modems, modem designers had to use techniques far more sophisticated than frequency- shift keying. First they moved to phase-shift keying (PSK), and then **quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM). First they moved to phase-shift keying (PSK), and then **quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM). These techniques allow an incredible amount of information to be crammed into the 3,000 hertz of bandwidth available on a normal voice-grade/

Copyright 2003 Prentice Hall Panko’s Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 4 th edition **Modulation** 3 **Modulation** converts an digital computer signal into a form that can travel down an ordinary analog telephone line There are several forms of **modulation** **Amplitude** **modulation** Frequency **modulation** Phase **modulation** **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM), which combines **amplitude** and phase **modulation** 4 Waves Frequency of a wave The number of complete cycles per second Called Hertz kHz/

) Change in Frequency: Frequency-Shift-Keying (FSK) Change in Phase: Phase-Shift-Keying (PSK) Hybrid changes (more than one parameter). Ex. Phase and **Amplitude** change: **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) 55 Binary **Modulations** – Basic Types These two have constant envelope (important for **amplitude** sensitive channels) 56 Coherent and Non-coherent Detection Coherent Detection (most PSK, some FSK): Exact replicas of the possible arriving signals are available at/

C.Two or more data streams share the same channel by transmitting time of transmission as the sub-carrier D.Two or more signals are **quadrature** **modulated** to increase bandwidth efficiency E8D01 What is the easiest voltage **amplitude** parameter to measure when viewing a pure sine wave signal on an oscilloscope? A.Peak-to-peak voltage B.RMS voltage C.Average voltage D/

of **modulation** –**Amplitude** **modulation** –Frequency **modulation** –Phase **modulation** –**Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM), which combines **amplitude** and phase **modulation** © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall B-5 **Amplitude** **Modulation** (AM) **Amplitude** is the intensity of the signal –Loud or soft **Amplitude** (power) © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall B-6 **Amplitude** **Modulation** (AM) Low **Amplitude** (0) High **Amplitude** (1) **Amplitude** **Modulation** (1011) **Amplitude** (low) **Amplitude** (high/

(in Hz/V) - defines amount magnitude of allowable frequency change carrier (a) Carrier wave. (b) Sinusoidal **modulating** signal. (c) **Amplitude**-**modulated** signal. (d) Frequency-**modulated** signal. FM signal spectrum → carrier + Message signal frequency # of sidebands So FM signal spectrum → carrier + / hence both signals occupy the same bandwidth π/4 QPSK π/4 QPSK The π/4 shifted QPSK **modulation** is a **quadrature** phase shift keying technique offers a compromise between OQPSK and QPSK in terms of the allowed maximum /

receiver x(t) cos(2pfct) +A Baseband signal discernable after smoothing T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T -A Recovered Information 1 **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) QAM uses two-dimensional signaling Ak **modulates** in-phase cos(2pfct) Bk **modulates** **quadrature** phase sin(2pfct) Transmit sum of inphase & **quadrature** phase components x Ak Yi(t) = Ak cos(2fct) cos(2fct) + Y(t) Transmitted Signal x Bk Yq/

diagram shows us the __________ of a signal element, particularly when we are using two carriers (one in-phase and one **quadrature**). A) **amplitude** and phase B) **amplitude** and frequency C) frequency and phase D) none of the above Answer-A 16. **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM) is a combination of ___________. A) ASK and FSK B) ASK and PSK C) PSK and FSK D) none of/

Often also transmission of relative, not absolute phase shift: DQPSK - Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS) 111000 01 Q I 01 Q I 11 01 10 00 A t **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM): combines **amplitude** and phase **modulation** it is possible to code n bits using one symbol 2 n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK bit error rate increases with n, but less errors/

Often also transmission of relative, not absolute phase shift: DQPSK - Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS) 111000 01 Q I 01 Q I 11 01 10 00 A t **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM): combines **amplitude** and phase **modulation** it is possible to code n bits using one symbol 2 n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK bit error rate increases with n, but less errors/

each mod scheme. 2-Binary **modulation** techniques 3-**quadrature** **modulation** techniques 4-M-ary **modulation** techniques 5-comparing different scheme › Power spectra. › Probability of error. › Bandwidth efficiency. 6-bit vs. symbol error probabilities 7-applications 2 3 4 Why **modulate**? Antenna’s length Multiplexing Main idea: shifting(keying) the **amplitude**/frequency/phase of a high frequency carrier. **Modulator**: › In digital communication : **modulating** wave :binary data/M-ary encoded/

