# Ppt on natural numbers example

##### Slide 5 - 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5 - 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 Number Theory and the Real Number System.

© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.1 Number Theory Slide 5 - 4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Number Theory The study of numbers and their properties. The numbers we use to count are called natural numbers,, or counting numbers. Slide 5 - 5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors The natural numbers that are multiplied together to equal another natural number are called factors of the product. Example: The factors of 24 are 1/

##### Laboratory of Natural Information Processing SC105 Class 1.

(1643-1727) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646- 1716) http://www.guptalab.org Laboratory of Natural Information Processing SC105 Class 1 Fields & Numeration The set of Natural Numbers:   = { 1, 2, 3, …}  Natural numbers allowed “counting”  Allowed development of mathematical equations  Some of the equations could not be solved with current set  for example: 1 + X = 0 hence the set of integers evolved http://www.guptalab.org Laboratory/

##### How can we conserve biodiversity?

express themselves as differences in land value. Using those land value differences, environmental value can be converted into numbers – in other words, quantified. Environmental value indicators = Changing land value caused by changing environmental conditions / individual. Existence value Value derived from only the knowledge of the existence of environmental properties/services. (Example) Rural nature full of organisms … People feel nostalgic about their birthplace. … People feel sadness and longing over /

(UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere Program, See Chapter 9) Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. (Example) Giant honeybee - Primary pollinator in tropical rainforest in Southeast Asia - Migratory honeybee Swidden and secondary/ use 2. Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) RILUsual method Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Comparison: number of species according to logging methods Diversity of tree species is higher with RIL. (Seino et/

##### Chapter 13 “States of Matter”

The 7 crystal systems differ in terms of the angles between the faces, and in the number of edges of equal length on each face Section 13.3 The Nature of Solids The shape of a crystal depends upon the arrangement of the particles within it The/13.4 Changes of State Sublimation- the change of a substance from a solid directly to a vapor, without passing through the liquid state Examples: iodine (Fig. 13.14, p. 401); dry ice (-78 oC); mothballs; solid air fresheners Section 13.4 Changes of State Sublimation/

##### Press Escape to quit Presentation of structures STRUCTURE number 1 STRUCTURE number 2 STRUCTURE number 3 STRUCTURE number 4 STRUCTURE number 5 STRUCTURE.

Smoking, Sport, Studying abroad, Taxes, Television, Third world countries, Unemployment, and so on… Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 1 To present the main reason(s) for a choice (présenter la/les raisons dun choix) "What are the main/galement abandonner le sentiment quils ont depuis longtemps quun employé productif est un employé que lon peut voir. Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (5) Nature : (Ecologists) will have to abandon their long- cherished notion that (a safe policy) is (a policy) that (ignores /

##### Atoms are the building blocks of most matter.

-produced elements are too unstable (radioactive) to occur naturally in appreciable amounts. 17.1 Elements More than 99% of the material on Earth is formed from only about a dozen of the elements. Living things, for example, are composed primarily of five elements: oxygen (O/around the nucleus. 17.8 Electrons in the Atom The periodic table is a chart that lists atoms by their atomic number and by their electron arrangements. As you read across from left to right, each element has one more proton and/

##### Building Natural Language Generation Systems

knowledge of language and of the domain 7 Natural Language Generation Language Technology Meaning Natural Language Understanding Natural Language Generation Text Text Speech Recognition Speech Synthesis Speech Speech Example System #1: FoG Function: Input: User:/WeatherReporter The Message Set: MonthlyTempMsg ("cooler than average") MonthlyRainfallMsg ("drier than average") RainyDaysMsg ("average number of rain days") RainSoFarMsg ("well below average") RainSpellMsg ("8 days from 11th to 18th") /

##### Natural Language Processing

Inflectional Categories (Nouns) The following properties influence the inflection of nouns: only vaguely related to natural gender gender: masculine, feminine, neuter, ... number: singular, plural, dual, trial, ... case: nominative, accusative, dative, ablative... class: /g., the Porter Stemmer for reduction to the stem) Stochastic Stemming Stochastic Stemming learns how to find the lemma from examples. Examples: computer, computers  COMPUTER hit, hits  HIT box, boxes  BOX Learned rules: Cut off the “s/

