Ppt on social contract theory examples

CISB 412 Social and Professional Issues Understanding Ethics.

action as ‘right’, and another ‘wrong’ Vary from place to place and time to time 2. Cultural Relativism Seven Ethical Theories Examples: The act of human sacrifice in order to stop drought. A tribe decides to sacrifice a human to appease the rain god/they live. In order to make this work society needs to also provide the system to enforce the rules 7. Social Contract Theory Seven Ethical Theories Close correspondence between rights and duties If you have the rights to live, then others have the duties not to/

Learning: process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Behavioral learning theories: explanations of learning that.

influence behavior as do consequences. For example, a window in a classroom is /Social cognitive theory Vicarious learning Behavioral learning theories Stimulus Response Respondents Neutral stimulus OperantsAversive Ratio schedule Interval schedule Stimulus control Behavior modification Reprimands Response cost Social isolation Time out Positive behavioral supports Functional behavioral assessment Good behavior game Group Conse- quences Token Rein- forcement system Contingency contract Social Learning theory/

3-1 Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education (Australia) Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Deegan, Financial Accounting Theory 4e F INANCIAL A CCOUNTING T HEORY.

a lower salary Therefore, it is in the interests of management to enter contracts with shareholders and debtholders to constrain their actions Contracts often based on accounting information –accounting-based management bonus schemes –accounting-based debt/ PPTs to accompany Deegan, Financial Accounting Theory 4e Examples of application to accounting standard-setting The release of new or revised accounting standards have real economic and social consequences –for example, consider how the adoption of AASB /

1 Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition Since the late 1990s activists have used the word neoliberalism for global market-liberalism (capitalism)

it was enforced through the state. 7 Liberalism Liberalism as a coherent social philosophy dates from the late 18th century. At first there was no/in inequality of talent. Many liberals were therefore sympathetic to biological theories of inequality. (Theories of hereditary racial differences in intelligence are now popular among US /within a contract period, an employee will be subject to continuous assessment. The use of specialised software in call centres has provided some extreme examples: the /

1-2 3-2 Philosophical Ethics and Business McGraw-Hill/Irwin Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility Copyright.

is the most reasonable decision from an ethical point of view. 1-8 3-8 Utilitarianism: Lessons from Examples Because utilitarians decide on the basis of consequences, and because the consequences of our actions will depend on / a contemporary version of the social contract theory that understand basic ethical rules as part of an implicit contract necessary to insure social cooperation. Rawls’ theory has proven influential in political theory, economics, and the law. Rawls’s theory of justice consists of two /

BASIC POLITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL ROOTS What is Government?  Government- Is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public.

of Powers 3 branches of government -legislative, executive, judicial Checks and balances Purpose of Government  Based on the social contract theory, the purpose of American government is to:  Form a More Perfect Union  Establish Justice  Insure Domestic Tranquility/ C. Confederal – smaller regional governments hold the most power, united by a weak central government  Examples : European Union, Confederate States III. Classified based on Relationship between Legislative & Executive A. Presidential –/

Dr Lambert Engelbrecht Dept of Social Work, Stellenbosch University

to Ferguson’s (2003) Critical Best Practice (CBP) approach to present an example of a best practice strengths-based supervision of social workers, which may be replicated, generalise or transformed to fit other contexts and /Lambert K Engelbrecht Dept. of Social Work, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa Competencies 1. Policies and legislation 2. Methodologies   3. Assessments 4. Contracting with service . users 5. Engagement with service . users 6. Integration of theories, . . perspectives and models/

Section 1 Introduction-1

control over the economy of the United States? Answers will vary. Students should support their opinions with examples. Section 1-8 Checking for Understanding 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, identify four/1 Assessment-4 Critical Thinking 5. Making Comparisons Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both subscribed to the social contract theory of government. Analyze their views of that theory. Both believed that people surrendered to the state the power needed to maintain order, but Locke/

Ethics Theory and Business Practice 4.1 Social Contract Theory – Part One Some Key Themes.

