Ppt on water conservation techniques


approach. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Environmental challenges facing pastoralists /will need to develop appropriate institutions to aggregate carbon assets, and develop and demonstrate improved land management techniques.  Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES): Sustainable pastoralism maintains a number of critical ecosystem services, /

Goleta Water District Conservation is Critical

Tecolote tunnel Drought of 1970s Drought of 1980s/90s - Desal Environmental concerns/fish State water project Future / sustainability (groundwater, desal?) Historical Drought Concerns Early water conservation efforts such as cutting back on watering lawns, washing cars, and flushing the toilet, and early ag efficiency projects like drip irrigation techniques. 1980s Water Shortages Water conservation programs like low-flow shower heads, and landscape efficiency. The District introduced the first/

Advanced Calibration Techniques

more emission into clean box if it looks real Stop when residuals become noise-like but still be a bit conservative, ESPECIALLY for weak features that you are very interested in You cannot get rid of real emission by not / can dominate the system temperature Calibration through Tsys or opacity/gain curves is essential Tropospheric water vapor causes significant phase fluctuations Decorrelation can be severe Phase correction techniques are essential: ALMA – WVRs Self-calibration is not so hard and can make a/

IPM in NRCS Programs Joe Bagdon USDA - NRCS National Water & Climate Center Amherst, Massachusetts.

Center Amherst, Massachusetts NRCS Pest Management n Primary NRCS roles: Evaluate site-specific environmental risks –“SWAPA+H” Plan appropriate mitigation techniques –IPM and other management techniques Including pesticide application rate, method & timing –Conservation Practices Including Residue Mgt., Irrigation Water Mgt. & Buffers Help support the adoption of IPM –Available IPM is required by the NRCS Pest Management (595) standard - “PAMS” Pest Management Environmental Risk Analysis/

Department of Conservation and Recreation 1 Proposed Stormwater Management Requirements for Virginia Rappahannock River Basin Commission June 24, 2009.

Jack E. Frye, Director, DCR-Division of Soil and Water Conservation Department of Conservation and Recreation 2 Key Points Virginia is addressing all pollutant sources: waste water, stormwater and agriculture Stormwater is fastest growing pollution source Best /3. Require the provision of long-term responsibility for and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quality and quantity of runoff; 8. Encourage low impact development designs, regional and/

Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens Educational Toolkit The Conservation.

Techniques (DIP, IR Thermography, Ultrasonics, colorimetry, etc.) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 4.8: Reverse engineering for compatible and performing restoration materials Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Step 1. Characterization of historic mortars Correlation between the tensile strength and the CO2 / structurally bound water ratio CO2 / structurally bound water/”, in Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Venice, (2000), pp. 403-412. Moropoulou,/

Where does conservation meet conservation? Lida Miraj 2011.

practice, such as conservation rather than restoration, the use of traditional materials and techniques, emphasizing the maintenance of properties and reconstruction of urban infrastructure. Conservator at work Conservator at Work Conservator at work Peristyle /recent infrastructure which is currently being used can be divided into: Macro infrastructure – such as sewage, drainage, water supply, electricity, telephone, cable TV. Micro infrastructure – installed by citizens for their immediate needs (antennas,/

Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Current Focus and Future Directions.

Hectare. (Odisha-760, Uttarakhand-5, Madhya Pradesh - 134, Tamil Nadu - 49, Uttar Pradesh - 8 and Meghalaya - 9) 17 Conservation of ground water NAQUIM Aquifer mapping in 6 pilot projects in five States carried out to develop the framework for replication; Use of advanced techniques including heliborne Transient Electromagnetic surveys for faster and accurate mapping of aquifers. Managed Aquifer recharge; river bank filtration Identification/

Gardening with Liquid Gold Conservation is the name of the game! game! By Romell at Magic Gardens.