##### Sorting It All Out Mathematical Topics

about the set of whole numbers and the set of natural numbers. a. What are some similarities between the set of whole numbers and the set of natural numbers? b. What are some differences between the set of whole numbers and the set of natural numbers? The numbers –3 and 3 are examples of opposites The numbers –3 and 3 are examples of opposites. On the number line, these two numbers are the same distance/

##### 1.3 – Properties of Real Numbers. Real Numbers 1.3 – Properties of Real Numbers.

(Z) Integers (-6) (W) Whole #’s (0) (N) Natural #’s (1) Example 1 Name the sets of numbers to which each apply. Example 1 Name the sets of numbers to which each apply. Example 1 Name the sets of numbers to which each apply. Example 1 Name the sets of numbers to which each apply. (a) √ 16 Example 1 Name the sets of numbers to which each apply. (a) √ 16 = 4/

##### USING PREDICATE LOGIC Nature cares nothing for logic, our human logic: she has her own, which we do not recognize and acknowledge until we are crushed.

The resolution principle, first introduced by Robinson [1965], provides a way of finding contradictions by trying a minimum number of substitutions. The idea is to keep clauses in their general form as long as possible and only introduce specific/to eliminate x. Unification has deep mathematical roots and is a useful operation in many AI programs, for example, theorem provers and natural language parsers. As a result, efficient data structures and algorithms for unification have been developed. For an /

##### EMEA Natural Programmers User Group Manipulating the Natural Source Area Ralph Zbrog LEN C ONSULTING LLC June 2004.

Work Area Debugging NATRJE ZZTDOC LEN Consulting LLC 05/02/2004 17:52 Natural Utilities ZZUtils v2.1 Generate Code Walkthrough Document Profile: ZZUTIL/RALPH Old: Env/INIT 29 NC-SW-02 Uses of the Source Work Area Simple Code Example 0010 DEFINE DATA 0020 LOCAL USING ZZL1057 /* Retrieve source 0030 LOCAL USING/ (A01/1:C-SCRLEN) 0620 * 0630 LOCAL 0640 1 C-SESNUM (B2) 0650 1 ERROR-NUMBER (N4) 0660 * --------------------------------------------------------------------- 0670 1 #I (I4) 0680 1 #ED-SCRNUM (I4) 0690 /

##### Modelling Transport – CUBE Guide Examples based on the book

Ex5.3 – Step 2 – prepare trip ends RUN PGM=MATRIX PRNFILE="C:Modelling Transport_CGAPPLICATIONSCHAPTER5E5MAT03D.PRN“, MSG=Example 5.3 - total number of trips after (1) FILEO RECO[1] = "C:Modelling Transport_CGAPPLICATIONSCHAPTER5E5MAT03B.DBF", FIELDS=ZONE SUM_J(10./ENDPROCESS ; script continues on NEXT page ________________________________________________________ NEXT … Ch11-DA: Ex11.4 – The Dynamic Nature of Traffic ; SCRIPT CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE PROCESS PHASE=ILOOP ; This phase performs a zonal /

##### LIACS Natural Computing Group Leiden University Evolutionary Algorithms.

mount –less weight than mount optimized with best so far method –geometrically better deformation LIACS Natural Computing Group Leiden University86 Safety Optimization – Example of use Production Run ! Minimization of body mass Finite element mesh –Crash ~ 1.000/for the airfoil High Lift! Low Drag! Start Cruise LIACS Natural Computing Group Leiden University94 Traffic Light Control Optimization Objective: Minimization of total delay / number of stops Variables: Green times for next switching schedule Dynamic/

##### Answer Key – LO 1.2 Which of the following is NOT a way in which natural selection affects the distribution of phenotypes? A) Directional selection Chance.

year that population B does. C) Population A may undergo instantaneous speculation by the doubling of its chromosome numbers (polyploidy). D) Under laboratory conditions, cross-fertilization between members of the two populations may be successful even /the two populations. Label the original population and the population after natural selection. Example of a given diagram (labels included) : The recessive gene of black fur would be naturally favored because these mice better fit their new environment. The /