between companies and their stakeholders and to help us think about the broader relationship between business and society classical social contract theory 1.why do we move from the state of nature to society? 2.what do we sacrifice in/ be just as compelling as explicit agreements for exampletheory in practice The psychological contract: a tacit agreement between employers and employees 3. hypothetical constructions the obligations arising from the social contract are not based on an actual agreement they /

01. «Introduction. Basic theories of State and Law» Lecture by M.O. Sopiha, PhD.

individual interests of the country population. Law is the principal regulator of social relationships.  Basic theories of State and Law: Types of the law:  Subjective (actions/ others have adapted the common law system into a mixed system. For example, Pakistan, India and Nigeria operate largely on a common law system, /law comprises provisions governing the ownership and non- property, and intellectual property rights, contracts, torts, etc.  Civil Code contains of six books and practically establishes /

Math 479 / 568 Casualty Actuarial Mathematics

objectives, and techniques Contract law Insurance contract provisions Types of insurance coverages (summaries provided for your information) Adverse selection Risk theory and insurer solvency/ Life and health Property-casualty Lines of business Reinsurance Government Social Social security Unemployment Other FDIC Fire Inland marine Ocean marine Personal auto/ private insurance companies to insure – at least at affordable premiums Examples: Flood insurance in flood zones Property insurance in riot-prone areas/

Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice

Environment The natural environment The built environment The social environment Causes of Environmental Degradation Overpopulation Pollution / shareholders Governments are answerable (at least in theory) to their citizens (either through elections or/ forced arbitration SCOTUS allows corporate binding arbitration contracts, limiting class action lawsuits (AT&T /, lapdog scientists and misguided parents Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples) Exxon’s “Energy Cube” -“Gasoline is simply solar /


including concepts such as motivation and dedication, trust and the psychological contract ›HR management, especially within the core areas of attracting, developing,/and other organisations. The profile takes its point of departure in theories, models, concepts and methods within integrated marketing communication, focusing /study April 2014 AARHUS UNIVERSITY BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES CENTRE FOR CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Project-based study – examples Dansk Supermarked: Employer branding LEGO: /

Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.

Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program Social Security Social Security Medicare Medicare Immigrants contribute est. $115/corporations More than ½ of contracts no-bid More than ½ of contracts no-bid Threat to /lapdog scientists and misguided parents Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples) Exxon’s “Energy Cube” Exxon’s “Energy Cube/ be taught as a “theory” Bills requiring global warming to be taught as a “theory” Anti-Science Legislators Members/

Value Theory u Ethics: moral goodness, obligations, principles, justification; why be moral? u Social-Political Philosophy: justice, rights, responsibilities,

intelligible only within a unified personal and communal narrative MacIntyre Implications l Different ethical theories highlight different features of moral situations. For example: l Abortion: what makes a being morally significant? whose interests need to/ are expected to focus on private (family) matters, they are excluded from full participation in the social contract Critiques of Social Contract Theories Susan Okin l Retributive justice: punishment/reward given to someone for something he/she has done l/

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN ECONOMICS Econ 126 – HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT Pangasinan State University Social Science Department – PSU Lingayen Chapter 3 MERCANTILISM.

, Leviathan, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states and legitimate governments – originating social contract theory.  Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulates what life would/and the relations of society.  He argues that the basest and vilest behaviors produce positive economic effects. A libertine, for example, is a vicious character, and yet his spending will employ tailors, servants, perfumers, cooks, prostitutes. These persons, in /

Game Theory Game Theory analyses how rational decisions are made when decisions are interactive: This means that each individual’s best choice depends.

rational. Thus “cooperative games” assume effective external enforcement of contracts. “Non-cooperative games” assume contracts cannot be enforced unless the individual wants the contract to be enforced. Game theory is for the most part about non-cooperative games. Cooperative / strategy for each individual is to defect, or choose the socially sub-optimal option. Examples of prisoner’s dilemma games: i) The Creation of Social Order: Hobbes and the Theory of the Leviathan ii) Cartels: Adam Smith and the Free/

Social Contract Theory. Social Contract a concept used in philosophy and political science to define an agreement within a state regarding the rights.

there must be a way to change it. What could be some of these ways? Social Contract Theory Since rights come from agreeing to the contract, those who don’t comply by committing crimes, risk losing some of their rights, and/ threat of punishment for violating them. Effects of Social Contract Theory The Social Contract Theory grew out of the Enlightenment period. What were some political/social/economic characteristics of that time? What are some examples in history where this theory was applied to societies?

