public spending allocated to agriculture Poor countries are net food importers Farming is the main market for jobs Widening income inequality Increasing food prices Natural Scarcity of Water in Dry Areas Actual Renewable Water Resources/

GEF Strategic Priorities in International Waters Nick Remple RBEC Environment and Energy Practice Workshop, Almaty, Kazakhstan. 6-9 October 2004 Almaty,

Many have components in other focal areas (esp. BD, LD, some POPs) Many have components in other focal areas (esp. BD, LD, some POPs) UNDP largest of 3 IA’s in cumulative IW allocation (~42%) UNDP largest of 3 IA’s in cumulative IW allocation/two key program gaps with a focus on cross-cutting aspects of African transboundary waters and support for targeted learning. IW-2. Expand TDA/SAP: Africa, Water scarcity, Overfishing; also Targeted Learning: - Expand global coverage of foundational capacity building /

From an Extractive to a Beneficiation Economy: The Vital Role of Water Parliamentary Round Table Discussion Cape Town 30 March 2010 © AR Turton, 2010.

growth World Water Scarcity 2050 Note the Orange River Basin now joins the Limpopo as extremely stressed systems World Water Scarcity 2070 At this stage the most economically active portion of Southern Africa resembles the Middle East North Africa The / strata Dolomites Ore-bearing strata Eastern Basin Central Basin Western Basin Dyke Safety drive Workings Vertical Shaft Acid Mine Drainage in Gauteng The volume of the mine void under the Witwatersrand is equal to 5 times the volume of Lake Kariba/

Unit 4 Earth and Environment. Part I Warming Up Part I Warming Up Training focus: Select information: “What, who, how” in news items. News Item 1 Pre-listening.

, a technical commission, a secretariat, and six regional meteorological associations in Africa, Asia, South America, North and Central America, SW Pacific, and Europe. It has 185 members. scarcity: when something is not easy to find or obtain: lack scarcity: when something is not easy to find or obtain: lack the scarcity of water: water shortage the scarcity of water: water shortage commodity: a substance or product that can be traded/

Scarcity?. Water ScarcityWater is life” Prof Kader Asmal, Chairman, World Commission on Dams “Whiskey is for drinking, water is for fightin’ over” Mark.

21st Century” Ministerial Declaration of The Hague, World Water Forum, April 2002 What is Scarcity? Water shortage, water scarcity, and water stress are three terms used in the discussion of how to meet human water needs What is Scarcity? Assuming a minimum need for renewable water per person of 1,000 cubic meters: 20 countries, mostly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), are at or below this level now At/

Population Dynamics, Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Africa Clive Mutunga Senior Research Associate Population Action International AFIDEP-PAI.

to be severely impacted by water scarcity due to climate change effects. 15 countries in SSA (about 400 million people) suffer from water scarcity/stress Water-stressed and scarce countries all have high population growth rates Combined with anticipated changes in climate, water shortages in these areas are likely to become even more acute. Population growth and climate change resilience Most of the countries in Africa are rated as least resilient/

Environmental Issue 2.

1975 Lake Chad (West Africa) is 1/20th its 1970s size A number of major rivers around the world including the Colorado, Rio Grande, Indus, and Yangtze no longer reach the sea consistently Factors Influencing Water Scarcity Hydrologic Cycle Population Growth Poverty Use Patterns Contamination http://www.wmo.int World population increased 300% in 20th century and use of water increased 700% Since 1950 the/

COREY REPASY Water and Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

Shortage: A Current Reality 700 million people live in countries experiencing water stress or scarcity.  When annual water supplies drop below 1,700 m3 per person, an area is experiencing water stress  When it drops below 1,000 m3 per person, the population faces water scarcity  Below 500 cubic meters "absolute scarcity” More than 300 million people in Sub-Sahara Africa live in water- scarce environments 2/3 of the world’s/