Water 2 to 3 seconds each container.  Than go back and water a 2 nd time. This second watering is critical to water conservation. The plant will get water all over the soil and deep down into the container. Containers Train your plant  Water / landscape staples or cover with rocks. Technique, Technique, Technique  Covering the exposed soil is the key to low water usage.  Keep the soil evaporation low.  Soaker hoses keep the water close to the plant  Gravity takes the water down were it is cooler.  /

Earth-Kind Water Conservation. Water Saving Principles Earth Kind landscaping incorporates seven basic principles which lead to saving water:  Planning.

is an effective way to reduce landscape irrigation requirements.  Reduce the size of water-sensitive lawns through the use of patios, decks, shrub beds and groundcovers. Lawn Water Conservation Proper Watering Techniques  Most lawns receive twice as much water as they require for a healthy appearance.  The key to watering lawns is to apply the water deeply and infrequently, creating a deep, well-rooted lawn that efficiently uses/

AGE 505: Soil and Water Conservation References: 1.Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, by Glenn O. Schwab et. al 2. Michael, A.M.: Irrigation: Theory.

importance.  The engineering approach to soil and water conservation problems involves the physical integration of soil, water and plants in the design of a co-ordinated water management  The engineering problems involved in soil and water conservation may be divided into the six following phases:/by the splash erosion but also has a scouring action of its own. various names given to this techniques are: various names given to this techniques are:  terraces (U.S.A).  terraces (U.S.A).  ridge or bund (/

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Chapter 31 Conserving Earth’s Biodiversity.

as windbreaks, plant communities have a major impact on local climates. Forests have dramatic effects on the water cycle, returning water to the atmosphere through transpiration. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. 31.2 Why Is Biodiversity Important/is to maintain biodiversity and to evaluate techniques for sustainable human development while preserving local cultural values. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc. 31.6 Why Is Sustainability The Key To Conservation?  Biosphere reserves consist of three/

Water EPA P 3 Grant Proposal Jorge Arana  Mary Katherine Crews  Julie Jabaley Ashleigh Heath  Rose Kattakayam.

inaugural workshop weekend  Providing forum for meaningful lesson planning  Using practical water conservation techniques What are the main goals?  Construction of a water conservation curriculum  Expert advice & teachers’ experience  The Hike Inn  National and state science standards  Conserve water in schools and households by enhancing knowledge  Create a replicable design for future  Conservation efforts  Website for sustainability Innovation & Technical Merit  Create the habit  Engage/

Part-I … Comparative Study and Improvement in Shallow Water Model Collaborators: Prof. Kim Dan Nguyen & Dr. Yu-e Shi Speaker: Dr. Rajendra K. Ray Date:

Bunya et. al. (2009) 1.330.84 Ern et. al. (2008) 1.40.5 Present 1.4 Relative error in global mass conservation is less than 0.003% Dr. Rajendra K. Ray 16.09.2014 17 Application to the Dam-Break of Malpasset Back Grounds The generated flood/Y., Ray R. K., Nguyen K.D., 2013. A projection method-based model with the exact C-property for shallow-water flows over dry and irregular bottom using unstructured finite-volume technique. Comput. Fluids, 76, p. 178–195. Dr. Rajendra K. Ray 16.09.2014 Part-II … Two-Phase/

IPPTA Zonal Seminar Ahmedabad 6 th & 7 th August 2015 IPPTA Zonal Seminar Ahmedabad 6 th & 7 th August 2015 Water Management and Recycling Practices ITC.

& Welfare Information system Admin Customer Service Cell Office Pillar Team Service Effectiveness Team 7 Approach for Water Conservation Idea Generation Internal/TEI PACT/AET - Kaizens Water Audits Campaigns/ Posters Training EMS/EMC Review ExternalTrainingSeminarsCompetitions Water Conservation Technique Recycle Reuse Reduce Recharge 4 R – Technique Water Conservation “Reduce” Reduce 10 Water Conservation “Reduce” The activities involved under this category are; To identify the required sizes of nozzles/

Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) Dean Krehbiel Resource Conservationist Enhancements.

to Break Up Soil Compaction SQL 06 Conversion of cropped land to grass-based agriculture CCR 99 Resource Conserving Crop Rotation Water Quality Enhancement Activities WQL 01 Biological Suppression and Other Non-chemical Techniques to Manage Brush WQL 02 BIOLOGICAL Suppression and Other Non- Chemical Techniques to Manage Herbaceous Weeds WQL 03 Rotation of Supplement and Feeding Areas WQL 04* Stalk or Leaf Tissue/

