Ppt on memory management in operating system

Cellular Disco Resource management using virtual clusters on shared-memory multiprocessors.

ApplicationApp OS Operating System 32-processor SGI Origin 2000... Fault Containment ● Software fault containment – Straight forward due to virtual machines ● Hardware fault containment – Semi-independent cells: ● Duplicated code ● Local data (Pmap, Memmap, Local ready queue) ● Manages all local memory pages – Hardware support needed Resource Management ➔ Scalability ➔ Overcommitment of resources ➔ Load balancing ● CPU management – VCPU migration – Gang scheduling ● Memory managementMemory borrowing/

Low Power Systems Using Transmeta Crusoe Processors Bill Gervasi Technology Analyst, Transmeta Chairman, JEDEC Memory Parametrics

system peripherals Crusoe is a trademark of Transmeta Corp. Transmeta Crusoe was the first DDR enabled processor in the industry 3 Advantages of Integrated Memory Control One less bus to waste power Low latency to memory after cache miss No synchronization penalties –Unique source synchronous & true synchronous memory design –Memory clock domain tied to CPU clock domain Aggressive power management/ Crusoe with LongRun On Demand processing Scale operational frequency on application demand –33 MHz increments/

Introduction to Operating Systems Operating Systems Lecture 1, 13 March 2003 Mr. Greg Vogl Uganda Martyrs University.

Interfaces 13 March 2003Operating Systems: Introduction3 Operating System Definition  The most important system software  Controls internal functions of computer  Interface between user and hardware  Abstraction encapsulates (simplifies, hides) low level hardware details  Hardware-software boundary is transparent to user 13 March 2003Operating Systems: Introduction4 Functions of an OS  Program management, process scheduling  Memory management  File and disk management  Input/Output device control/


as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time. FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMMemory management  Process management  Device management  Information management  Protection  Error Handling FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMMemory management  Process management The o/s keeps track of the memory, what parts are in use and by whom.  Device management  Information management Memory management is primarily concerned with allocation of main memory of united capacity to requesting processes.Two important features of/

Slide 3-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 3 3 Operating System Organization.

User SpaceKernel Space fork(); sys_fork() { } Thread Slide 3-12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 3 Basic Operating System Organization Processor(s)Main MemoryDevices Process, Thread & Resource Manager Memory Manager Device Manager File Manager Slide 3-13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 3 Libraries Commands Device Driver The UNIX Architecture Interactive User Application Programs Application/

Microprocessor system architectures – ARMv8 Jakub Yaghob.

enter low-power state Cache management Must be enabled by EL1 Debug events BKPT – breakpoint DBG – hint to the debug system HLT – entry to Debug state Caches and memory hierarchy Point of Unification IC, DC see the same copy of a memory Point of Coherency All agents that can access memory are guaranteed to see the same copy Memory types Normal Bulk memory operations, R/W, R/O/

Memory Management Operating Systems - Spring 2003 Gregory (Grisha) Chokler Ittai Abraham Zinovi Rabinovich.

Memory Management Operating Systems - Spring 2003 Gregory (Grisha) Chokler Ittai Abraham Zinovi Rabinovich Segmentation A program can be divided into segments Segments are of variable size Segments/ be scattered subject to external fragmentation Address translation Maximum segment size is always a power of 2 Process’ segment table maps segment numbers into their base addresses in the memory With the maximum segment size of 2 r, a logical address of l+r bits is interpreted as a pair (l,r): –l = segment number/

Dynamic Objects. COMP104 Dynamic Objects / Slide 2 Memory Management * Static Memory Allocation n Memory is allocated at compilation time * Dynamic Memory.

Memory Management * Static Memory Allocation n Memory is allocated at compilation time * Dynamic Memory n Memory is allocated at running time COMP104 Dynamic Objects / Slide 3 Conceptual View of Memory (DYNAMIC MEMORY) COMP104 Dynamic Objects / Slide 4 Static vs. Dynamic Objects * Static object n Memory is acquired automatically n Memory is returned automatically when object goes out of scope * Dynamic object n Memory/ Dynamic Memory Allocation Request for “ unnamed ” memory from the Operating System int /

Architectural Support for Operating Systems. Announcements Most office hours are finalized Assignments up every Wednesday, due next week CS 415 section.