Principles of Government Chapter One 1.Principles of Government 2.The Formation of Government 3.Types of Governments 4.Economic Theories.

democracy. Identify the four characteristics Explain why they are important/vital to a democracy The United States is an example of Social Contract theory of government. Identify the two people who founded this philosophy Explain the statement in essay 3 Give an example in America of a social contract Vocabulary Autocracy Democracy Capitalism Free Market Command Economy Republic Communism Sovereignty Constitution State WHAT IS A STATE? What/

Ethical Theories. The Different Theoretical Frameworks Evolutionary ethics Relativism Subjectivism Divine Command Natural Law Social Contract Egoism Eudaimonist.

Law Theory What is natural is good. God built certain features into nature. What is natural is not always good.: tsunami, volcano, diseases etc. Just because something is in a certain way does not mean that they ought to be so. Social Contract Model Highlights/ our particular duties The categorical imperative is fundamentally different from hypothetical imperatives that hinge on some personal desire that we have – Example, "If you want to get a good job, then you ought to have a 6 point CGPA" By contrast, a/

Contractual Commitments, Bargaining Power, and Governance Inseparability: Incorporating History into Transaction Cost Theory Argyres & Liebeskind (1999)AMR,

and conditions of that contract or subsequent contracts in its own favor. Theory Governance Inseparability 1. Contractual Commitments *formal contracts(union wage agreement) *informal or nonlegally contracts (self-bonding; social contracts) 2. Changes in Bargaining Power *Governance Switching *Governance Differentiation - - - - Contractual Commitments and Constraints on Governance Switching: Transaction Firm A Governance Arrangement X Governance Arrangement Y Cases and Examples: Franchising agreements(Coca/

3-1 Copyright  2009 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Deegan, Financial Accounting Theory 3e Financial Accounting Theory Craig Deegan Chapter 3 The.

is further assumed managers are opportunistic. Therefore in interests of management to enter contracts with shareholders and debtholders to constrain managers’ actions Contracts often based on accounting information Organisations not producing information will be penalised by/Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Deegan, Financial Accounting Theory 3e Economic interest group theory The release of new or revised accounting standards have real economic and social consequences –For example, consider how the adoption of AASB 138 /

Start: GANGSTA’s Paradise What theories of crime do you see in the lyrics. Functionalism – strain theory – subcultural theory. Marxism – criminogenic –

New Labour Policies. “Tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime.” Examples: 1.Policing of hate crimes, sexual assaults and domestic violence. 2.ASBOs to/ Benefit Fraud Tax Evasion Car Theft Anti-social Behaviour Begging What are crime prevention strategies? How effective are they? Activity: What theory are they based on? What evidence do/social workers, councils and the police They are a step before an ASBO ABC’s Parenting Contracts and Orders These are aimed at parents of unruly children Contracts/

Study booklet.. Theory – summary. 1.Functionalists argue that the family is a universal institution. It performs functions which are essential for the.

often involve payment in kind, not money with which women could buy what they wanted; 7) no formal contracts or bargaining; 8) the man has greater control over property and money and 9) working women still /example, children remain a distinct group – they are a major force in the market place (toys, media products etc), and they remain dependent on their parents for longer. Social construction of childhood – summary. KEY CONCEPTS: social construction of childhood; historical relativity. SUMMARY OF THEORY/

Mr. Sherpinsky’s Business Law Class Entering Into Contracts 2015.

or method of creation for contract formation  Examples: contracts under seal, negotiable instruments, letters of credit  Informal or (Simple Contracts): put into writing to hold proof of existence  Requires no special form for contract information, but usually details or/ Career ▪ Strictly confidential and may not be disclosed to any third party for any reason without a court order!  Social media  No information about: ▪ His/her location ▪ Plans for the day ▪ Pictures of the children ▪ Information /