##### UNIT 2 NATURAL RESOURCES

cycles Biogeochemical cycle: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources Natural resources which can be used but can be regenerated by natural processes, provided if there is no intervention in natural regeneration cycle. Example: Water, Wood Non Renewable Resources Those which will/ trend to develop small hydroelectric generation units. Multiple small dams have less impact on the environment. China has the largest number of these - 60,000, generating 13,250 megawatts, i.e. 30% of China’s electricity. Sweden, US/

##### Big Idea 1 - Evolution E.U. 1a – Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution 1a1 – Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.

disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis Disruptions to ecosystems impact the dynamic homeostasis or balance of the ecosystem Example – Invasive species, Human impact, Natural disasters, Water limitation, Salination L.O. 2.28 Most communities are in a state of nonequilibrium/. Fig. 52.21 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Age structure is the relative number of individuals of each age. Age structure diagrams can reveal a population’s growth trends, and can point to /

##### Genetic Algorithms Yohai Trabelsi. Outline Evolution in the nature Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming A simple example for Genetic Algorithms.

Genetic Programming is Genetic Algorithm wherein the population contains programs rather than bitstrings. Evolution in the nature Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming A simple example for Genetic Algorithms An example for Genetic programming A simple example Problem: “Find” the binary number 11010010. Initialization We start with 5 random binary numbers with 8 digits each. 1.01001010 2. 10011011 3.01100001 4.10100110 5.01010011 The fitness/

##### Wireless and Mobile Communications

areas… Outline Overview MAC Routing Wireless TCP Wireless in real world Leverage broadcasting nature Wireless security Why Control Medium Access Wireless channel is a shared medium When conflict/ TCP with no errors (1.30 Mbps) TCP Reno (280 Kbps) Sequence number (bytes) Time (s) 2 MB wide-area TCP transfer over 2 Mbps /hiding them Outline Opportunistic forwarding (ExOR) Network coding (COPE) Background Famous butterfly example: All links can send one message per unit of time Coding increases overall /

##### 23 Evolution of Populations The Smallest Unit of Evolution

from the effects of selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Balancing Selection Balancing selection occurs when natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population Balancing selection includes Heterozygote /common in the population Selection can favor whichever phenotype is less common in a population For example, frequency-dependent selection selects for approximately equal numbers of “right-mouthed” and “left-mouthed” scale-eating fish © 2011 Pearson Education, /

##### Regulatory Consolidation & Consolidated Supervision

in the consolidated returns, because the nature of their assets is such that their inclusion would not be meaningful (for example industrial or insurance companies). This assessment includes, for example, consideration of the controls within a group/the BIS Principles for Effective Banking Supervision and EU directives have therefore supplemented quantitative capital regulation with a number of flanking policies. These include: Solo supervision “Fitness and properness” criteria for major shareholders in and/

##### Imagery slides.

that reaction time is a linear function of number of items being processed. As with the code box example, what we don’t know is whether this pattern is fortuitous or principled. There are several ways in which we could show that it is principled: If it can be derived from a basic law of nature (very rarely happens). Note that this is/

##### Lecture 18 Problems of natural language processing (NLP).

of undetermined structure. The complexity of meaning representations required for the general cases is one of the chief difficulties of natural language understanding. 17.11.2005 Levels of language Words, parts of words (lexical level, morphology) Structure of words Phrases/ because she wasnt hungry. "They" and "it" have the same referent in the following example, despite the fact that they differ in number and hence are syntactically incomplete: Mother picked an apple They are good sources of pectin. She/

##### Natural Language.

with a very limited initial vocabulary. A program program add-numbers-in-the-table (input, output); var table: array [1..200] of integer; index: integer; sum: real; begin index := 1 sum:=0 while index <= 100 sum := sum + table[index]; index := index+1; end; end. Natural Languages tend to be far less precisely defined. Examples include the languages we speak, write and read: English/

this product is called a factorization of 30. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 5-1-8 Example: Finding Factors Find all the natural number factors of each number. a) 24b) 13 Solution a) To find factors try to divide by 1, 2, 3, 4/ is disregarded). This unique product of primes is called the prime factorization of the natural number. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 5-1-18 Example: Unique Prime Factorization Find the prime factorization of 240. Solution Using a tree format/

##### 5.1 Number Theory. The study of numbers and their properties. The numbers we use to count are called the Natural Numbers or Counting Numbers.