boot a computer? Computer System Architecture Synchronizes memory access I/O operations I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently. I/O is moving data between device & controller’s buffer –CPU moves data between controller’s buffer & main memory Each device controller is in charge of certain device type. –May be more than one device per controller SCSI can manage up to 7 devices –Each/

Slide 1-1 Computer Systems II Gordon College Operating System Overview.

systems Slide 1-27 Process Control & Real-Time Computer is dedicated to a single purpose Classic embedded system Must respond to external stimuli in/-Time Memory Mgmt Protection Scheduling Files Devices Memory Mgmt Protection Scheduling System software Human-Computer Interface Client-Server Model Protocols Scheduling Small Computer Network storage, Resource management Slide / API Subset Win32 API SubSet Slide 1-34 Summary An Operating System must be able to: provide functionality to apps provide abstraction/

Data parallelism Chris Olston Yahoo! Research. set-oriented computation data management operations tend to be “set-oriented”, e.g.: –apply f() to each.

set-oriented computation data management operations tend to be “set-oriented”, e.g.: –apply f() to each member of a set –compute intersection of two sets easy to parallelize parallel data management is parallel computing’s biggest success story history relational datatabase systems (declarative set-oriented primitives) parallel relational database systems renaissance: map-reduce etc. 1970’s 1980’s now architectures shared-memory shared-disk shared/

Introduction. Why Study OS? Understand model of operation –Easier to see how to use the system –Enables you to write efficient code Learn to design an.

Rapidly evolved to “personal multitasking” systems Process Control & Real-Time Computer is dedicated to a single purpose Classic embedded system Must respond to external stimuli in fixed time Continuous media popularizing real-/& Wkstation Network OS Real-Time Memory Mgmt Protection Scheduling Files Devices Memory Mgmt Protection Scheduling System software Human-Computer Interface Client-Server Model Protocols Scheduling Small Computer Network storage, Resource management Examples of Modern OS UNIX variants /

Word Processing, Web Browsing, File Access, etc. Windows Operating System (Kernel) Window (GUI) Platform Dependent Code Virtual Memory “Swap” Block Data.

, move, minimize and transfer between applications on the desktop. Each application is opened in its own window. Platform Dependent Code Virtual Memory “Swap” Block Data Drivers Character Data Drivers Network Interface Drivers Memory Management File Systems Device Control Network Control Process Management Windows Operating System Windows KERNEL The Kernel is the “core” of a Windows operating system. Without it you have a box with useless hardware that generates heat. The/

Windows Server Business Strategy and Management Contact: Crissy House.

Management Contact: Crissy House Windows Server 2008 R2 Edition Summaries New and Updated Features in Windows Server 2008 R2 Overall Edition Differentiation Edition Comparisons By Server Role By Core Installation Option By Differentiated Feature By Technical Specifications By Distribution Channel By Language System/ Hot Add/Replace Memory* Hot Add/Replace/operating system. A Server Core installation provides a minimal environment for running specific server roles that reduces the maintenance and management/

The Operating System The operation system (OS) is a set of programs that coordinates: Hardware functions Interaction between application software and computer.

program instructions and data. When RAM is full, copies of pages are temporarily stored in a swap file, a special hard disk file. Transferring files between RAM and the hard disk is called paging. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6 The Operating System Function 3: Managing memory Adding more RAM is often the best way to improve computer performance because: Paging slows/

Basics of Operating Systems March 4, 2001 Adapted from Operating Systems Lecture Notes, Copyright 1997 Martin C. Rinard.

machines run concurrently on the same physical machine  Virtual machines share all the resources of the physical machine  Operating system "Kernel" runs and manages the virtual machines OS Basics, cont. 5 Concurrency: CPU  Process (a virtual machine): a set of instructions/ a good design for your page tables OS Basics, cont. 14 Page table design  Linear page table: all entries in physical memory  Problem - doesnt scale well to 64 bit address space  Two-level page table: Outer page entries point to /

Toolbox for Dimensioning Windows Storage Systems Jalil Boukhobza, Claude Timsit 12/09/2006 Versailles Saint Quentin University.

/09/2006 Overview of the Windows I/O system architecture Different file access modes in the CreateFile() function:  Without using the file system cache: no buffer mode (FILE_FLAG_NO_BUFFERING)  Using the file system cache: sequential, normal, write through modes. FILE_FLAG_SEQUENTIAL_SCAN, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, FILE_FLAG_WRITE_THROUGH Storage Device I/O request FastIO Page miss Cache Manager File System Driver Storage Device Driver Virtual Memory Manager PRiSM Lab/ University of Versailles5 12/09/2006/

Course ILT Memory systems Unit objectives Describe the function of memory and differentiate between different types of memory chips Differentiate between.