Pre-AP World History Unit #9. Geocentric / Heliocentric Geocentric – Theory that places the earth at the center of the universe; prior to the Enlightenment.

discarding, the ideas of the ancient mathematicians, these intellectuals developed new theories that became the foundation of the Scientific Revolution. Closure Question #1/(3) monarchies, ideal for moderate-sized states. He used England as an example of monarchy. Montesquieu stated that England’s government had three branches: the executive / In his major work The Social Contract, published in 1762, Rousseau presented his concept of the social contract. Through a social contract, an entire society agrees to/

Module 10: Justice – Hobbes, Rousseau, and the Social Contract

the government when it no longer represents us. This is reflected in democratic theory in general and in the provisions of the U.S. Constitution in particular. Morality Defined by Social Contract Theory Whether you find yourself aligning more with Hobbes or Rousseau in terms of the social contract, morality, as defined by social contract theory, might be this: “morality consists in the set of rules, governing how people/

Chapter Three: Contracts

social agreements are unenforceable  lack of intention to be legally bound The case of Balfour v. Balfour. Using contract/ Exemplary damages  used to make an example of the party at fault to discourage similar/contracts they were not party to. In England, Rights of Third Parties Act was introduced 1999. Insurance contract! Contractual Theory: Contract theory is “the body of a legal theory that addresses normative and conceptual questions in contract law.” One of the most important questions is why contracts/

Rawlsian Contract Approach Attempts to reconcile utilitarianism and intuitionism. Attempts to reconcile utilitarianism and intuitionism. Theory of distributive.

priority rules for weighing one principle against another. Examples: equality, autonomy, benevolence, non-malfeasance, efficiency. Examples: equality, autonomy, benevolence, non-malfeasance, efficiency./ a full theory of justice because we still need a priority principle. This is not a full theory of justice because/Social Contract Argument Social contract argument is an argument about what sort of political morality people would choose were they setting up society from an original position. Social contract/

Origins of Government Exam Review Ms. Ramos.

that influenced the founding generation. Include a modern (last 10 years) example of one value and justify why it is an example. Identify an issue. Include a Classical Liberalism and Classical Republicanism approach to the issue with a justification of how it meets CL and CR. Identify the three ideas the social contract theory contribute to the development of the American system of government? Give/

Module 4 Social Determinants of Financial Reporting

expectations Legitimacy Theory versus Positive Accounting Theory Legitimacy Theory has been compared to the Political Cost Hypothesis of PAT Legitimacy Theory relies on the notion of a ‘social contract’ it does/Examples include shareholders, creditors, government, employees, employee’s families, local communities, and future generations Stakeholder Theory Two branches of Stakeholder Theory: ethical (moral) or normative branch positive (managerial) branch Ethical branch of Stakeholder Theory Normative theory/

Principles of Government

policy Democracy State Sovereignty (sovereign) U.S. Constitution Precedent Writ of Habeas Corpus Social Contract Theory Representative democracy Direct democracy Republic Limited government What is government? “the institution through which a society makes and enforces public policies” What is public policy? Polices, or actions that the government chooses to do. Examples: taxation, education, health care, national defense, civil rights. What is a state? “a/

Ethical Theories Jessica Purath Lindsey Rasmussen Douglas Sass

where one person takes care of another Caring about: something more general that takes us into the public realm An example: caring about people who are going hungry and wanting to do something about it, like start a food pantry According/in society. As a result, the right thing for her to do is return the unpaid-for item. Social Contract Theory Sulina’s Dilemma According to Social Contract Theory, Sulina has willfully agreed to follow the laws of society and to hold herself accountable for her behaviors. /

Masters of Business Administration

theory, Newton theory (law)); What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective (b) Middle-range theories – fall between hypotheses of everyday life (e.g. social bond theory, general system theory, cybernetic theory, Maslow theory); (c) substantive theories – restricted to specific setting, group , time or population (e.g. agency theory, contingency theory, resource-based view theory) Placement of the Theory/contract moral hazard Resource-based theory Concise description of theory/…. For example – PERFORMANCE/