can use it to represent digital data ϞExample: using internet over the telephone line **Modulation** There are three characteristics of a sine wave, so we can change each of them to **modulate** a signal Ϟ**Amplitude** **Modulation** ϞFrequency **Modulation** ϞPhase **Modulation** We can also combine them to get another method knows as QAM **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** Bit Rate VS Baud Rate Bit rate Number of bits transmitted during one second/

also transmission of relative, not absolute phase shift: DQPSK - Differential QPSK (IS-136, PACS, PHS) 111000 01 Q I 01 Q I 11 01 10 00 A t **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM): combines **amplitude** and phase **modulation** it is possible to code n bits using one symbol 2 n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK bit error rate increases with n, but less errors/

demodulation must be de-emphasized by a filter with similar characteristics as the pre-emphasis filter to restore the relative **amplitudes** of the **modulating** signal. H. Chan, Mohawk College FM Stereo Broadcasting: Baseband Spectra To maintain compatibility with monaural system, FM / FM receivers. Phase Detector Demodulated output FM IF Signal f LPF VCO H. Chan, Mohawk College **Quadrature** Detector Both the **quadrature** and the PLL detector are conveniently found as IC packages. H. Chan, Mohawk College Radio-Wave /

EE445S Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Lab Spring 2014 Lecture 15 **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) Transmitter Prof. Brian L. Evans Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin 15 - 2 Introduction Digital Pulse **Amplitude** **Modulation** (PAM) **Modulates** digital information onto **amplitude** of pulse May be later upconverted (e.g. to radio frequency) Digital **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) Two-dimensional extension of digital PAM Baseband signal requires sinusoidal/

90 degrees out of phase signal. Block Diagram of an IQ **modulator** VQVQ ө A 1 1 VIVI I Q CI Lecture Series Summer 2010 Effect of **quadrature** phase error and **amplitude** offset on sidebands Vector Mod ADL5375 from Analog Devices. Typical Gain/**Amplitude** error of a Vector **Modulator** Courtesy: Hittite Microwaves IQ Gain imbalance error is due to inconsistencies between two mixers and imperfect 90/

**Amplitude** **Modulation** The information signal varies the instantaneous **amplitude** of the carrier AM Characteristics AM is a nonlinear process Sum and difference frequencies are created that carry the information Full-Carrier AM: Time Domain **Modulation** Index - The ratio between the **amplitudes** between the **amplitudes** of the **modulating**/ is known as **Quadrature** AM (QUAM or QAM) Recovery of the two signals is accomplished by synchronous detection by two balanced **modulators** **Quadrature** Operation Suppressed-Carrier AM/

co-integration. Single-sideband **modulation** or demodulation in a mm-wave transceiver requires a mm-wave local oscillator (LO) with **quadrature** outputs. 7 INTRODUCTION (Cont.) A phase and **amplitude** tuning mechanism with about 5 and/ ’ s free running frequency is preferred. Moreover, a two-stage ring oscillator readily produces **quadrature** signals, which are required for advanced **modulation** and demodulation schemes. 21 FREQUENCY TRIPLER ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN Block diagram of the proposed tripler. 22/

frequencies >f 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 5 Pulse-**Amplitude** **Modulation** – PAM Samples have analog (infinite precision) values Undersampling If sample rate is < 2f then it is possible to map/phase angles, 0 and Two possibilities for symbol One bit per symbol If we use more phase angles, we can send more data per symbol **Quadrature** (or Quaternary) PSK QPSK uses angles Four possibilities for symbol Two bits per symbol BPSK QPSK /

Austin 15 - 2 Introduction Digital Pulse **Amplitude** **Modulation** (PAM) **modulates** digital information onto **amplitude** of pulse and may be later **modulated** by sinusoid Digital **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) is two-dimensional extension of digital PAM that requires sinusoidal **modulation** Digital QAM **modulates** digital information onto pulses that are **modulated** onto **Amplitudes** of a sine and a cosine, or equivalently **Amplitude** and phase of single sinusoid 15 - 3 **Amplitude** **Modulation** by Cosine Example: y(t) = f/

ECE 766 Computer Interfacing and Protocols 2 **Modulation** **Modulation** Techniques –**Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) –Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) –Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Aspects of **Modulation** –Bit rate vs. Baud rate Bit rate ≥ Baud rate –Carrier Signal **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) 05 - Winter 2005 ECE ECE 766 Computer Interfacing and Protocols 3 **Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) Basic technique (like AM) change the **amplitude** of the signal to transfer logical values/

