Ppt on network layer in computer networks

Networking Protocols John R. Durrett ISQS 6343 #1.

–LLC (logical link control) –MAC (Media Access Control) Network Assumes data-link layer packets routing of packets –therefore addresses necessary network optimization congestion handling No error checking Transport Relies on network layer Frequently combined with network layer in protocols Messages Error checking –UDP & TCP NetBEUI, TCP/IP, IPX/SPX Session Assumes Transport layer Sessions between computers based on names of other computers NetBIOS - Windows Sockets - TCP/IP Presentation Assumes session/

COMP53311 Other Classification Models: Neural Network Prepared by Raymond Wong Some of the notes about Neural Network are borrowed from LW Chan’s notes.

models (PDP) Artificial Neural Networks Computational Neural Networks Neurocomputers COMP53315 Neural Network This approach is inspired by the way that brains process information, which is entirely differ from the way that conventional computers do Information processing occurs at/ with slight degradation in performance. COMP53317 Neuron Network Neuron Network for OR Neuron Network input output x1x1 x2x2 y x1x1 x2x2 y 000 011 101 111 OR Function COMP53318 Neuron Network Neuron Network for OR input output/

CEN 5501C - Computer Networks - Spring 2007 - UF/CISE - Newman1 Computer Networks Chapter 1 - Fundamentals.

on end host Specific application programs –FTP –Remote terminal (rlogin, telnet, ssh,…) –Email –HTTP May also be layered in distributed software system CEN 5501C - Computer Networks - Spring 2007 - UF/CISE - Newman15 Encapsulation application transport network link physical application transport network link physical source destination M M M M H t H t H n H t H n H l M M M M H t/

@Yuan Xue CS 283Computer Networks Spring 2011 Instructor: Yuan Xue.

S. Davie @Yuan Xue (yuan.xue@vanderbilt.edu) Course Scope All about “NetworkNetwork itself: Local Area Network  Internet Networking Applications/Services Network Services Applications Network @Yuan Xue (yuan.xue@vanderbilt.edu) Course Focus Basic: first basic class in computer networks Wireless network Mobile system/application Multimedia network/service/application Network security Principle + Practice (half and half) Principle – how the network is built and why it is built this way Practice – lots of/

Cs/ee 143 Communication Networks Routing Misc Text: Walrand & Parakh, 2010 Steven Low CMS, EE, Caltech.

.R3; update routing tables (intra-AS) Failure detected by border gateway in AS5 BGP re-computes The path between AS2 and AS5 will be changed Outline Putting it all together Routing across Internet  LAN, intra-AS, inter-AS Routing across layers 2 and 3 Selfish routing: inefficiency Dynamic routing: instability Transportation network Transportation Network Which route to take? 10 f f +50 Local alg: min/

Computer Networks: ATM1 ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

reassembles cells into larger data units at the receiver. Computer Networks: ATM22 Figure 3.17 Segmentation and Reassembly in ATM ■ ■ ■ AAL ATM AAL ATM P&D slide Computer Networks: ATM23 Original ATM Architecture Computer Networks: ATM24 Transmission convergence sublayer Physical medium dependent sublayer Physical medium ATM layer Physical layer Figure 9.6Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication NetworksCopyright ©2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Computer Networks: ATM25 The AAL interface was initially defined as/

10-803 Markov Logic Networks Instructor: Pedro Domingos.

The Interface Layer Interface Layer Applications Infrastructure Networking Interface Layer Applications Infrastructure Internet Routers Protocols WWW Email Databases Interface Layer Applications Infrastructure Relational Model Query Optimization Transaction Management ERP OLTP CRM Programming Systems Interface Layer Applications Infrastructure High-Level Languages Compilers Code Optimizers Programming Hardware Interface Layer Applications Infrastructure VLSI Design VLSI modules Computer-Aided Chip/

IS Network and Telecommunications Risks

sender and receiver Network Layer responsible for making routing decisions Data Link Layer deals with message delineation, error control and network medium access control Physical Layer defines how individual bits are formatted to be transmitted through the network System Software Computer Hardware Data Communication Standards Layer Common Standards 5. Application layer HTTP, HTML (Web) IMAP, POP (e-mail) 4. Transport layer TCP (Internet) SPX (Novell LANs) 3. Network layer IP (Internet) IPX/

Artificial Neural Networks ECE 398BD Instructor: Shobha Vasudevan.