Core 4 Pest Management Joseph K. Bagdon USDA - NRCS National Water and Climate Center

pest management activities in order to adequately treat identified resource concerns. Mitigation techniques include practices like filter strips and crop rotation, and management techniques like application timing and method. Draft Standard l The requirement that the / the rootzone and beyond the edge of the field (including management of crop, residue/tillage, water and pesticide(s) l Conservation Buffers that reduce pesticide movement beyond the edge of the field Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Defined/


processes Waste water clean water Water Supply Treatment Plant Pay for treatment Pay for supply Enterprise Double pay REDUCING RESOURCE INTENSITY Energy Policies Governmental Decree on energy efficiency and conservation –Compulsory Application/resources fee into production cost. Weakness of natural resources management. REDUCING RESOURCE INTENSITY INDUSTRIAL SAFETY TECHNIQUE AND ENVIRONMENT AGENCY MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY AND TRADE Solutions REDUCING RESOURCE INTENSITY Government Greening industry -Policy/

Water Loss Control Committee Water Accountability and Loss Control Improvements in North America: A Progress Report The Old ---- The New!

. It compiles in an easily accessible form the best available information of water utility efficiency program costs and savings, and provides modeling tools which enable water utilities to evaluate the economics of conservation programs. Water Loss Control Committee Potential Techniques for the Assessment of Joints in Water Distribution PipelinesPotential Techniques for the Assessment of Joints in Water Distribution Pipelines. This 2006 research report identified key problems associated with/

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 11 WATER. 11-1 Water Resources Objectives Describe the distribution of Earth’s water resources. Describe the distribution.

from sources other than direct precipitation. A method of providing plants with water from sources other than direct precipitation. Irrigation techniques: Irrigation techniques: –shallow, water filled ditches –Overhead sprinklers Irrigation Methods 12. How are freshwater resources being managed? Dams and Reservoirs Dams and Reservoirs Water Diversion Projects Water Diversion Projects Water Conservation Water Conservation 13. Why do freshwater resources need to be managed? Some people prefer to live in areas/

“Some experiences with developing rain water harvesting technologies in semi-arid Zimbabwe: challenges and possible solutions” “Some experiences with developing.

investment costs Use of improved seed eg hybrids Use of organic and inorganic fertilizers CA+ In-situ water conservation & harvesting technologies Supplementary irrigation technologies eg wetlands, surface irrigation Increasing yields Hi- tech irrigation Techns Eg/equipment, gender (Munamati, et al., 2010) Land ownership and area under rainwater harvesting technologies in Gwanda Which techniques are popular ? (Shurugwi, 2006) Most popular of new techs Contour ridges were mandatory prior to independence /

Soil and Water Conservation Attempt Worldwide (and the role of WASWC) Samran Sombatpanit WASWC Past President LADA workshop, LDD, Thailand, April 28, 2009.

Water Conservation CSSWC – Chinese Society of Soil & Water Conservation CSWCS – Chinese Soil & Water Conservation Society CSWCS – Chinese Soil & Water Conservation Society SCSI – Soil Conservation Society of India SCSI – Soil Conservation Society of India SWCS – Soil and Water Conservation Society SWCS – Soil and Water Conservation Society SWCSI – Soil and Water Conservation Society of Indonesia SWCSI – Soil and Water Conservation/ with good intention, appropriate techniques, and well planned strategies many/

IUCN AEL Colloquium 07 July 2011 Elaine C. Hsiao Fulbright Student - Uganda Water for Peace and Resilience: IWRM in the CAR TFPA Network “We never know.

Hydropower across CAR Mining and rock quarrying Water resources management fragmented across ministries and authorities TB Water Agreements focused on water allocations, not conservation of headwaters (e.g., Nile &/Water Management The Water Act Chapter 152 (1997) Art. 4 Objectives: (a)to promote the rational management and use of the waters of Uganda through - (i) the progressive introduction and application of appropriate standards and techniques for the...protection, management and administration of water/

School of Food Science and Nutrition FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization Malcolm J. W. Povey.

system Recommended books Keywords: Ultrasound, ultrasonics, ultras*, acoustic*, sound, propagation, scattering, diffraction, interference, Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization, Malcolm Povey, Academic Press, San Diego, 1997 Metaphors Use light as a metaphor Here / due to time dependent shear and compressibility. Conservation of energy Second law of thermodynamics Attenuation in water Data for water Shear viscosity Attenuation data Density of water Frequency Speed of sound Ratio of specific heats/

Chapter 14 Water.

use, but we could cut this waste to 15%. 65-70% of the water people use throughout the world is lost through evaporation, leaks, and other losses. Water is underpriced through government subsidies. The lack of government subsidies for improving the efficiency of water use contributes to water waste. Water Conservation Strategies Irrigation techniques: Employ micro/drip irrigation Irrigate at times of less low evaporation (eg. Night/

Conservation and Sustainability Center. Fundação Amazonas Sustentável.