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SCHOOL OF LAW   GPR200 CRIMINOLOGY AND PENOLOGY   COURSE CONTENT. Nature and scope; theories, meaning and degrees of crime; theories.

in minimal occurrence of crime   CLASSICAL THEORY ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Definition of crime Legal          Violation of law.         Rights and social contract. Focus of analysis The criminal act        / modifications necessary for implementation based on practical experience.   Contemporary examples of this theory in the legal system 1 Contemporary examples of this theory in the legal system   1. The legal doctrine that /

The principles of justice John Rawls and the social contract argument.

of institutions Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or/can appeal to the notion of a hypothetical contract.We can appeal to the notion of a hypothetical contract. Rawls introduces the thought experiment of the original/rationality model fairness. The device helps to render our intuitions more precise – for example what is inadequate in certain conceptions of equality of opportunity – and to test /

Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace Collaborative Course: Loyola University of Chicago School of Social Work and Vytautas.

shackling. Amartya Sen: Possibility of social choice Task: develop using systematic investigation, broadly applicable and reasonable axioms about important aspects of social choice Questions in developing social choice theory p. 188. Example: how to define poverty? 194 /of human beings, i.e. they are the End in Itself” 800] and political theories (Locke, “society arises through the voluntary contract of individuals trying to maximise their own self- interests” 800}, heritage of US constitution and/

Global Social Work Practice: Reflective Practice for Justice and Peace Collaborative Course: Loyola University of Chicago School of Social Work and Vytautas.

shackling. Amartya Sen: Possibility of social choice Task: develop using systematic investigation, broadly applicable and reasonable axioms about important aspects of social choice Questions in developing social choice theory p. 188. Example: how to define poverty? 194 /of human beings, i.e. they are the End in Itself” 800] and political theories (Locke, “society arises through the voluntary contract of individuals trying to maximise their own self- interests” 800}, heritage of US constitution and/

Ethics and Leadership. Outline Moral Development Moral Development Freudian Theory Freudian Theory Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s Levels Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s.

apply to many situations STAGE 5: Social Contract STAGE 5: Social Contract Imagine alternatives to social order, rules are a contract that can be changed—free and willing participation Imagine alternatives to social order, rules are a contract that can be changed—free and / so that parent is more likely to punish with greater frequency over time (can spiral into serious abuse) Social Learning Theory: Example The Salvation Army Santa Claus study: When a confederate walked out of a store in front of a SS /

Field Instructor Training: From Classroom to Practice

student knows to ask you about any concerns or questions regarding confidentiality as they arise. Provide specific examples of situations that could involve confidentiality issues and guidelines for managing these events. Information in Agency / practice, cultural competency, person-in-environment, social justice and social change Ethical practice according to NASW Code Fit and niche of social work as a career Writing Contracts Learning Progression Theory: Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor awareness and /

Sexual Arousal Chapter 8 Study Questions

and orgasm involve physiological processes, including genital vascocongestion and muscular contractions during orgasm. Sexual desire was of paramount importance to Kaplan because/that one is valued and respected by others) 3. group-belonging (availability of social companionship) 4. emotional closeness (provision of intimacy and confiding about emotions) 5. / for its implications for both evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory. Law & Infidelity For example, New York defines an adulterer as a person who/

Economic Foundations of Strategy Chapter 3: Property Rights Theory

(1990): Economic Behavior and Organization Hart (1995): Firms, Contracts and Financial Structure Property Rights Theory: Three important criteria for efficiency of property rights: Universality: / impediments that can block institutional change in under-developed countries, for example. North (1990): Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance North /and At the third level, attempts are made to consider both social and political rules, and the structure of political institutions as endogenous/

Sara Van Gerwen, Audrey Archibald. WHAT IS MARRIAGE?  Marriage is a social union or legal contract between individuals that creates kinship. It is an.