Computing Artificial Neurons Neural Computing Basheer, I. A., & Hajmeer, M. (2000). Artificial Neurons A simulation of biological neurons Artificial Neurons form Artificial Neural Networks Basheer, I. A., & Hajmeer, M. (2000). Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) Basic structure of 3-layer feedforward network: One input layer, one hidden layer, and one output layer Each layer/hehe yeye x W U h y Train with every input-output pair in the training dataset with steps above, for many iterations until convergence (/

© 2002 JW Ryder CS 428 Computer Networks 1 Ethernet Properties 10Mbps/100Mbps broadcast bus technology –Bus: all stations share single channel –Broadcast:

bus and beginning transmission simultaneously Draw picture © 2002 JW Ryder CS 428 Computer Networks 4 CSMA/CD Each transceiver monitors cable while transmitting in an attempt to detect foreign signals (interference) Monitoring called Collision Detection If/ 2002 JW Ryder CS 428 Computer Networks 16 Network Layer Level 3 Defines basics unit of transfer across network Includes concepts of destination addressing, routing © 2002 JW Ryder CS 428 Computer Networks 17 Transport Layer Level 4 End to End reliability/

ABC Sporting Goods Network Design Proposal by: Ed Allen Justin Caldwell Lou Maccarone.

Lines 56k between Sales and Inv Top Down Approach Business Layer Connect all of the computers in order to better communicate and work more efficiently. Set up a web presence so that sales can be made via the Internet. Give ABC Sporting Goods the ability to have network access remotely. Top Down Approach Application Layer We will use the following applications due to the their/

CIS 235: Networks Fall, 2007 Western State College Welcome to CIS 235 Computer Networks Fall, 2007 Prof Peterson.

Welcome to CIS 235 Computer Networks Fall, 2007 Prof Peterson CIS 235: Networks Fall, 2007 Western State College The Protocol Stack: Application What sort of applications do we find at the application layer? What protocols run here? What services does this layer need from the one below? What is the data transmitted at this layer called? Where does this layer run? CIS 235: Networks Fall, 2007 Western State/

Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course Midterm one review by David G. Messerschmitt.

computing –two and three tier –Web Understanding Networked Applications A First Course 5 Major topics (con’t) Architecture –decomposition and modularity –granularity and hierarchy –interfaces and data types Layeringnetwork, operating system, middleware, application Understanding Networked/ Marketplace: dynamic, opportunistic transactions conducted over the network –primarily business to consumer Understanding Networked Applications A First Course 21 Steps in an e-commerce sale Matching buyers and sellers /

Jacob Boston Josh Pfeifer. Definition of HyperText Transfer Protocol How HTTP works How Websites work GoDaddy.com OSI Model Networking.

that may occur in the Physical layer.  Physical addressing (MAC & LLC)  Physical Layer  The physical layer is the most basic network layer, providing only the means of transmitting raw bits rather than packets over a physical data link connecting network nodes.  Media, signal and binary transmission  ACTIVITY  Definition: The communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices.  Network Nodes  Networking Trends  Increasing among/

Chapter 13 Physical Architecture Layer Design

with distributed objects computing. Be able to create a network model using a deployment diagram. Understand how operational, performance, security, cultural, and political requirements affect the design of the physical architecture layer. Be familiar with/in the model Artifacts Piece of the information system such as software component, database table, … Communication paths Links between nodes of the network Deployment Diagram Deployment Diagram (cont.) Diagram Examples The Network Model The network/

Introduction to Networks and the Internet

: International Standards Organization OSI: Open Systems Interconnection. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical Layers of Interest in ISO Model Layer 7: Application Application-specific protocols (e.g. ftp, http, smtp) Layer 4: Transport Delivery of data between computers (end-to-end). Layer 3: Network Data routing across a network. Layer 2: Data Link Reliable transmission over physical medium. Layer 1: Physical - Transmission of bits between two nodes. Example 2/

1 6/24/2015 01:59 CS575ATM Layers1 Rivier College CS575: Advanced LANs ATM Layers & Protocols.

DS-3 -SDH/SONET-based 0 Deliver cells to PM sublayer for transmission 0 Insert idle cells in order to provide a continuous flow of cells (cell rate decoupling) 0 HEC generation/verification 0 /layer 11 6/24/2015 01:59 CS575ATM Layers11 HEC Operation at Receiver Source: Stallings: Local and Metropolitan Networks p327 12 6/24/2015 01:59 CS575ATM Layers12 Cell Delineation Source: Kyas: ATM Networks p155 13 6/24/2015 01:59 CS575ATM Layers13 B-ISDN/ATM Protocol Reference Model Source: Stallings: Data and Computer/

Zap Steven Osman Dinesh Subhraveti Gong Su Jason Nieh A System for Migrating Computing Environments.