AS MEANS OF PRODUCTION THROUGH SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IMPLANT AND DISSEMINATE ENERGY, WATER AND FOOD SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES PROMOTE EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT MINIMIZES DEFORESTATION IN PROTECTED AREAS PROJECT NAMENCS /); Understanding of electrical installations; Woodwork techniques; Among others… Juma Conservation and Sustainability Center Uatumã Conservation and Sustainability Center Rio Negro Conservation and Sustainability Center Mamirauá Conservation and Sustainability Center How to get /

Section 4: Erosion Preview Key Ideas Erosion Soil Erosion

few years, all the soil layers could be removed by continuous erosion. Soil Conservation Human activities, including certain farming and grazing techniques and construction projects, can also increase the rate of erosion. This land /techniques to reduce soil erosion. In one method, called contour plowing, soil is plowed in curved bands that follow the contour, or shape of the land. This method of planting prevents water from flowing directly down slopes, so the method prevents gullying. Soil Conservation/

Pathleen Titus CARDI Representative , St Kitts and Nevis

resources management practices Rainwater harvesting and storage Improved watershed management Re-cycling of drainage water Enhanced surface water storage Use of effluent and waste water Soil and water conservation systems Enhanced soil water infiltration and storage Increased use of trickle/drip irrigation Current Conservation Techniques Rain water harvesting Water harvesting - direct collection of rainwater which can be stored for use or can be recharged into the groundwater.  Caribbean Development Bank/

Economics of Conservation Planning. Introduction §Fits into the 9 step process §Identify and evaluate onsite and offsite l Benefits l Costs §Time Value.

expected returns. Evaluation Techniques §Cost Effectiveness Method l Costs of alternatives that achieve the stated objective are compared. Evaluation Techniques §Conservation Effects for Decision-making Allows you to consider all physical, sociological, and economic factors. Evaluation Techniques §Economic Threshold l / 404 Subpart D – Cost Sharing §2 Handbooks l Water Resources l Conservation Planning (Draft) Contact Information §For assistance contact Angie VanDyke 573-876-0908 angie.vandyke@mo.usda.gov

RAIN WATER HARVESTING By KASHMIR DASS BAWA. Every year, the water level in the state PUNJAB goes down by one metre. If this continues, the state will.

is less expensive & easy to construct, operate and maintain 7. In desert, RWH only relief 8. I n saline or coastal areas & Islands, rain water provides good quality water Appropriate Technology Water conservation and groundwater recharge techniques Water harvesting cum supplementary irrigation techniques 16 The roof catchment are selectively cleaner when compared to the ground level catchment Losses from roof catchment are minimum Built & Maintained by local/

Energy Conservation by Optimizing Aeration Systems By Tom Jenkins, P.E. Dresser Roots, Inc. Vikram M. Pattarkine, Ph.D. Brinjac Engineering, Inc Michael.

time per unit power) All “standard” terminologies defined for clean water such as tap water (secondary process effluent is never suitable for clean water testing) Terminology Process Conditions (OTE, OTR, AE) –Adjustment formulas based upon driving force/ Control System for Reasonable Payback – 2 to 5 years Include Process Improvement in Evaluation Energy Conservation: Control System Techniques PD Blowers Use VFDs (Variable Frequency Drives) to modulate air flow Multistage Centrifugal Blowers VFDs/

International Marine Conservation Summit 2020 International Marine Conservation Summit 2020.

Fisheries Partnership Agreements oAllow foreign fleets to over fish in the waters of developing countries Pirate Fishing Bycatch Destructive techniques Lack of conservation Consequences Fish o Decline in Population o Possible extinction of specie/cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas Kenya: Case-Study/

The Scorecard Questions. Question 1 Human Activities To what extent do human activities influence water quality and inputs, and how are they changing?

characteristics. Structural impacts consist of removal or mechanical alteration, including various fishing techniques (e.g., trawls, traps, dredges, longlines, and even hook-and-line/the introduction of alien species include mariculture, bilge discharges and ballast water exchange, commercial shipping and vessel transportation. Releases of aquarium fish/ solutions. These species serve as useful targets for allocating scarce conservation resources. In most cases, the contribution of these migratory or/

A Closer Look and Water and Soil Degradation Part III.