–Not synchronized to system clock –Consistent time to access and read data Synchronous –Synchronized to system clock –Access data and return in one or more clock cycles SDRAM faster than ADRAM Course ILT Memory access types DRAMDynamic RAM/Memory Topic B: Memory packaging Topic C: Memory troubleshooting Course ILT Task Manager Windows GUI utility Provides information on currently running processes Version available on all Windows operating systems –Windows 9x/Me Program List –Windows NT/2000/XP Task Manager/

 What Is a Computer? What Is a Computer?  Computer System Components Computer System Components  Hardware Hardware  Types of Memory Types of Memory.

 What Is a Computer? What Is a Computer?  Computer System Components Computer System Components  Hardware Hardware  Types of Memory Types of Memory  Input Devices Input Devices  Output Devices Output Devices  Overview of Software Overview of Software  Operating System Operating System  A computer is a programmable machine with two principal characteristics: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.  It can execute a prerecorded list of/

Bus structures Unit objectives Describe the primary types of buses, and define interrupt, IRQ, I/O address, DMA, and base memory address Describe the features.

Video continued Buses, continued Address and data buses enable: –Basic CPU operation –Interactions with memory Expansion bus –Communication pathway for non-core components to interact with /drive Device Manager: IRQs Activity A-2 Examining IRQ assignments I/O addresses Identify section of shared memory Range of memory addresses Hexadecimal Device Manager: I//was accessing and using main system memory –Direct Memory Execute (DIME) Modern AGP cards use onboard memory, except in laptops Multiple-monitor support /

1 AQA ICT AS Level © Nelson Thornes 2008 Operating Systems What are they and why do we need them?

memory to the various tasks that need to be carried out. 7 AQA ICT AS Level © Nelson Thornes 2008 Types of interface The operating system also provides the user different interfaces, such as: Graphical User Interface Command Line Interface Menu Driven Interface 8 AQA ICT AS Level © Nelson Thornes 2008 Utilities The operating system may have some utilities such as file management software already built in. Other systems/

CAR-STM: Scheduling-based Collision Avoidance and Reduction for Software Transactional Memory Shlomi Dolev, Danny Hendler and Adi Suissa PODC 2008.

Avoider 2 Enque transaction in most-conflicting queue. Put/operation o Transaction repeatedly applies operation to randomly-selected region item Transactional memory Dagstuhl, June 08 Experimental results Transactional memory Dagstuhl, June 08 Most relevant prior art  [Yoo, Lee, 2008]: Adaptive transaction scheduling for TM systems  [Bai, Shen, Zhang, Scherer, Ding, Scott]: A key- based adaptive TM executor Conclusions  Transactions-ignorant scheduling is problematic  Serializing contention management/

Self-Contained CLI Assemblies Dipl.-Inf. Bernhard Rabe Operating Systems & Middleware Group Hasso-Plattner-Institute University of Potsdam.

Bernhard Rabe Operating Systems & Middleware / instance void.ctor() cil managed {…}.method public hidebysig static void Main(string[] args) cil managed{.entrypoint.maxstack 1 newobj instance void [mscorlib]System.Object::.ctor() pop ldc./systems  No CLR modifications required May 29 - June 1, 2006.NET Technologies2006, Plzeň16 CLR Memory Footprint  Kernel Profile is smallest CLI conforming CLR Base Class Library (BCL) 145 types (ECMA 335 2nd) Runtime library 42 types (ECMA 335 2nd)  BCL is embedded in/

Slide 5-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 5.

the CPU Variable x Register Data on device... read(dev_I, “%d”, x); y = f(x)... Device dev_I Memory CPU... startRead(dev_I, “%d”, x);... While(stillReading()) ; y = f(x)... Slide 5-9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 5 Overlapping CPU-Controller Operations in a Process App I/O Ctlr t1t1 t2t2 t3t3 t4t4 t5t5 t6t6 t7t7 t8t8 t9t9 Slide 5/

CDMS Channel Distribution and Management System Symphony Technoventures Pvt. Ltd..

management system to manage operations for channel distribution.  Component modules include sections to take care of inventory, logistics, payment & receipts, distributor & operator management. CDMS – Workflow.  Operator Management  Stock Management  IRD Logistics Management  Payment & Receipt Module  Operations Module CDMS – Workflow Operator Management. Masters.  Creation of Operators/with best in the /memory requirements: Web-based applications have far more reasonable demands on end-user RAM memory/

Computers Operating System Essentials. Operating Systems PROGRAM HARDWARE OPERATING SYSTEM.