Broadcast AM demodulator uses an envelope detector No need to recover phase very simple receiver design **Quadrature** **modulation** sends independent AM signals **modulated** onto the sin and cosine carriers FM encodes information in frequency of carrier (optional topic) LSB USB/block diagram includes compression, error-correction coding and **modulation** Digital baseband **modulation** encodes bits in analog signal Digital passband **modulation** encodes binary bits into the **amplitude** or phase of the carrier. ASK/PSK /

probability is approximately given by ©2000 Bijan Mobasseri91 **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) l MPSK was a phase **modulation** scheme. All **amplitudes** are the same l QAM is described by a constellation consisting of combination of phase and **amplitudes** l The rule governing bits-to-symbols are / bps ©2000 Bijan Mobasseri98 M-ary FSK l Using M tones, instead of M phases/**amplitudes** is a fundamentally different way of M-ary **modulation** l The idea is to use M RF pulses. The frequencies chosen must be orthogonal ©/

pulses fixed carrier frequency fixed pulse **amplitude** pulse width proportional to instantaneous signal **amplitude** PWM energy original signal energy Differs from PAM (Pulse **Amplitude** **Modulation**) fixed width, variable **amplitude** 5 - 24 T t PWM representation PAM / estimate errors Alternative: Estimate the speed using a measured time interval at fixed position intervals Signal from one **Quadrature** Encoder Channel Low speed velocity estimation from incr. encoder: Measure the time width of a pulse/

. CS 515 © Ibrahim Korpeoglu **Amplitude** **Modulation** The **amplitude** of high-carrier signal is varied according to the instantaneous **amplitude** of the **modulating** message signal m(t). AM **Modulator** m(t) sAM(t) CS 515 © Ibrahim Korpeoglu **Modulation** Index of AM Signal For a/ 1 0 1 0 1 Data Carrier Carrier+ p BPSK waveform CS 515 © Ibrahim Korpeoglu **Quadrature** Phase Shift Keying Multilevel **Modulation** Technique: 2 bits per symbol More spectrally efficient, more complex receiver. Two times more bandwidth efficient/

function of the average energyof the constellation. OFDM: performances on AWGN channel (in-phase component) (in-**quadrature** component) Sistemi di radiocomunicazione 24 OFDM: performances on AWGN channel Practically the error probability of an OFDM system/ 25 OFDM: performances with pulse noise The OFDM **modulation** offers remarkable robustness properties against impulsive noises, where impulsive noise is defined as a rectangular pulse with limited **amplitude** and duration (generally inferior than the symbol time/

**modulation** B. Phase **modulation** C. **Amplitude** **modulation** D. Pulse **modulation** G8A04 What emission is produced by a reactance **modulator** connected to an RF power amplifier? A. Multiplex **modulation** B. Phase **modulation** C. **Amplitude** **modulation** D. Pulse **modulation** G8A05 What type of **modulation** varies the instantaneous power level of the RF signal? A. Frequency shift keying B. Pulse position **modulation** C. Frequency **modulation** D. **Amplitude** **modulation** G8A05 What type of **modulation**/ receiver? A. **Quadrature** noise B. Image/

M decreases BER and decreases bandwidth Efficiency MPSK: Increasing M increases BER and increases bandwidth efficiency 42/45 **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) QAM used on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and some wireless standards combination of ASK and/carrier frequency use two copies of carrier, one shifted by 90° each carrier is ASK **modulated** **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM) is a popular analog signaling technique that is used in the asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL),/

DPSK. Optical Filter Elec. Filter Photodetector Decoder Optical signal Bits Information Bits Laser **Modulator** Optical signal Encoder Symbols 5 **Modulation** Formats One or more field properties can be **modulated** to carry information. Example: On-off keying (OOK): binary **amplitude** **modulation** Binary DPSK, **Quadrature** DPSK : phase **modulation** **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM): **amplitude** and phase **modulation** **Amplitude** Polarization PhaseFrequency Electric field of optical carrier: E(t) = êAexp(j t+ 6/

shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PSK) CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second EditionCCRI J. Bernardini **Quadrature** phase shift keying (QPSK) CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition 16-QAM **Modulation** CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition 64-QAM - 64-level **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs, Second Edition Max Total Service Area Data Rate Summary PHY Data Rates Frequency Band Standards/

receiver for the AWGN channel Now Mobile radio —— Optimum receiver for the AWGN channel Placement of thresholds at mid-points of successive **amplitude** levels.Consider M=4. Mobile radio —— Optimum receiver for the AWGN channel Given that the m-th symbol is transmitted, the / easy process. Using a programmable read only memory(PROM) or a high speed DSP, the generation of an MSK waveform in their **quadrature** **modulation** format, I(t)cosω c t and Q(t)sinω c t is very easy. Mobile radio —— Minimum Shift Keying (/