developed. Farmers who migrated to California began using the land more sustainably and invited assistance from USDA and Soil Conservation Service. ‘No till farming” was introduced where the soil is disturbed slightly by making slits in rows in/hydroponic Drip Irrigation Technique Root Mist Technique Fog Feed Technique Disadvantage of Hydroponic Systems High cost of construction, equipment, fuel, and skilled workers. Large-scale operations don’t exist. It is suitable for places where land or water is too /

Soil Water Relationships MK. MANAGEMENT AGROEKOSISTEM HUBUNGAN AIR-TANAH-TANAMAN Disarikan oleh: Prof Soemarno ( Sept 2013)

, A.G. Fernald, T.T. Baker, and D.M. VanLeeuwenA.G. FernaldT.T. BakerD.M. VanLeeuwen Journal of Soil and Water Conservation May/June 2006 vol. 61 no. 3 159-168 Clearing ponderosa pine forests often increases post-harvest runoff and sediment yield, yet there /with 0 kg N ha −1 yr −1, respectively. Soil respiration and N 2 O fluxes measurement using the root-exclusion technique indicated that the rhizosphere of the maize could be the dominant habitat of soil respiration and N 2 O formation. Scaling Effect /

Natural Resources Conservation and Management Past, Present, and Future MS LC Fort High School.

it’s formation Dust Bowl 1920s-1930s Showed farmers better techniques Showed farmers better techniques Improved erosion control Improved erosion control Now known as the Natural Resource Conservation Service Tennessee Valley Authority 1933 Bold experiment Bold experiment Tried to/to-Know Act (1986): Requires companies to disclose information about toxic chemicals they release into the air and water and dispose of on land. Endangered Species Act (1973): Is designed to protect and recover endangered and /

1000 Contribute to improved knowledge and skills of farm families and communities in household water harvesting, irrigated agriculture and soil and water.

and skills of farm families and communities in household water harvesting, irrigated agriculture and soil and water conservation 1100 Farmer Focus Groups established and strengthened 1200 Demand Responsive Approach (DRA) understood and applied 1300 On-farm use of HH water harvesting technology improved 1400 On-farm use of irrigated agricultural production techniques improved 1600 Gender roles in water harvesting and irrigated agriculture are recognized 1700 Strengthened/

Chapter 13 Food, Soil Conservation, and Pest Management.

damage. Figure 13-32 Other Ways to Control Pests Use techniques to change up the environment or conditions so pests cannot easily adapt and spread Use techniques to change up the environment or conditions so pests cannot /biodiversity Efficient irrigation Loss of prime cropland Perennial crops Crop rotation Food waste Water-efficient crops Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing Soil conservation Subsidies for sustainable farming and fishing Population growth Poverty Sustainable Agriculture  Results/

Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Section 4: Erosion Preview Key Ideas Erosion Soil Erosion Soil Conservation Gravity and Erosion Erosion and Landforms.

in countries around the world use planting techniques to reduce soil erosion. In one method, called contour plowing, soil is plowed in curved bands that follow the contour, or shape of the land. This method of planting prevents water from flowing directly down slopes, so the method prevents gullying. Weathering and Erosion Section 4 Soil Conservation, continued Strip-Cropping In strip-cropping, crops/

Issues and Impacts of Agriculture. Our ability to produce enough food to feed to world depends on 3 things: –land –water –and energy About 10% of Earth’s.

Combination of farming methods, biological pest control and chemical pest control Increasing World Crop Production  Crossbreeding and artificial selection  Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)  Continued Green Revolution techniques  Introducing new foods  Working more land Sustainability Sustainable agriculture conserves natural resources –Minimizes the use of energy, water, pesticides & fertilizers –Involves planning productive, pest-resistant crops that require little energy, pesticides, fertilizers/

JAL KRANTI ABHIYAN 2015-16 5 TH MARCH, 2016 Central Ground Water Board Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.

region.  Regulation for watershed for rejuvenation of springs and streams  Convergence of policies of line departments for water security and best practices  Preventive measures for pollution caused by fertilisers by organic farming practices, integrated pest management etc. by Farmers Workshop Recommendations (contd.)  Dissemination of water conservation techniques up to grass root level and involvement of all line departments by district authorities to make people/

Water Rights Permitting Process What TCEQ is looking for to make an application administratively complete Water Rights Permitting & Availability Section.