The Story of Corporate Water Privatization Janet M Eaton & Ruth Caplan Released April, 2003 Technical Assistance: Samara T Eaton Technical Assistance:

economic development - and indeed, civilization itself - than water. Growing scarcity and widespread misuse of water pose a serious and growing threat to sustainable development and/in many parts of the world.  Ghana  Bolivia  South Africa Water Privatization in the Developing World / Ghana Water Privatization in the Developing World / Ghana  The World Bank and IMF have promoted privatization of water services in Ghana.  Cities no longer have sewer services. The water corporations have no interest in/

Improving Wastewater Use in Agriculture: An Emerging Priority in the

High-income countries Countries with significant wastewater irrigation Vietnam, Yemen, Sub-Sahara Africa except South Africa Bolivia, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, West Bank &/ Observations on KSA Recommendations International Experience Experience with Improving Groundwater Management Strategies for Reform As water scarcity grows, investment in wastewater treatment and related irrigation systems will become more viable. To encourage such investments, /

Africa RISING Program. Africa RISING Research Framework Outline Context Purpose and objectives Research hypotheses Research outputs and activities.

across the three investment geographies/system “project sites” (Guinea Savanna, Ethiopian Highlands, Eastern and Southern Africa) Thank you Africa RISING in Ghana Outline Partners Implemented work – 2012 2013 Plans African Challenges – Purpose of Africa RISING Land Grab????? Water Scarcity Unemployment Poverty Hunger Adverse Impact of Climate Change Rapid Urbanization Purpose of Africa RISING: Provide pathways of hunger and poverty for small holder families, especially for women and/

Hydrogeodesy: Can it help to reach the Millennium Development Goal for Water in Africa? Norman L. Miller IGCP 565 Fifth Annual Workshop 29-30 October 2012.

drinking supplies. Exceeding the MDG Target of 88%. However there are 783 Million People still not meeting MDG, mostly in Africa (477 Million People are in Sub-Sahara Africa). Forty Percent of the Global Population Face Water Scarcity Percent Water Scarcity Annual Total Precipitation and River-Runoff In Africa Percent Land Area Irrigated Water Storage and Fluxes ~30 percent of Freshwater Storage is Groundwater Less than 0.8 % of the Global/

Water is arguably one of the most constrained and valuable resources we have. Throughout the globe we are progressively seeing the demand for water increase.

glacial retreat compound water scarcity. In recognition of the impacts that climate change have on our already severely stressed water resources, the Climate Action Partnership (CAP) is involved in a number of initiatives to improve the availability and accessibility of water for communities in South Africa. Impacts of climate change on water scarcity Climate change has the potential to impose severe pressures on water availability and accessibility in South Africa. Over the last/


Protocol) to implement solutions to global environmental concerns; Water Scarcity  Two types of water scarcity:  Physical scarcity: when there isn’t enough water to meet our needs. This type of scarcity is associated with arid areas.  Economic water scarcity: when various institutes (govt., businesses, etc.) and finances limit access to available water What Happens When Water is Scarce: Mexico City  20 million people in Mexico City  Founded on a cluster of ancient/

FAU Center for Economic Education Economics in World History.

whom? Market / Command / Traditional Trade Money & Banking Tonight Scarcity (4:45 p.m. to 5:15 p.m.) Lesson 1: Out of Africa Economic Systems (5:15 p.m. to 6:15 p/ to move to a place (immigrate). Examples of pull factors are more food and water, a better climate, higher wages, and freedom. Source: “What is Human Migration?”/ helots were used to grow food. Boys learned literature, music and gymanastics. Boys lived in military housing and trained for war. Government consisted of 2 kings, assembly, and 5 ephors/

Disasters, Development and Chronic Crises Lisa Guppy Water scarcity in Cambodia and Viet Nam.

phases. ―This may be typical of food insecurity –led situations in southern Africa ―Difficult to identify, define, understand, publicise, and manage ―Describing chronic crises clearly may help to identify which management options are best to apply Hazard/ stressor Intensity Time Negative development outcomes Disaster Chronic Crisis Intensity t Time t CHC Intensity Water Scarcity as a Chronic Hazard Condition Chronic crises are most likely/

5 Dimensions of the SDGs The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next fifteen years in areas of critical importance for humanity and planet...

improved drinking water source has increased from 76 per cent to 91 per cent But water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise. Over 1.7 billion people are currently living in river basins where water use exceeds / debt burden on developing countries remains stable at about 3 per cent of export revenue The number of Internet users in Africa almost doubled in the past four years 30 per cent of the world’s youth are digital natives, active online for at least/

Olli Varis, Mohamed Asheesh Water Resources Water and Environmental Management Dr. Mohamed Asheesh WEM2015.