.5) Complex representationSignal space diagram 28 Binary **amplitude** **modulation** (BAM) Raised-cosine pulses (roll-off 0.5) Power spectral density for BAM Normalized freq. fiT b 29 Quaternary PSK (QPSK or 4-PSK) Rectangular pulses Complex representation Radio signal 30 Quaternary PSK (QPSK or 4-PSK) Rectangular pulses Power spectral density for QPSK 31 **Quadrature** ampl.-**modulation** (QAM) Root raised-cos pulses (roll-off/

**amplitude** imbalance is indicated when the constellation is not "square," i.e., when the Q-axis height does not equal the I-axis width, as seen in the Figure. Most Common I/Q Imbalances-2 **Quadrature** error If the phase shift between the RF LO signals that mix with the I and Q base band signal at the **modulator**/I/Q Imbalances (1) Developing a mathematical model to estimate **Amplitude** imbalance Phase imbalance between the I/Q branches **Quadrature** error Delay Implementing the algorithm in PowerPC processor Get the /

phase shift keying (QPSK) CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 47 REFERENCES CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 48 16-QAM **Modulation** CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 48 REFERENCES CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 49 64-QAM - 64-level **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 49 REFERENCES CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 50 Spread Spectrum Comparisons CCRI Engineering and Technology Jbernardini 50 PHYData RatesFrequency/

Frequency Shift Keying AMPS control channels MSK Minimum Shift Keying GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GSM systems, CDPD nHybrid Combinations of Linear and Constant Envelope **Modulation** MPSK M-ary Phase Shift Keying QAM M-ary **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** MFSK M-ary Frequency Shift Keying FLEX paging protocol nSpread Spectrum Multiple Access Techniques DSSS Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum IS-95 CDMA FHSS Frequency-Hopping Spread/

(see e.g. Lee & Messerschmitt, Chapter 16). Postacademic Course on Telecommunications 27/4/00 p. 15 **Module**-3 Transmission Marc Moonen Lecture-3 Transmitter Design K.U.Leuven-ESAT/SISTA Constellations for linear **modulation** (I) Transmitted signal (envelope) is: Constellations: PAM PSK QAM pulse **amplitude** **modulation** phase-shift keying **quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** 4-PAM (2bits) 8-PSK (3bits) 16-QAM (4bits) ps: complex constellations for passband transmission/

encoded into each signaling element. For B necessary to pass M-ary digitally **modulated** carriers **Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) **Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) A binary information signal directly **modulates** the **amplitude** of an analog carrier. Sometimes called Digital **Amplitude** **Modulation** (DAM) Where v ask (t) = **amplitude** shift keying wave v m (t) = digital information signal (volt) A/2 = unmodulated/

that have more than two output conditions ( symbols) must be used. 6Sec3_Dig_Modu Digital **Amplitude** **Modulation** For AM V(t) = A/2 [1+ m(t)] cos ( 2* pi * fc*t). **modulating** signal carrier signal Let m(t)=+1 (binary) on – off-keying. (Acos(/table and constellation Find a block diagram for 16 PSK 59Sec3_Dig_Modu **Quadratur** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) Information is contained to both the **amplitude** & phase of the transmitted carrier. Output of 8-QAM (Not a constant –**amplitude** signal ) 8 –QAM Tx is so similar to the /

the phase, θ of the carrier are varied proportional to the information signal, a digital **modulated** signal is called **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (QAM) Cont’d… Simplified block diagram of a digital **modulation** system Cont’d… Precoder performs level conversion & encodes incoming data into group of bits that **modulate** an analog carrier. **Modulated** carrier filtered, amplified & transmitted through transmission medium to Rx. In Rx, the incoming signals filtered, amplified/