Computers Operating System Essentials Operating Systems PROGRAM HARDWARE OPERATING SYSTEM Operating Components APPLICATION PROGRAMS SYSTEM PROGRAMS (COMPILERS, etc.) OPERATING SYSTEM MACHINE LANGUAGE MICROPROGRAMMING PHYSICAL EXECUTION CPU MEMORY KERNEL ROM System Structure Layers Processor Hardware functions: circuits, instruction set, procedures, interrupts Process management: multiprogramming, management of secondary storage, logical addressing External resource management: communication among process, /


of related records zSet of related files vs. Data Base Management System (DBMS) 4 5 Computer: Collection of Electronic Devices zRun by instructions in its own memory zAccepts & processes data, a.k.a. _______ zResult: /__________________ zBetter storage capacity, better video quality than __________________ 19 System Software: (GUI) Operating System zWin 95/Win 98/Win NT zLoad (boot) operating system into memory from storage: yClears RAM yReloads operating system from disk to RAM zCold Start = boot (On) zWarm/

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.1 Operating System Concepts Operating Systems 1. Overview 2. Process Management 3. Storage Management 4. I/O Systems.

in Solaris 2 & Windows XP Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.11 Operating System Concepts Chapter 8: Deadlocks Deadlock Characterization Methods for Handling Deadlocks Deadlock Prevention Deadlock Avoidance Deadlock Detection Recovery from Deadlock Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.12 Operating System Concepts III. Storage Management 9. Memory Management 10. Virtual Memory 11. File-System Interface 12. File-System Implementation Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne  2002 1.13 Operating System/

COMP 2320 (3 units) Operating Systems Name: Prof. Joseph NG Office: R730 (Run Run Shaw Building) Phone: 3411-7864 HomePage:

supplementary exam is “D”. A warning for those copy cats Whoever get caught in copying homework and other assignments, the instructor has the right to penalize his/her grade when necessary. Subject Contents Computer System Overview Operating Systems Overview Processes & Threads –Process Description and Control, Threads Concurrency –Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization –Deadlock and Starvation MemoryMemory Management –Virtual Memory Scheduling –Uniprocessor Scheduling Input/ Output and Files –I/O/

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC Fifth Edition Chapter 2 How Hardware and Software Work Together.

Obtain device drivers  Included in the operating system  Bundled with the device  Available on manufacturer’s web site Device drivers vs. system BIOS 10 A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition Practice: Device Drivers 11 A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition System Resource A tool used by hardware or software to communication with each other  IRQ  Memory addresses  I/O addresses/

1 Advanced Operating Systems - Fall 2009 Lecture 2 – January 12, 2009 Dan C. Marinescu Office: HEC 439 B.

) implementation. Define logical structures that capture the properties of diverse physical systems. 13 Abstractions Processes and Threads  abstract programs in execution. Pages and Segments  support memory management. Caching  reduce the gap between memory access time and instruction execution time. Multitasking  hide the gap between the speed of processors and I/O devices. Spooling  simultaneous peripheral operations on-line Critical Section  support resource sharing. Windows  GUI for/

Computer Based Systems Stage 2 Information Technology Studies Computer & Communication Systems.

Other storage Sequential and Direct Access Storage Software Application Programs Utility Programs System Software Hardware Operating System Services Process Management Memory Management –Allocating Memory –Virtual MemoryMemory Protection Disk and File SystemsManagement of Files –Different File Systems Journaled Larger file/device sizes Case (in)sensitivity Pooling of Disk Space Networking Operating System Services Security –Internal security –External security Graphical User Interfaces –Versus Command/

6.894: Distributed Operating System Engineering Lecturers: Frans Kaashoek Robert Morris

Operating System Software that turns silicon into something useful –Provides applications with a programming interface –Manages hardware resources on behalf of applications Distributed Operating System/ design issues Disk scheduling –Elevator algorithm Memory management –File system buffer cache Address spaces (VM management) –Fault isolate different servers Efficient local/-20 connections a second Pulls in other global issues –Name to key binding –Key management infrastructure Example summary Pipelining of/

1 3 Computing System Fundamentals 3.3 Computer Systems.

specific purpose. System software = operating system + utility software. 4 System software The operating system (OS) is the system of programs that co-ordinates the interactions between the hardware, other software and the user Utility software provides tools for system maintenance and repair and are not necessarily part of the OS e.g. anti-virus software. 5 OS functions communicating with peripherals, co-ordinating concurrent processing of jobs, memory management, resource/

Slide 5-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 5 5 Device Management.