United Nations 1994). In very simple terms, the major demographic change will be the extensive growth of cities in developing countries, particularly in Asia and Africa. Other chnages are /in real life evolve just to the opposite direction. Olli Varis, Mohamed Asheesh Water Resources The response: Global assessments on water scarcity and vulnerability When talking about water scarcity and vulnerability, the available and accessible water resources are related with water demands. Mexico has 3,900 m 3 of water/

The Millenium Development Goals 8 ways to improve our World

the world’s population face a scarcity of water Access to safe water / basic sanitation Some facts. 1.1 billon people in developing regions are using improved sanitation facilities since 1990. To reach the goal, another 1.6 billion persons in the next 7 years. 2.5 billion people remain without improved sanitation (Asia 1 billion & sub-Saharan Africa, ½ billion) In 54 countries, less than ½ inhabitants used/

The Global Water Challenge: Poverty, Growth & International Relations David Grey, Sr. Water Advisor Claudia Sadoff, Lead Economist The World Bank Global.

water will increasingly breed conflict 1.The worlds water resources are under rapidly growing pressure 4 Growing water scarcity(1995-2075) SEI - Criticality index (Source: WaterGAP) 5 Per capita water availability 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 196019902025 Africa Asia MEast & NAfrica Thousand m 3 World 6 Water Resources Management Water/wide impacts 11 38% decline in avg. projected GDP growth rate when historical levels of variability are assumed 40% decline in Ag GDP 34% decline in non-Ag GDP Baseline Scenario /

FAOs Regional Initiative on Water Scarcity in the Near East:

2014-15 3. Six Regional Initiatives to pilot implementation of SOs in 2013 SO2 Latin America Europe Africa Asia Near East Water Scarcity Water Scarcity Initiative Near East Water Scarcity Initiative - Launching Workshop, June 2-4 20013. Cairo, Egypt Water Scarcity Initiative Why Water Scarcity Among top priorities in “FAO’s Regional Priority Framework for Near East” (2010 and 2012) approaches water resource management within the context of agriculture and food security since almost/

Living with Water Scarcity By Muhammad Saidam, PhD Royal Scientific Society – JORDAN February 2010.

’s need for drinking, hygiene and food chronic water scarcity <500 m 3 /capita/year beyond the ‘water barrier’ of manageable capability water stress (1000 – 1600) Rogers, 2008 Total Renewable Water Withdrawn (%) Source: Compiled from FAO AQUASTAT data for 1998–2002. 11 Jordan   Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)   Terrain: Mostly desert plateau in east (80%)   Population: ~ 5.723 million (2007), Growth/

MA ( Dev) Semester I Azim Premji University

equitable access Singular fixation with the silver bullet of an unrealistic supply side solution – water transported over a long distance from a large dam No water harvesting being done….all runoffs Was the water scarcity in Kutch real or constructed ? Some definitive conclusions Water is physically scarce in Central and West Asia and N.Africa with projected availabilites of less than 1000 m3 per capita per annum ( PCPA/

November 2012 Africa: the Next Growth Miracle? Nottingham Globalization Lecture Stefan Dercon Oxford University DFID.