“sororate” which is marriage to a wife’s sister. – Example: man may marry wife’s sister if his wife can’t have children. Some of /betrothal”; Children under age of 10 promised to a family for marriage, seen as legal contract that cannot be broken without compensation. This is done to keep “love attachments” from /on friendship, children, to avoid dating and to gain responsibility and social acceptability Why choose to marry? Back to social exchange theory: – It is better to be married than to be single Monica/

1 Session III - SW23A Theoretical Framework/ Models of Social Policy.

the resources which go into welfare provision. For example, Wilenskys work on welfare spending shows that the /of interrelated concepts like a theory. A collection of interrelated concepts like a theory. Guides research, determining what /social security provisions e.g. pensions, health insurance. Heavy reliance on social security provisions e.g. pensions, health insurance. Also involves a social contract between the state, labour and private sector to control wages and prices. Also involves a social contract/

Chapter Two Theories and Principles Yuanyuan Dong 2007-9-4.

the west.  1. divine command theory  2. utilitarianism  3. natural rights theory  4. natural law theories  5. social contract theory  6. virtue approaches theory  7. the ethics of care  8. the deep ecology theory Utilitarianism  Utilitarianism is often summed up / peoples autonomy.  Respect for patients autonomy prima facie requires us, therefore, not to deceive patients, for example, about their diagnosed illness unless they clearly wish to be deceived.  Telling the truth about terminal cancer?/

Social Responsibility & Managerial Ethics Ch 5. What Is Social Responsibility? The Classical View The Classical View Management’s only social responsibility.

rights of employee. Protects the interests of underrepresented stakeholders and the rights of employee. Integrative Social Contracts Theory Integrative Social Contracts Theory Ethical decisions should be based on existing ethical norms in industries and communities in order to/ codes of ethics and decision rules. 3. Lead by example. 4. Delineate job goals and performance appraisal mechanisms. 5. Provide ethics training. 6. Conduct social audits. 7. Provide support for individuals facing ethical dilemmas./

1.Systems and Environment of the Public Sector. Value: Humanism Theory: Motivation Behavioral Model Human Relation School Organization Development School.

Social Needs Ego Needs Motivation Self-Fulfillment Federalist Period,1789-1800 The Jeffersonians 1801-1829 Era of the Spoils 1829-1865 The Road to Reform 1865-1883 Civil Service Reform Early 20 th Century Wartime and Peacetime Needs 1940s Slow Growth in Govt 1950s Accountability, Equity & Justice 1960s Reform 1970s Retrenchment 1980s Downsizing 1990s Example/Theory Sociotechnical Theory Societal Level Dystopian Theory Social Capital Policy Issues Global Integrationist Theory/-level contracts Analytical /

ACCT3003 Issues in Accounting Theory Topic 6 Systems-oriented theories.

expectations (O’Donovan 1999) Legitimacy Theory versus Positive Accounting Theory  Legitimacy Theory has been compared to the Political Cost Hypothesis of PAT  Legitimacy Theory relies on the notion of a ‘social contract’  It does not rely on/Information, including financial accounting and social performance information, is a major element employed to manage stakeholders  used to gain support or approval  also used to distract their opposition or disapproval Examples of empirical studies  Roberts /


refers to classifies independent contractors, temporary workers, on-call workers, day laborers and those employed by contract firms as workers employed in alternative work arrangements. The February 2001 labor survey found 8.6 /Theory The similarity-attraction hypothesis maintains that similarity in attitudes is a major source of attraction between individuals. A variety of physical, social and status traits can be used as the basis for inferring similarity in attitudes, beliefs, or personality. For example/

Politics and the Social Contract: J. J. Rousseau and Karl Marx Clark Wolf Iowa State University

Analysis The political theories of Hobbes and Locke are irrelevant. Hobbes and Locke both describe civil government as arising from a pre-social state of nature,/‘state of nature.’ 2) Conceiving of political institutions on the model of a contract can still inform us about their essential properties. Argument for Analysis: Soujourner Truth, /the lights go out." -Great Britain Parliamentary Report, Ashley Mines Commission, 1842. Example 2: Nike worker in micronesia, working 15 hour days, earning less than the /

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