5.1 Number Theory The study of numbers and their properties. The numbers we use to count are called the Natural Numbers or Counting Numbers. Factors The natural numbers that are multiplied together to equal another natural number are called factors of the product. Example: The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24. Divisors If a and b are natural numbers and the quotient of b divided by/

##### Number Theory and the Real Number System

is the product of these factors. LCM = 24  32  52 = 16  9  25 = 3600 Hence, the LCM of 144 and 300 is 3600. Thus, the smallest natural number divisible by 144 and 300 is 3600. Example 6: Solving a Problem Using the Least Common Multiple A movie theater runs its films continuously. One movie runs for 80 minutes and a second runs for/

##### Recombining Building Blocks (again) in simple building block functions and in natural genomes or How two scales of optimisation can be better than one.

Two-locus two-allele exemplars Even with more loci: All examples are single-peaked so HC can solve in time linearly proportional to number of mutations required No example where recombination allows evolution of something that’s unevolvable with/, and precludes multi-level hierarchical organisation. 2.Although modularity and hierarchical organisation are ubiquitous in the natural world/ biological systems, strong interdependencies between modules are also ubiquitous 3.Therefore, their evolution is not/

##### METHODS OF ANIMAL BREEDING

are similar in age and weight. Ideally, offspring for a given livestock enterprise should be born within a specified number of days; for example, 40 to 60 days is a common time frame for cattle. Factors to consider: Climatic conditions will affect /. Producers tend to select and keep ewes that consistently deliver healthy twins. Photo by Ron Nichols courtesy of USDA Natural Conservation Resource Services. Flushing, a practice of feeding ewes good high-quality green pasture or additional concentrates four to /

##### Topic 13: Quantum and nuclear physics 13.1 Quantum physics

h = 6.6310-34 J s Topic 13: Quantum and nuclear physics 13.1 Quantum physics The Quantum Nature of Radiation Describe the photoelectric effect. EXAMPLE: Using Planck’s hypothesis show that the energy E of a single quanta with frequency f is given by / argued that since electrons must exhibit wavelike properties, in order to exist in a bound orbit in a hydrogen atom a whole number of the electrons wavelength must fit precisely in the circumference of that orbit to form a standing wave. Thus: Note that n/

##### SEL2211: Contexts Lecture 5: Computer Science Computers are everywhere. Our world could not function without them, and we use them naturally as tools in.

transformation according to an algorithm, no more and no less. Some examples: SEL2211: Contexts Lecture 5: Computer Science 1. The nature of computation 1.2 Fundamental ideas 1.2.4 Computation -- Arithmetic: The computation is to multiply two numbers together, divide the result by a third number, and output the result. The numbers are represented by symbols taken from the symbol system {0..9}, the/

##### Comparing Integers Lesson 1.1.1.

time to learn their names. Natural numbers are also called counting numbers because they’re the numbers used to count with — 1, 2, 3, and so on. Whole numbers are like the natural numbers except that they include the number zero. Integers include all the natural numbers, the negative versions of them, and zero. Lesson 1.1.1 Comparing Integers Example 4 Describe the following numbers as natural, whole, or integer. There may/

##### Unit 3 Revision – Farming & The Countryside Changes to the UK Countryside The nature of countryside change varies from place to place. The most important.

designation involves a slightly different way of managing the area. The table omits a huge number of small nature or wildlife reserves. Some of these are owned and run by county councils and local /6] ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Examiner’s Reports/Model Answers 1.Explain the consequences (impacts) of suburbanisation Use an example or examples in your answer [6] Many responses, whilst having good explanations did not include enough specifi cs /

##### 1 Principles of Complex Systems How to think like nature: Part II Russ Abbott Does nature really think?

on the grid. Developed originally in philosophy of mind in an attempt to link mind and brain. 12 Supervenience example H: {An odd number of bits is on:. True, False. The bits that are on are the start of the Fibonacci sequence:/ owner/operators? –How will decisions be made about enhancements? 93 Principles of Complex Systems: How to think like nature Organizations: how nature builds systems; the wisdom of crowds Innovation required individual autonomy. What do groups add? Russ Abbott 94 “Self-organizing/