Bell Modems Bell 202 –Used for call display –Simplex Bell 103 –300 baud –Full duplex Bell 212A –PSK –1200 bps QAM - **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** Increase the number of bits/symbol Combination of **amplitude** and phase **modulation** A constellation diagram shows all signal states Connection quality determines data rate 56K Modem Dial-up Signal passes through the BORSCHT codec FCC limitation is 54 kb/s (downstream/

message spectrum and (b) the redundant bandwidth consumption in DSB **modulations**. To Improve the spectral efficiency of AM Single-side (SSB) **modulation** Remove either LSB or USB **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM) Sending two messages over the same bandwidth of 2B Hz. Fundamental of Communication Systems ELCT332 FALL2011 14 SSB spectra from suppressing one DSB sideband. **Amplitude** **Modulation**: Single Sideband (SSB) Bandpass filtering SSB spectra from suppressing one/

and negative drawbacks associated with them. In the case of this amplifier, I observed that the phase shift keying **modulators** performed better. (read slide) Future Goals Design and build demodulators Obtain quantitative results Bit error rate Design more “complex” **modulators** **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulators** Differential Phase Shift Keying **Modulators** Incorporate encoders and decoders to communication system (read slide) Acknowledgements Hien Do, Ned Davis, Daron Nishimoto Lynne Raschke/

at the right most part of the figure. The two **modulated** codes are combined resulting in a complete GPS signal. The two components are added together as in-phase and **quadrature** components of the final signal. The last part is the /more detailed description of the input signal. The following figure shows the first 100 samples of the signal sampled with an **amplitude** resolution of 8 bits. 25 Acquisition Algorithms Three algorithms may be described: –Serial search acquisition –Parallel frequency space search /

**amplitude** of the **modulating** signal: B PM = 2(1 + β)B. Note 5.14 Digital **Modulation** Digital **modulation** is used to generate analog signals from information bit streams Digital **modulation** types **Amplitude** Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** 5.15 Digital **modulation**/12 Concept of a constellation diagram 5.26 Figure 5.13 Three constellation diagrams 5.27 **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** is a combination of ASK and PSK. Note 5.28 Figure 5.14 Constellation diagrams /

0 CNU Dept. of Electronics D. J. Kim16 Lecture on Communication Theory 5. **Quadrature**-Carrier Multiplexing or QAM In-phase **Quadrature** CNU Dept. of Electronics D. J. Kim17 Lecture on Communication Theory Key points> /in FM system 1. Nonlinearties 1) Strong nonlinearity : square-law **modulators**, limiters, frequency multiplier 2) Weak nonlinearity : due to imperfections. 2. Weak Nonlinearity 의 경우 ( 결론 ) FM 은 Channel 로 전송 중 생기는 **Amplitude** Nonlinearity 에 의한 영향이 없다. Microwave radio, satellite communication system /

low cost of the parts necessary to implement AM transmission and the simplicity of the underlying technology, using **amplitude** **modulations** is a cheap and effective way to perform many tasks that require wireless communication. The most well/discriminator method) SSB **modulator** using the frequency discrimination approach Magnitude spectra : (a) baseband ; (b) DSBSC-AM; (c) upper SSB; (d) lower SSB **Quadrature** **modulator** can be used to create a SSB-AM signal by selecting the **quadrature** signal to coherently /

position of wave measured in degree –A shift of departure from normal continuous pattern of the wave Modems **Modulation** and Demodulation Analog lines to transmit digital signals Methods –**Amplitude** **modulation** (AM) –Frequency **modulation** (FM) –Phase **modulation** (PM) –**Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** (QAM) **Modulation** **Amplitude** **modulation** (AM) –Height of the signals –Susceptible to noise and interference Frequency **modulation** (FM) –Frequency shift keying (FSK) –Width of the signals –Less interference than AM Phase/

at the receiver for carrier phase estimation ( ). PLL Oscillator 90 deg. Used by correlators I branch Q branch Lecture 79 Bandpass **Modulation** Schemes One dimensional waveforms **Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) M-ary Pulse **Amplitude** **Modulation** (M-PAM) Two dimensional waveforms M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-PSK) M-ary **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (M-QAM) Multidimensional waveforms M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-FSK) Lecture 710 One dimensional/

the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is 5000. But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps. **Quadrature** **amplitude** **modulation** is a combination of ASK and PSK so that a maximum contrast between each signal unit (bit, dibit, tribit, and so on) is achieved. What is the QAM ? The 4/

oscillators at the receiver which generate the carrier signal, are not usually phased locked to the transmitted carrier. Lecture 76 Bandpass **Modulation** Schemes One dimensional waveforms **Amplitude** Shift Keying (ASK) M-ary Pulse **Amplitude** **Modulation** (M-PAM) Two dimensional waveforms M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-PSK) M-ary **Quadrature** **Amplitude** **Modulation** (M-QAM) Multidimensional waveforms M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-FSK) Lecture 77 One dimensional/

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