Networking Virtualization & Migration Two network addresses: Persistent internal address Host-dependent external address For connection migration: Transport layer sees virtual address Network layer sees real address Transport layer independent Initial virtual address is real address Network ADDR. 1 Network/Electron Microscope  Communicate with original host Device Migration & Virtualization Unsupported devices do not appear in a POD ’ s /dev Zap currently supports pseudo terminals, ensuring their names are /

Lecture 1 Internet CPE 401 / 601 Computer Network Systems slides are modified from Dave Hollinger and Daniel Zappala.

taken when msgs received, or other events network protocols:  machines rather than humans  all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols Internet 20 What’s a protocol? a human protocol and a computer network protocol: Internet 21 Q: Other human /Thought Exercise  Come up with an example of a layered system.  Describe the interface and peer-to-peer protocols for your example. Internet 27 Layering Example: Federal Express  Letter in envelope, address on outside  FedX guy adds addressing /

EEC-484/584 Computer Networks Lecture 6 Wenbing Zhao (Part of the slides are based on Drs. Kurose & Ross ’ s slides for their Computer.

: operating environments Environment of the data link layer Environment of the transport layer 6 Fall Semester 2008EEC-484/584: Computer NetworksWenbing Zhao Transport vs. Network Layer Network layer: logical communication between hosts Transport layer: logical communication between processes –Relies on, enhances, network layer services 7 Fall Semester 2008EEC-484/584: Computer NetworksWenbing Zhao Internet Transport-Layer Protocols Reliable, in-order delivery (TCP) –congestion control –flow control/

Microcomputer Networking II St. Cloud State University MCS 426, Fall 1999 Instructor: Adomas Svirskas The ISO/OSI Reference Model The Model Functionality.

1999 Instructor: Adomas Svirskas The Application Layer All the network application software –Network virtual terminals –File transmission –Electronic mail –File servers –Database servers –Application servers –Object servers –Transaction servers Microcomputer Networking II St. Cloud State University MCS 426, Fall 1999 Instructor: Adomas Svirskas Figure from book Computer Networks 3rd ed., by A.S. Tanenbaum Data Transmission in OSI model Microcomputer Networking II St. Cloud State University MCS 426/

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Advanced Computer Networks.

cells. Design Issue: How many adaptation layers should there be? 17 Advanced Computer Networks ATM Plane management Management plane Control planeUser plane Physical layer ATM layer ATM Adaptation Layer Higher layers Layer management 18 Advanced Computer Networks ATM ATM Protocol Architecture Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks AAL ATM User information AAL ATM PHY ATM PHY ATM PHY … End system Network 19 Advanced Computer Networks ATM ATM in the Protocol Stack Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication/

Introducing Network Standards Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model IEEE 802.x Standard Device Drivers and OSI 1.

can be understood by network On receiving end, translates data from application format to a common intermediate format Manages data compression, translation, encryption I/O redirectors work to redirect resources to a server 7 Session Layer (5) Allows two applications on different computers to open, use, and close connections Performs name recognition and provides security Provides synchronization by placing checkpoints in the data stream/

Network Security Chapter 8 8.7 - 8.10. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011.

Diffie-Hellman key exchange Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011 The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (2) The man-in-the-middle attack Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew/ naming SSL—the Secure Sockets Layer Mobile code security Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011 Secure Naming (1) Normal situation Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum/

Speaker 2006/XX/XX Speaker 2007/XX/XX www.Edge-Core.com Networking Concept WWW.Edge-Core.com CK NG Customer Service.

between computer network devices Specific communication rules and rule sets are called protocols OSI Reference Model 1977, ISO created the OSI Reference Model, Functional guideline for dividing up communication tasks Network User OSI MODEL 7 Application layer Provides services to the application. Presentation layer Converts, encrypts data. Session layer Starts,stops session. Maintains order. Transport layer Ensures delivery of entire file or message. Network layer Data Link (MAC) layer Transmits/

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public 1 Version 4.0 OSI Network Layer Network Fundamentals – Chapter 5.

Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Network Layer Tasks Routing Routers =device that connect networks Routers – understand packets and calculating best path /. All rights reserved.Cisco Public Grouping Devices into Networks and Hierarchical Addressing  Networks are communities of computers and other hosts  Like human communities  Small/ Addresses and Packet Forwarding  Destination network in routing table entry represents a range of host addresses or network and host addresses 42 © 2007/

Introduction1-1 COSC6377: Computer Networks Rong Zheng Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3 rd edition.

Transmission Media HTTP Introduction1-14 Solution: Indirection  Solution: introduce an intermediate layer that provides a single abstraction for various network technologies  O(1) work to add app/media  Indirection is an often used technique in computer science SMTP SSHNFS 802.11 LAN Coaxial cable Fiber optic Application Transmission Media HTTP Intermediate layer Introduction1-15 Network Architecture  Architecture is not the implementation itself  Architecture is how to/

Section 3 The OSI Data Link Layer CSIS 479R Fall 1999 “Network +” George D. Hickman, CNI, CNE.

networking time-sensitive devices like automation equipment Addresses–Defined and Managed Data Link layer is concerned with the physical device address or MAC address Most DL layer implementations place the source and destination addresses in the frame header The frame is sent to every device on network/.25 Attaching computer to a packet-switched network Physical, Data Link, Network Layers SprintNet, Tymnet, GTE WAN Protocols (con’t) Frame Relay Designed for high speed bursts on digital network No error /

A Review of Cross-Layer Scheduling and Resource Allocation for Wireless Mesh Networks Jason Ernst and Mieso Denko IEEE TIC-STH 2009 SESMET September 26-27.

of cross- layer design Many developments in the last 5 years Somewhat controversial technique Many different ideas are being applied to cross-layering Cognitive radio techniques Adaptive control Network coding Pervasive Computing and Wireless Networking Research Group (PerWin) Department of Computing & Information ScienceUniversity of Guelph, ON, Canada 8 Cross-Layer Design Architectures Application Presentation Session Transport Network Link / MAC Physical OSI 7 Layer Stack Pervasive Computing and Wireless/

Networking Fundamentals Review. Networking Evolution Network: – Two or more connected computers that share data Paradigms: Client/server model Mainframe.

Modems Patch panels Internet-in-a-box Network Interface Cards (NICs) NIC is the interface between the computer and the network MAC Address Components Repeaters Amplifies electronic signal Strengthens signal by re-transmitting it when segment approaches its maximum length Hubs Concentration point of network Used with a star configuration Bridges Operates on the data link layer Reduce network traffic by dividing the network into two segments Recognize/

CEN 665 Data Communications and Computer Networks 2011-2012 Fall Term CEN 665 Data Communications and Computer Networks 2011-2012 Fall Term DEPARTMENT.

email or surfing the web. Course Objectives  Describe layered communication, the process of encapsulation, and message routing in network equipped devices using appropriate protocols.  Design and build an Ethernet network by designing the subnet structure and configuring the routers to service that network.  Manage network management and systems administration.  Construct a patch cord to connect a host computer to a network. Main Textbook 1. Forouzan, Data Communications and/

IE 585 Introduction to Neural Networks. 2 Modeling Continuum Unarticulated Wisdom Articulated Qualitative Models Theoretic (First Principles) Models Empirical.

use. It resembles the brain in two respects: 1. Knowledge is acquired by the network through a learning process. 2/theoretic relation needed User friendly software available Computationally very fast, once built 9 Neural Network Predictive Models - Disadvantages Strongly data /are Signals Transmitted? 13 Elements of Neural Networks 14 Typical Neural Network Hidden Layer Output Layer Input Layer Error Feedback Weighted Synapses During Training Neural Network Output INPUTS INPUTS 15 Terminology Neurons / /

1 Chapter Overview IP IPX NetBEUI AppleTalk. 2 Network Layer Protocols Responsible for end-to-end communications on an internetwork Contrast with data-link.