##### Supplementary Course Topic 1:

or as short as a ms or less. Radiocarbon Dating 14C is an example of an isotope that is continuously produced in our environment. 99.9% of the naturally abundant 14C is produced in the upper atmosphere by neutrons reacting with 14N, / 14C present in a sample, or by measuring the activity due to b emission. (Recall that activity is proportional to the number of decaying nuclei: ) http://www.c14dating.com/ Radiocarbon Dating Measuring Activity - scintillation counter. Scintillation is the emission of light /

##### Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 1 Lecture 4: Corpus-Based Work (Chapter 4 of Manning and Schutze) Wen-Hsiang Lu ( 盧文祥 ) Department of Computer.

). –Standard Generalized Markup Language or SGML (related: HTML, TEI, XML) Fall 2001EE669: Natural Language Processing27 SGML Examples This book does not delve very deeply into SGML. … In XML, such empty elements/2001EE669: Natural Language Processing31 Tag Sets for other Languages Differences: –Larger number of tags –categories covered (POS, Number, Case, Negation,...) –level of detail –presentation (short names vs. structured (“positional”)) Example: –Czech: AGFS3----1A---- POS SUBPOS GENDER NUMBER CASE /

##### Natural Language and Dialogue Systems Lab Limitations of Propositional Logic => Predicate Calculus.

AND DIALOGUE SYSTEMS LABUC SANTA CRUZ WordNet Example NATURAL LANGUAGE AND DIALOGUE SYSTEMS LABUC SANTA CRUZ WordNet Resources  “greenhouse” as noun (X)  Synonyms, “nursery”  Hypernyms (designating whole class, X IS_A), e.g., “building”  Hyponyms (designating subclass, Y IS_KIND_OF), e.g., “orangery”, “conservatory”  Meronyms (constituent parts or substance, X HAS_PART), e.g., “door”, “wall”  Polysemy count (number of senses of word in a syntactic/

##### 111 CS 388: Natural Language Processing: Semantic Parsing Raymond J. Mooney University of Texas at Austin.

their logical form. NL  MR Training Exs Semantic-Parser Learner Natural Language Meaning Rep Semantic Parser 12 Engineering Motivation Most computational language-/) = PLAYER SCISSOR 30 Overview of S CISSOR Integrated Semantic Parser SAPT Training Examples TRAINING SAPT ComposeMR MR NL Sentence TESTING learner 31 Extending Collins’ (1997)/  (half our) 117 Based on maximum-entropy model: Features f i (d) are number of times each transformation rule is used in a derivation d Output translation is the yield of/

##### Higher Chemistry Unit 2 Nature’s Chemistry.

number of solvents used to extract caffeine from coffee and tea. De-caffeinated products produced with ethyl ethanoate are often described on the packaging as "naturally decaffeinated" because ethyl ethanoate is a chemical found naturally in many fruits. Caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is an example/ with free radicals to form stable molecules and prevent chain reactions. Melatonin and Vitamin E are examples of natural free radical scavengers. Melatonin As UV light can cause wrinkling of skin, some skin-care products/

##### Human Intervention in Evolution

not contribute to survival and reproduction are not favoured by natural selection and hence are not seen in populations in the wild. Examples of features maintained only by artificial selection can be seen/numbers of plants are produced through natural or artificial cloning, the members of the resulting population are genetically identical. As a result, these populations have very limited genetic variation compared with a population that has been produced by sexual reproduction. Bananas are a natural example/

##### Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 1 Lecture 7: Word Sense Disambiguation (Chapter 7 of Manning and Schutze) Wen-Hsiang Lu ( 盧文祥 ) Department.

in the Flip-Flop algorithm, so it is reasonable to stop when there is only an insignificant improvement. Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 17 Example Suppose we want to translate prendre based on its object and have {t 1, …, t m }={take, make, rise,/ The score of a sense is the number of times that one of its translations occurs with the translation of v in the second language corpus. Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 33 Dagan & Itai’s Algorithm For example, the relation R could be ‘is/

##### 1 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Course overview: part 2 Russ Abbott.

RNAP Where’s the platform? The DNA → protein processing system. Like the Aerospace- delivers-mail example. 49 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Organizations: when groups are better than / will generally beat an individual of approximately the same skill level. –This is not so much emergence as power in numbers. Why groups? Two steps. 54 David Sloan Wilson on groups What holds for chickens holds for other groups as well/

##### Artificial Intelligence in Medicine HCA 590 (Topics in Health Sciences) Rohit Kate 11. Biomedical Natural Language Processing.