) Western Europe and most of North America will be largely unaffected by water scarcity But Africa and Western and Southern Asia will be hit by either physical or ‘economic’ water scarcity – the inability to access available water. Map of likely future water scarcities Climate effects are harshest in developing countries (2) Climate effects on agricultural productivity are hardest in developing countries (including Latin America and South-East Asia) though also/

Zoe Wilson: Hydropolitics and Second Order Water Scarcity in South Africa: mapping complexity and contradictions By Zoë Wilson,

.ac.za Hydropolitics and Second Order Water Scarcity in South Africa: mapping complexity and contradictions By Zoë Wilson, wilsonz@ukzn.ac.zawilsonz@ukzn.ac.za Project research assistance from Kea Gordon, Eleanor Hazell, Chitonge Horman, Amanda Khan, Emeka Osuigwe, Karen Peters, Horacio Zandamela and principal investigator, Julie Trottier Zoe Wilson: wilsonz@ukzn.ac.za Introduction to SA hydropolitical landscapes Water management has passed from a/


with Muslim North Africa: producing larger gold influxes from West Africa: to the 1370s NB: this monetary expansion preceded the European demographic expansion – from the 1180s. An early 14th century bullion famine? (1) By the 1320s, evidence of severe monetary scarcities: at least in England - drastic declines in English silver mint outputs - very severe deflation, 1320s to 1340s - domestic complaints about coin scarcities (2) Possible Causes/

Arab Republic of Egypt Total Surface Area: 1 001 449 km 2 Estimated Population in 2006: 75 437 000 Egypt is the driest country in Africa with an annual.

the beginning of a “future ocean” Ethiopia has the lowest access to an improved water source in Africa at 22% Important Environmental Issues Water Availability and Access to a Safe Source Livestock, Soil Erosion, and Land Degradation Threats/ Reserve Important Environmental Issues Water Scarcity and Pollution Desertification and Deforestation Degradation of Freshwater Ecosystems Republic of Kenya Facts and Figures Kenya is the number 1 producer and exporter of black tea in Africa Protection and Management of/

Institutional Change and Development in the Middle East and North Africa Mustapha K. Nabli Senior Advisor, World Bank Inaugural Lecture CREMed Universitat.

: Breaking through Barriers of Private-Led growth (forthcoming)  The Road Not Traveled: Education Reform in the MENA Region (2008)  Making the Most of Scarcity : Accountability for Better Water Management Results in the Middle East and North Africa (2007) III. Challenge #1: Employment and Private Sector Development  Slow/delayed demographic transition, surge in labor force growth, and job creation as the most critical challenge  Private sector development/

US Army Corps of Engineers ® Engineer Research and Development Center 1 Hydrologic and Social Analyses for Anticipating Water Stress and Potential for.

the security capacity of partner states.” “Climate change will contribute to food and water scarcity.” QDR, Feb 2010 “The USG is not investing adequately in the development of social and behavioral science information that is critically important for COIN/ Center 30 National Security Strategy “excerpt” … Africa – Our Nation continues to embrace effective partnerships in Africa. The United Nations and African Union play a critical role in humanitarian, peacekeeping and capacity-building efforts, which /

Slide 1 Dr Jenny Amery, Chief Professional Officer Health and Education, DFID Wales for Africa Health Links Conference 7 July 2011 What can UK Health Workers.

products and delivery platforms  Research and innovation Emerging ACT resistance in SE Asia Slide 23 Malaria Framework for Results: Principles Focus on high-burden countries in Africa and Asia Emphasis on value for money – do what works,/ Aid Recognising the impact of climate change on vulnerable populations Resource scarcity: food, water, energy, land Population growth, numbers ageing, urbanisation Future location of poverty in middle income countries Changing financial and political powers: BRICs, G20 /

Assessment of the Pra and White Volta River Basins to water stress conditions under changing climate Emmanuel Obuobie, Kwabena Kankam-Yeboah, Barnabas.

important decreases over the baseline – Without climate change, the Pra basin is already water stressed and projected to attain water scarcity condition by 2020 – Climate change will worsen the vulnerability to water stress condition in the Pra basin Recommendations  Adoption and implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM) with emphasis on water use efficiency, water conservation, environmental integrity.  Recommendation  Groundwater could be developed and used as adaptation strategy/

Water Scarcity and Global Health James L. Regens University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Environmental and Occupational Health Council Association.

availability of 1700m 3 of water for annual consumption The threshold for ‘water stress’ is a per capita availability of 1700m 3 of water for annual consumption For water scarcity the threshold is 1000m 3 of water for annual consumption For water scarcity the threshold is 1000m 3 of water for annual consumption 40% of world’s population (3B people) will live in countries classified as water stressed by hydrologists by/

Water Scarcity Jessica Kang, Remy Castella, Samantha Chang.