; while(haltFlag not SET) { execute(IR); PC = PC + sizeof(INSTRUCT); IR = memory[PC]; if(InterruptRequest) { memory[0] = PC; PC = memory[1] }; memory[1] contains the address of the interrupt handler could be a trap instr. Slide 5-5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 5 Examples of Exceptions in Pentium Systems ClassCauseAsync/ Sync Return behavior TrapIntentional exception Syncalways returns to next instruction FaultPotentially/

2.1 Operating-System Services 2.2 User Operating-System Interface 2.3 System Calls 2.4 Types of System Calls 2.5 System Programs 2.6 Operating-System.

of the files 2016-1-25- Ch.2 System Structures - 10 File management -create, delete, copy, rename, print, dump, list, and generally manipulate files and directories Status information -ask data, time, memory, disk, and user and such information File /that are also running in user space. -easy to extend the operating system 2016-1-25- Ch.2 System Structures - 16 Modules 2016-1-25- Ch.2 System Structures - 17 Core Solaris kernel scheduling classes file systems loadable system call executable formats STREAMS /


moral values in the computer. Evaluation: 1. Activity scored 20 points. 2. Practice scores 10 points. 3. Midterm exam score 20 points. 4. Activity scored before the final 10 points. 5. Scores work (designing) 20 points. 6. Final exam scores 20 points. What is an operating system? An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computers memory, processes, and/

Hardware, Software, and Mobile Systems Chapter 4.

in hertz Slow = 1.5 GHz; Fast = 3+ GHz –32-bit or 64-bit –64-bit for 4+ GB memory/memory are volatile Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-9 Q2: What Do Business Professionals Need to Know About Software? Basic Categories of Computer Software Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4-10 What Are the Major Operating Systems/, application requirements, budget, schedule, tolerance for managing technical projects, need for application revenue, etc./

Slide 4-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4.

Device Controller Device Software in the CPU Abstract I/O Machine Device manager Program to manage device controller Supervisor mode software Slide 4-12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective/Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Control Unit with Interrupt (Hardware) PC = ; IR = memory[PC]; haltFlag = CLEAR; while(haltFlag not SET) { execute(IR); PC = PC + sizeof(INSTRUCT); IR = memory[PC]; if(InterruptRequest) { memory[0] = PC; PC = memory[1] }; memory/

1 C1-UD 4 THE PC Academic Year 08-09 DAI. Credit 1 (Single and Multiuser Operating Systems) Ferran Chic PELE-08/09 (Pla Experimental Llengües Estrangeres).Potenciació.

, RJ-45 Memory sockets BIOS RAM CMOS 15 Internal connectors FLOPPY IDE Microprocessor Power Fan WakeOnLan WakeONRing MB COMPONENTS II 16 KEY CONCEPTS P&P (PLUG AND PLAY) Requirements HARDWARE CHIPSET, BUS PCI &AGP DEVICE SUPPORT BIOS support Operating system support 17 ACPI (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) Improvement of APM (by bios) ACPI allows O.S. to control energy management. Several states in ACPI protocol/

Global Trees: A Framework for Linked Data Structures on Distributed Memory Parallel Systems D. Brian Larkins, James Dinan, Sriram Krishnamoorthy, Srinivasan.

managing chunks - built on ARMCI Abstracts common functionality for handling irregular, linked data Provides a global namespace with access and modification operations Extensible and highly customizable to maximize functionality and performance Chunks A chunk is: Contiguous memory/ communication framework High-level tree operations which work in parallel and are locality aware Each/and Systems UPC, Titanium, CAF, ARMCI, SHMEM, GASNET Shared pointer-based data structure support on distributed memory clusters /

TLETS Re-Engineering TxDPS Information Management Svc. May 5, 2006.