Rodham ClintonSen. John McCain Summary: Senator Barack Obama was declared the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee. Example NLP Task: Question Answering Directly answer natural language questions based on information presented in a corpora of textual documents (e.g. the web/genes and other entities independently – cad represents over 11 different biomolecular entities in Drosophila and the mouse Large number of biomolecular entites – 70,000+ genes, 100,000+ proteins, 1 million species – Requires a /

##### 1 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Course overview: part 2 Russ Abbott.

RNAP Where’s the platform? The DNA → protein processing system. Like the Aerospace- delivers-mail example. 50 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Organizations: when groups are better than / will generally beat an individual of approximately the same skill level. –This is not so much emergence as power in numbers. Why groups? Two steps. 55 David Sloan Wilson on groups What holds for chickens holds for other groups as well/

##### Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 1 Lecture 6: N-gram Models and Sparse Data (Chapter 6 of Manning and Schutze, Chapter 6 of Jurafsky and Martin,

24 Smoothing: an Example Fall 2001 EE669: Natural Language Processing 25 Laplace’s Law: Smoothing by Adding 1 Laplace’s Law: –P LAP (w 1,..,w n )= (C(w 1,..,w n )+1) / (N+B) C(w 1,..,w n ) is the frequency of n-gram w 1,..,w n, N is the number of training instances, B is the number of bins training/

##### 1 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Course overview: part 2 Russ Abbott.

RNAP Where’s the platform? The DNA → protein processing system. Like the Aerospace- delivers-mail example. 49 Introduction to Complex Systems: How to think like nature  1998-2007. The Aerospace Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Organizations: when groups are better than / will generally beat an individual of approximately the same skill level. –This is not so much emergence as power in numbers. Why groups? Two steps. 54 David Sloan Wilson on groups What holds for chickens holds for other groups as well/

##### Presented By:Payal Gupta Roll Number: (225 in scetion 2) Professor :Tsau Young Lin.

I/O’s for R is:1000 the number of I/O’s for S is10,000*500/100=50,000 162 Joins Using a Sorted Index Natural join R(X, Y) S (Y, Z) with index on Y for either R or S Extreme case: Zig-zag join Example: relation R(X,Y) and R(Y,Z) with index /placing results in 50 remaining buffers to form 50 buckets for the join of R S with U. 3.Finally, join R S with U bucket by bucket. 303 Example (cont.) The number of disk I/O’s is: – 20,000 to read U and write its tuples into buckets – 45,000 for two-pass hash-join R S – /

##### The use of ontologies in Natural Language Engineering Pattern Recognition & Artificial Intelligence group Dept. of Computation and Information System.

of very short narrow-domain texts Clustering indexes MajorClust method: number of clusters is defined automatically Clustering abstracts NN method (hierarchy-based) K-means method (example-based) MajorClust method (density-based) Abstracts (preliminary results) / Lexical pattern extraction: mining the web with semantic info Bootstrapping technique for corpora construction: Categorization task (natural disaster corpus) Named Entity Recognition Word Sense Disambiguation (Guzmán, Montes, Rosso, 05) The WordNet/

##### 1 JF Tutorial: Mole Calculations Shane Plunkett 1.Some Mathematical Functions 2.What is a mole? Avogadro’s Number Converting between moles.

it easier to deal with large numbers, especially concentrations Written as A ×10 b, where A is a decimal number and b is a whole number Example: Avogadro’s number 602 213 670 000 000 000 /numbers more convenient, especially pH Two types: common logarithms and natural logarithms Two types: common logarithms and natural logarithms Common Logarithms Common log of x is denoted log x gives the power to which 10 must be raised to equal x 10 n = x written as: log 10 x = n (base 10 is not always specified) Example/