Changing The Present." Changing The Present. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. "Global Water Shortage: Water Scarcity & How to Help." Bring Clean Water to Africa & India. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. Ma, Jun, and Naomi Li. "Tackling China’s Water Crisis Online." Chinadialogue. Sept.-Oct. 2006. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. "UN-Water Statistics." Welcome to UN-Water. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.. Kelland, By Kate. "Reuters AlertNet - Better Sanitation Could save 2/



Hamed Assaf Water Resources Section Sustainable Development & Productivity Division.

in naturally drier areas (exhaustion of both blue and green water). Increased competition over shared water resources Serious decline in the quantity and quality of renewable and non-renewable water resources. September 15, 20106 Water scarcity in the Arab region September 15, 20107 Source: ESCWA 2003: Water scarcity in/ of liquid water per year 30°N 10°N Impact of climate change on water resources will vary in the region September 15, 201015 Projected impacts of climate change Northern Africa, the Eastern/

Water Conflicts The Geography of Water supply Know the physical factors affecting the supply of freshwater Be aware of the growing mismatch between water.

increasing risk of large numbers of people short of water (stress) or chronically short of water (scarcity) Reasons are physical and economic Climate change likely to make matters worse Water Stress As population grows and demand for water increases there will be less water per person. Globally half a billion people, most living in Africa are chronically short of water. More than 1/3 of the world’s population/

Building climate resilience through water security Dr Ania Grobicki Executive Secretary, GWP 27 September 2011.

500 institutional Partners and growing!) Water Scarcity in the World (2025 scenario) absolute or physical water scarcity economic water scarcity: water development can meet increased demand/in Africa starting up) "In the face of climate change, partnerships such as those launched in the Water, Climate and Development Programme with Global Water Partnership represent a good first step." Hon. Edna Molewa, Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, South Africa, and President of AMCOW, at the 3rd Africa Water/

The Politics of Development in Africa

of people - People are forced to flee their homes and move to neighbouring towns/countries Water is need to grow crops Water Scarcity Availability to water and wells is already a problem for many communities in Africa. 884 million people worldwide have no access to safe water. Many of these people live in African countries. It is thought that this problem will increase as development and population increases/

The Key Challenges in Application of GIS and Remote Sensing in Environmental Variables Change Analysis in the Horn of Africa Region. Are we capturing the.

rapid growth of human population linked poverty Poor formulated policies in natural resource utilization. etc What are the response from institutions within horn of Africa? Emergence of many Research and Development projects addressing environment and/ encountered 3. Post Conflict Environmental Assessment for Sudan (ICRAF- UNEP (2006) 4. Rainwater Harvesting innovations in response to water scarcity, The Lare Division experience (RELMA- ICRAF(2005) Challenge 1: Project Planning vs. Data Requirements Project /

What is the hydrological cycle? Topic 4: Water World.

solid (ice) forms. Topic 4: Water World Processes in the hydrological cycle: Inputs Outputs Stores Flows/transfers Topic 4: Water World Water scarcity Topic 4: Water World So far, freshwater is not scarce on a global scale. However, many parts of the word are now experiencing water stress. Write down what you understand the term “water stress” to mean Water scarcity comes in two types: Physical scarcity – shortages occur when demand exceeds/

Water as a Source of Conflict & Cooperation: Southern Africa Tufts Water Systems, Science & Society Interdisciplinary Research & Graduate Program 24-28.

(DRC) Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe Lesotho Swaziland Malawi Mozambique Angola 25 0 50 0 0 Kilometres N Rovuma WATER TRANSFERS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Existing water transfer scheme Proposed new water transfer scheme © Pete Ashton WATER AVAILABLE PER PERSON IN 2002 AND 2025 2002 Water security Adequate water Water stress Chronic scarcity Absolute scarcity © Pete Ashton Source: Scholes & Biggs (2004:4) HADCM3 Climate Model Projections using IPCC SRES A2 Scenario showing Precipitation for 2050/

Reproducible Private Property Resources - Agriculture The secret to solving the world food problem lies in transferring the modern technology from the.