288.20, 288.21 and 288.22 Water Conservation Plans (WCP) Water Conservation - everyday practices or techniques intended to reduce water consumption, reduce loss or waste of water, improve the efficiency in the use of water and increase recycling & reuse so that a water supply is available for future use. Water Conservation - everyday practices or techniques intended to reduce water consumption, reduce loss or waste of water, improve the efficiency in the use of/

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 17: Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation.

–Run of river Portion of river diverted through powerhouse Energy from the Earth’s Forces Hydropower –1925, falling water generated 40% of world’s electric power Hydroelectric production capacity has grown, but so has fossil fuel use /per dollar output Higher in industrialized countries © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservation Our energy use is inefficient, most potential energy is lost as waste heat Techniques available for industry, transportation, domestic use –US automobile gas mileage increased /

 Broadly viewed… Natural Resource-Based Tourism is not viable without Conservation and Recreation.  Symbiotic relationship— the three mutually complement.

Over-development  Maximizing visitation at expense of the natural resource  Recreational impacts on wildlife and fragile vegetation  Air and water pollution  Crime and vandalism  Souvenir collection 7/8 2 Tourist—Host Relationships & Interactions  Ethnic/Cultural differences  Language / of local materials should be used in fulfilling tourist’s needs  Ecotechniques should be used to conserve techniques  Ways to Develop Ecotourism  Tourism should blend with the environment and local culture  Tourist/

UTRB I MPERILED A QUATIC S PECIES C ONSERVATION S TRATEGY  Frame the Conservation Challenge  Service Management Decision: Strategy Developed Using Structured.

release of cultured individuals and –translocate adults into suitable habitat III. Habitat Management Emphasis Threat/Limiting Factor: water quality, physical habitat, and flows By: protecting or restoring occupied and unoccupied habitat within the historical /alternatives to identify optimal solution Projected conservation benefits and management costs for each management approach were placed in a consequence table, following the simple multi-attribute rating technique. Rating: utilize expert judgment^ to/

Social Influence 1.Discuss the use of two compliance techniques.

people should provide benefits to those who benefit them Compliance Techniques –Door-in-the-face technique AKA  Reciprocal concessions technique –That’s-Not-All Technique –Foot-in-the-door technique –Lowballing Regan 1971 Method: Participant Observation AIM: Norm /increases (FITD) Procedure: 1.Asked dorm students to conserve water 2.Smallest Request  sign a poster 3.Small request  take a survey about water usage 4.Actual request  conserve water Results –Students who had completed the other requests spent/

Chapter 15 Soil Resources

provide Examples Decaying and cycling organic material Breaking down toxic materials Cleansing water Soil aeration (especially done by earthworms) Nutrient Cycling Nutrients are /accumulation of salt in the soil, usually due to improper irrigation techniques Often in arid and semi-arid areas The little precipitation that / condition Change in vegetation changes climate, further decreasing precipitation levels Soil Conservation Conservation Tillage Crop Rotation Residues from previous year’s crops are left in/


recirculated steam condensate in various ratios to fresh make-up water. TYPES OF WATER (Cont) Potable Water Potable water is fresh water that is sanitized with oxidizing biocides such as chlorine or / essential to not over-apply chemicals. In addition, many farmers use banding techniques that spray chemicals in a narrow band over the crop row and rely on/. Even if there in no chemical reaction occurring, the law of conservation underlies the concept of mass balance (also called material balance), and is /

No Agriculture without Water Water for secure and viable photo Arthus-Bertrand.

93 developing countries) that in 2030: - Irrigation efficiency is expected to improve from 38 to 42 % - water withdrawal is expected to grow by about 14 percent New approaches in agricultural water management No Agriculture without Water Improving rainfed production Soil and water conservation techniques –Reduce run-off and increased water infiltration contour stripping, terracing, micro-basins –Increased soil moisture storage Increased soil and rooting depth improve soil/

A Closer Look and Water and Soil Degradation. Soil Erosion Facts Soil is a “potentially renewable resource” – a resource that can be renewed in days to.

developed. Farmers who migrated to California began using the land more sustainably and invited assistance from USDA and Soil Conservation Service. ‘No till farming” was introduced where the soil is disturbed slightly by making slits in rows in/hydroponic Drip Irrigation Technique Root Mist Technique Fog Feed Technique Disadvantage of Hydroponic Systems High cost of construction, equipment, fuel, and skilled workers. Large-scale operations don’t exist. It is suitable for places where land or water is too /

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