Bridge programs in Legacy TLETS Legacy TLETS converted to intercept and route all messages through new system Phase II - Ongoing screen testing continues. Target date of 5/19/06 Benefits Logs stored in a relational database system Capability for/– Server with sufficient capacity to manage data flow from all assigned terminal devices PC/Workstation with minimum: –CPU Type/Speed - Pentium 600Mghz or above –Memory - 128 MB –Display Resolution – 1024x768 –Disk Space – 50 MB –Operating System – Win 98 or newer –/

Chapter 1.2 Operating Systems. Layered Operating System model Hardware Operating System Application.

Operating Systems Layered Operating System model Hardware Operating System Application Absolute Binary Loader ABL Central Memory s3,t4 Command Interpreter ABL Central Memory chess s3,t4 Cmnd.Int. Fmgr. Interactive usage Batch Processing File Manager / completion (interrupt) Multi-task Systems Multitasking Issues Process Scheduling Which program becomes active when ? Job Scheduling (or Queue Management) Which programs reside in Central Memory ? Memory Management How much memory gets each program ? Output/

Operating Systems 635-321 Operating system is the “executive manager” of all hardware and software.

. –Allocate the resource when it is appropriate –Deallocate the resource – reclaim it – when it is no longer needed Memory manager checks validity of memory requests, allocates memory currently not in use. In multiuser environment, sets up a table to keep track. Deallocates when done. Most important to preserve memory occupied by operating system itself! Processor manager keeps track of the status of each process. Handles jobs as they enter the/

The Operating System. What is an Operating System? The program that is loaded first and manages the hardware resources like main memory, backing storage.

hard disk instead When the user swaps to a program stored in virtual memory the hard disk has to load the program back into physical memory and swap out another program to the hard disk Input/Output Management I/O Manager Keyboard Device Driver Graphics Card Device Driver Graphics Tablet Device Driver Rest of the Operating System Provides a way of controlling hardware devices connected to the/

Chapter 7 LAN Operating Systems LAN Software Software Compatibility Network Operating System (NOP) Architecture NOP Functions NOP Trends.

memory and disk requirement –Easy installation, configuration, and management –Dedicated 32-bit server software –Bundled workgroup software (chat, e-mail) –Easy migration to server-based NOSs Client NOS Windows 95, OS/2 Warp Connect, Windows NT Workstation Functions –Operating system/ multitasking –32-bit execution –Multithreaded application support –Program execution in protected memory space Sever NOSs - Functions File service –System management –SQL –Mail & schedule –SNA gateway to IBM mainframe /

1000/10G L2/L3/L4 Series Managed Switches

port for out-band-management Performance MAC address: 16K Memory & CPU Flash: /operation of other units while adding or removing a unit and in the unlikely event of unit or stacking cable failure. Auto-firmware & configuration Upgrade from master to slave units for management/system performance Optional Redundant Power Supply provides uninterrupted power Layer 3 routing provides segmentation between subnets Benefits ~ Comprehensive Quality of Service 8 egress queues per port enable differentiated management/

11/13/01CS-550 Presentation - Overview of Microsoft disk operating system. 1 An Overview of Microsoft Disk Operating System.

to the application software in 16KB pages. Expanded Memory Manager - Provides an interface between application programs and expanded memory. - Divided into Driver and Manager. - Manager controls the status, allocation, mapping and deallocation of expanded memory. Extended Memory - Storage at addresses above 1MB that can be accessed in Protected mode. - Extended memory is linearly addressable, so no manager required. 11/13/01CS-550 Presentation - Overview of Microsoft disk operating system. 7 Device Input/

Zap Steven Osman Dinesh Subhraveti Gong Su Jason Nieh A System for Migrating Computing Environments.

operating system services Virtual Machine Monitor Approach Support any operating system No application changes Example, using VMware for migration Must migrate the whole operating system Potentially higher overhead Introducing Zap Transparent migration Unmodified legacy applications Networked applications Commodity operating system Minimal operating system/system configuration What Should Zap Virtualize? Process identifiers (PIDs) Inter-process communication (IPC) keys Memory File system/appear in a/management

Build an Operating System

drivers, console drivers Be "real": program execution, interrupts, processes file system, shell Would be nice: GUI, virtual memory Finished OS Characteristics Has all functionality of older OS like CP/M Can execute a program from a file Command-line shell with necessary commands: Directory listing, type, copy, delete, execute Multiprocessing and basic memory management Goals Minimize total lines of code Minimal pre-written assembly/

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