DD=SS This shows what is scarcity in world food market. It doesn’t mean a shortage. This shows what is scarcity in world food market. It doesn’t/expensive loss by fertilisers – losses irreversible – fertilisers cheap - ⇧ in frequency & quantity of fertilisers - Pesticides – contaminate water supply used by humans & aquatic life Sustainable agriculture One with less / a strain of vitamin A-rich sweet potato acceptable in sub- Saharan Africa. Recently scientists developed a genetically modified strain of rice/

©2005 Cola-Cola Company. All rights Reserved 1 Global Water Stewardship and The Coca-Cola Company GEF International Waters Conference Salvador, Brazil.

,000,000 Countries we operate in Servings per day Manufacturing plants Franchise bottling partners Number of brands 3 Water Crisis Hits Africa the Hardest April 1, 2005 Business’ Thirst for Water Is Unsated August 23, 2004 Nine million Chinese Face Drinking-Water Shortage April 3, 2005 On World Water Day, One Billion People Still Lack a Clean Supply March 23, 2005 Water Scarcity: a looming crisis? December 19/

M1: Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

world population could be under stress conditions (6) The UN estimates most of the growth will take place in developing countries that already suffer from water stress (1). Most countries in the Middle East and North Africa suffer from acute water scarcity, as well as countries like Pakistan, South Africa, and large parts of India and China. Irrigated agriculture, which represents the bulk of the demand for/

Chapter 4: Emerging Water Shortages By Cody McNutt and Jennifer Ng.

, Pakistan ranks 12 th on the 2007 list of failing states Allocating water among competing interests is part of an emerging politics of resource scarcity Allocating water among competing interests is part of an emerging politics of resource scarcity Lakes Disappearing As river flows are reduced lakes have been shrinking; Lake Chad Central Africa, the Aral Sea Central Asia, and the Sea of Galilee As/

Some Questions About Water, Health, and Justice Following are some leading questions for discussion accompanied by some of the bare facts about our global.

and 10 million deaths. Three main causes of water contamination and water scarcity: - Water Pricing - Water Mining - Water Abuse - Water Pricing - Water Mining - Water Abuse Water pricing Problem: people cannot afford the prices being imposed by corporations that increasingly control water and water distribution systems. (I.e. the inversion of gravity as economic law: Water flows uphill towards money) … Some facts about water pricing:  Poor people in the “ developing ” world pay on average 12 times/

Water Scarcity in Libya

Water Scarcity in Sudan By Jacob Ondish Sudan Without Water 12.3 million people do not have access to clean water There little rainfall 3 out 4 of the population does not have clean water Causes of Water Scarcity The causes of water scarcity in Sudan is little rainfall. Though in / of getting water is brought by that way. For Example: Wells, Rivers, Lakes, and Reservoirs The only way Sudan can use irrigation is to irrigate wells and rivers. The main river that runs through Sudan [and most of Africa] is the/

Lesson 5: Africa Today Unit 5: The Economy of Resources.

Affect Women, Kids, Hunger Blood Diamonds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0C30hrpv0GQ VOCABULARY Water scarcity means that there is very little water in an area. Blood diamonds are diamonds mined illegally in Africa. VOCABULARY Child Soldiers are children who are kidnapped and forced to fight in wars. Blood minerals are expensive minerals in the DRC that people are fighting wars over. Group Work Read and annotate the/

Analysis of Tourism Markets in the region Mauritius National Workshop on SADC Services Negotiations Restaurant 27, Port Luois 17 th July, 2012 Prepared.

(water resources, imposing mountains, ethnic and cultural diversity) Number of tourism visitors very law (35,000 against a target of 100,000 in 2010/ MA Tourist Guides Services 1)None 2)None 3)Allowed only in linguistic scarcity areas. 4)HC NT Tourist Guide Services 1)None 2)None/Employees) and Independent Professionals – Work permits Offensive Interest Markets of Interest – Botswana – South Africa – Mozambique – Seychelles – Tanzania Review their individual GATS schedule Conclusion COMESA offers is based on/

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