IP Addresses Internet Protocol (IP) is the only network layer protocol with its own addressing system. IP addresses are 32 bits long. IP addresses have two parts: a network identifier and a host identifier. IP addresses are assigned to network interface adapters, not to computers. The Source IP Address field in the IP header always identifies the computer that generated the packet. The Destination IP Address field/

1 Network Devices. 2 Functions of network devices Separating (connecting) networks or expanding network e.g. repeaters, hubs, bridges, routers, brouters,

isolate network traffic and computers Has the intelligent to examine incoming packet source and destination addresses cannot interpret higher-level information cannot filter packet according to its protocol 7 Remote Bridges Bridges are often used in large networks that have/ traffic Device cannot detect collision when buffer full 12 d. Routers Layer 2 Switches cannot take advantage of multiple paths Routers work at the OSI layer 3 (network layer) They use the “logical address” of packets and routing tables /

Section 6: Upper Layers of the OSI Model CSIS 479R Fall 1999 “Network +” George D. Hickman, CNI, CNE.

ended by agreement, determined by lack of ACK/NAK OSI Presentation Layer  Transforms data into a mutually agreed upon format (transfer syntax)  Computers and Network Applications can understand  Can also compress/expand, encrypt/decrypt data/layer  NOT WordPerfect  “All processes and functions specific to each network service”  Lower 6 layers support network services, the Application layer provides the protocols to perform the functions or services Processes and Methods  Network Services –Covered in /

CSCE 515: Computer Network Programming Wenyuan Xu Department of Computer Science and Engineering University.

is treated as a stream of bytes. The user application does not need to package data in individual datagrams (as with UDP). Somebody needs to do this since IP is delivering all the data, its just that the application layer doesnt need to do this! CSCE515 – Computer Network Programming 2007 Buffering TCP is responsible for buffering data and determining when it is time to/

1 Introduction Computer Networks. 2 Motivation and Scope Computer networks and internets: an overview of concepts, terminology and technologies that form.

, Ethernet, ATM Transmission rate: 10Mb/s, Gigabit 28 Terms I (we) Often Use Frames: think data link layer Packets: think network layer Datagrams: think IP Segments: think TCP Cells: think ATM Layer : refer to reference models 29 The End-to-End Argument "End-to-End Arguments in System Design ” J.H. Saltzer, D.P. Reed, and D.D. Clark http://web.mit.edu/Saltzer/www/

Parallel Computing Department Of Computer Engineering Ferdowsi University Hossain Deldari.

(message latency) o The overhead, defined as the length of time that a processor is engaged in the transmission or reception of each message. During this time the processor cannot perform other operations. g/Database server –Multimedia, video, audio server Applications Cluster Computing(cont.) Cluster System Building Block High Speed Network HW OS Single System Image Layer System Tool Layer Application Layer Cluster Computing(cont.) Why cluster computing? Scalability –Build small system first, grow it later./

Figure 5-1 Encapsulation L1 Physical L3 Network L5 Session L7 Applications L2 Data Link L4 Transport L6 Presentation SourceDestination Data Data Stream.

Layer 6 Presentation Layer 3 Network Layer 1 Physical Layer 2 Data Link Layer 4 Transport Layer 5 Session Layer 7 Application Link Network Transport Application OSI Model TCP/IP Model Figure 5-4 An example of a peer-to-peer network Figure 5-5 An example of a client/cerver network Server Client Figure 6 - Star Topology Workstation Server Controller Figure 5-7 A Bus Topology Server Printer workstation Computer/ network Figure 5-20Frame Relay frame format (LAP D) Figure 5-21PVCs in a Frame Relay network /


/CAT6/Coaxial/Fiber NICs – Network Interface Card Etc. LAYER 2: DATA LINK LAYER Access to a computer or device Package the physical bits/impulses into data and frames Frames: segments of data being pushed over layer 2 connectivity Transfer from point -> point MAC Address – Media Access Control – Unique to NIC Truck driver handing off the box to house. LAYER 3: NETWORK LAYER - PACKETS “IP” Layer – This is where we/

A machine that acts as the central relay between computers on a network Low cost, low function machine usually operating at Layer 1 Ties together the.

central relay between computers on a network Low cost, low function machine usually operating at Layer 1 Ties together the computer attached to it through multiple ports Acts as a repeater Approx. cost = $10 to $1300 HUB Relays traffic by using a Layer 2 address (i/Connects to one or more devices wirelessly Allows for devices to be located in the general area of the WAP with no required wires Allows connected devices to connect to a wired network Some standards are WiFi and Bluetooth Approx. cost = $13 - $/

NET 221D:COMPUTER NETWORKS FUNDAMENTALS Lecture : Application Layer Behrouz A. Forouzan” Data communications and Networking 1.

NET 221D:COMPUTER NETWORKS FUNDAMENTALS Lecture : Application Layer Behrouz A. Forouzan” Data communications and Networking 1 Introduction Behrouz A. Forouzan” Data communications and Networking 2 ProtocolLayer PDU HTTP, FTP Application layer message TCP, UDP Transport layer segment ICMP, IP Network layer datagram PPP, Ethernet, Data link layer frame IEEE 802.11 Application Layer Behrouz A. Forouzan” Data communications and Networking 3  Processes communicating across networks HTTP: Hyper Transfer Protocol/

A Grid-enabled Multi-server Network Game Architecture Tianqi Wang, Cho-Li Wang, Francis C.M.Lau Department of Computer Science and Information Systems.

Parameters Computation Part Control Part Multi-server Model  Layered design:  Monitor Server  Worker Server  Communicator Server  Message route: … … … Fig. Multi-server Model : Worker Server : Client Network Connection : Monitor : Communicator Monitor Layer Gamelet Layer Communicator Layer /2 Evaluation 1  Scheme one (no partition)  Scheme two (3 gamelets; statically in one server)  Analysis:  CPU graph  Threshold  Network load is: 1.9Mbps (96 clients) Fig. Performance evaluation 1. 032 1664 48 /

COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS. Networks fundamentals  Basic understanding of networks, its ontology as LAN, WAN, MAN, PAN, WLAN etc with the comprehensive.

switching becomes necessary in different kinds of networks, What major role does it play, its different types along with a brief Discussion on Circuit Switching Switched Networks  Drawbacks of Circuit Switching and comprehensive operational Structure of Packet Switching. Open System Interconnection  Fundamental concepts of transmission across the different platforms, a thorough discussion on each layer of this model, different protocols and devices operating on/

CSCI-235 Micro-Computer Applications The Network.

function if part of the network is down Delays in receiving packets Not ideal for real- time voice communication Advantages and Disadvantages of Circuit and Packet Switching © Prentice-Hall, Inc Protocols  Protocols are fixed, formalized standards that specify how computers can communicate over a network © Prentice-Hall, Inc Network LayersNetwork architecture is the overall design of a network  The network design is divided into layers, each of which has/

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Network Computing Lab 김형민

displays and keypads) Less powerful CPU Reduced memory capacity Wireless Network Limited bandwidth Longer latency Lower degree of reliability Network Computing Lab The WAP Model Network Computing Lab The WAP Model Network Computing Lab WAP Gateway The WAP Gateway utilizes Web proxy technology to provide efficient wireless access to the Internet Implementation of WAP protocol stack layers Access Control Protocol conversion: WSP HTTP Domain Name resolution HTML to/

.  Hubs send data from one computer to all other computers on the network. They are low-cost and low-function and typically operate at Layer 1 of the.

Hubs send data from one computer to all other computers on the network. They are low-cost and low-function and typically operate at Layer 1 of the OSI model. Hub  Switches are devices that relay traffic by using a Layer 2 address. They usually contain/ are specialized hardware devices with a tailored operating system. They are designed to relay packets between nodes in a data network. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model. Internet Router Modem  Bridges perform similar operations to switches. The key/

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 1: Hierarchical Network Design Connecting Networks.

Some of the top trends include:  Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)  Online collaboration  Video communication  Cloud computing Cisco Enterprise Architectures Emerging Enterprise Architectures Emerging Network Architectures Cisco Borderless Networks Emerging Network Architectures Collaboration Architecture Cisco’s collaboration architecture is composed of three layers:  Application and Devices – Unified communications and conference applications, such as Cisco WebEx Meetings, WebEx Social, Cisco Jabber/

ITMT 1371 - Windows 7 Configuration Chapter 5 – Connecting to a Network ITMT 1371 – Windows 7 Configuration 1.

conventions for communication between network devices. Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets. OSI Reference Model The Upper Layers – Application, Presentation, Session Transport Layer – Connection-oriented protocol – Connectionless protocol – Port and Socket Well-know port number Ephemeral port number – Data Encapsulation ITMT 1371 – Windows 7 Configuration 4 OSI Reference Model Network Layer – TCP/IP – IP/

Scaling and Wholesale Computer Networks 2007 Week 7 Lecture 1 by Donald Neal.

Wholesale Computer Networks 2007 Week 7 Lecture 1 by Donald Neal The Players Telekordstra – A telco. See also Carrier, Incumbent. Goblinet – An ISP. See also Challenger. PFY Communications – Another ISP. PFY Week 7 Lecture 1 Access Network Structure Scaling RADIUS using Proxies Scaling BRASs with Logical Routers Access Network Wholesaling L2TP in a Wholesale Environment Access Networks Aggregation Transport To provide multiple virtual IP networks, runs at layer/

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