# Ppt on load bearing structure

##### LRFD Design of Shallow Foundations

) Settlement of Granular vs. Cohesive Soils Structural effects of settlement components Include Transient Loads if Drained Loading is Expected and for Computing Initial Elastic Settlement Transient Loads May Be Omitted When Computing Consolidation Settlement of/1-1 Resistance Factors for Geotechnical Resistance of Shallow Foundations at the Strength Limit State METHOD/SOIL/CONDITION RESISTANCE FACTOR Bearing Resistance b Theoretical method (Munfakh, et al. (2001), in clay 0.50 Theoretical method (Munfakh, /

##### Braced frame Bearing wall system Rigid component

including its attachments having fundamental period greater than 0.60 sec. (NSCP 208.20) Braced frame Bearing wall system Rigid component Flexible component Concrete filled driven piles of uniform section shall have a nominal/ allowable deflection for any structural member loaded with live load only. (NSCP 107.2.2) The allowable deflection for any structural member loaded with live load only. (NSCP 107.2.2) The allowable deflection for any structural member loaded with dead load and live load only. (NSCP 104/

##### Structural Engineering

-houses built for comfort and beauty -factories and offices for function Who Designs Structures? Civil Engineers – design and supervise the building of structures that serve the public -most work on roads, water systems, sewers, and public structures Structural Engineers – civil engineers that focus on load-bearing structures Architect – designs buildings and oversees construction Who Designs Structures? Questions they might ask: -how many vehicles or pedestrians on bridge per/

##### Hydrostatic Bearing Systems

boundary condition; (c) solution using Reynolds boundary conditions. [From Brewe et al. (1970)]. Figure 16.7 Variable nodal structure used for numerical calculations. [From Brewe et al. (1979)]. Hydrodynamic Lift Figure 16.8 Effect of radius ratio on reduced/ vs. Normal Velocity Parameter Figure 13.2 Radial-flow hydrostatic thrust bearing with circular step pad. Performance Parameters Figure 16.19 Effect of radius ratio on dynamic load ratio. Dimensionless central film thickness Hmin, 1.0 x 10-4/

##### Alok Mehta - Programming in Lisp - Lecture 6 1 66-2210-01 Programming in Lisp Lecture 6 - Structure; Case Study: Blocks World.

cause unintentional errors  But, can also be useful Alok Mehta - Programming in Lisp - Lecture 6 12 Queues  Queue data structure  First in, First out  Compare to stacks (last in, first out)  Stacks are easy in Lisp –Insert (/the block is supported by (whats underneath it)  Movable-block > (defclass movable-block (basic-block) ())  Load-bearing-block  Has new field > (defclass load-bearing-block (basic-block) ((support-for :accessor block-support-for :initform nil))) Support-for => What the block is/

##### Columns 10/23/07.

walls.  A wall designed to hold the weight of a structure (as opposed to just a facing) A bearing wall Bearing wall A bearing wall is a continuous column, i.e. extension of a column The material is a single piece A bearing wall has greater strength to handle lateral displacements or concentrated loads Bearing wall Non-load bearing wall Bearing walls Often larger at base (either uniformly or with/

##### 1 A Novel Computational Model for Tilting Pad Journal Bearings with Soft Pivot Stiffness Yujiao Tao Research Assistant Dr. Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs.

pp  h e RJRJ WXWX RBRB  piv OBOB RPRP WYWY OPOP  piv P’ pp t LL Bearing Center Pad Center Fluid film Loaded Pad Film thickness: 6 6 Laminar flow Includes temporal fluid inertia effects Average viscosity across film On k th pad h : /model of commercial pads ( ANSYS® or SolidWorks® ) to obtain pad stiffness matrix. Reduce model with active DOFs, perform structural modal analysis for easy off-line evaluation of pad surface deformations and pivot deflections. Implement oil feed arrangements (LEG, spray /

##### LRFD Theory for Geotechnical Design

3.3.7.5 Example 6 Speaking Points Same as scour except now the skin friction reverses and becomes a factored load. Load factor is estimated based on reliability of the beta method. 1.8 is not in the 2006 interims. Adult learning Dest/ft Rn = 550 kips (550 x 0.65 = 358 kips) 100 Dest = 95’ Side Friction Point Resistance Total Resistance 120 140 End Bearing on Hard Rock Assume structural resistance is much less than geotechnical resistance. Assume potential damage to pile RR =  Pn Pn = 775 kips  = 0.5 (due /

##### Ø = resistance factor for shear = 0.90 Vn = nominal shear strength

be greater than the moment (Mu) caused by the factored loads. A serviceable structure is one that performs satisfactorily, not causing discomfort or perceptions of unsafety for the occupants or users of the structure. For a beam, being serviceable usually means that the deformations,/plate area Select column base plate dimension (not less than column dimension) Determine the thickness Where, Pp = nominal bearing strength from AISC equation Example 5.18 A W 10 x 49 is used as a column and is supported by/

##### Stresses in Wood BSE 2294 Animal Structures and Environment Dr. Susan Wood Gay & Dr. S. Christian Mariger.

on a wood member. Contact area (A) P Rafters often carry a bearing loads. Example of bearing stress on a structural member – where the bottom chord of the truss meets the rafter. P Bearing Stress Example Determine the bearing stress developed in the beam caused by the loading as shown. The 2 by 6 beam is supported on both ends by 2 by 4’s. 1000 lb/

##### The Biomechanics of Human Bone Growth and Development Explain how the material constituents and structural organization of bone affect its ability to withstand.

60–70% of dry bone weight STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS DETERMINES MATERIALS BEHAVIOR UNDER LOADING Stiffness? Stress/strain in a loaded material (slope), represent material resistant to load as the structure deform. Steep slope represent higher stiffness. If the same amount of force applied/ OF LOAD- COMPRESSION FORCE l Press the end of the bone together and produce by muscles, weight bearing, gravity and etc. l It shorts and widen the bone. l If the load applied surpass the stress limits of the structure, a/

##### Framed structures Integrantes: Robert Alzuarde Annia da Costa Floralba Sanoja.

load bearing walls and space-dividing, non-load bearing “partitions”). Additional framed floors and their walls may then be erected to a general maximum of four in wood framed construction. There will be no framed floor in the case of a single-level structure/studs.  Interior partitions Interior partitions supporting floor, ceiling or roof loads are called load bearing walls; others are called non-load bearing or simply partitions. Interior load bearing walls are framed in the same way as exterior walls.  /

##### 68402Slide # 1 Design of Beams for Flexure Monther Dwaikat Assistant Professor Department of Building Engineering An-Najah National University 68402: Structural.

6 Section Force-Deformation Response & Plastic Moment (M P ) A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible axial loads. The transverse loads cause internal SF and BM in the beams as shown in Fig. 1 Fig./ flanges less the fillet of corner radii. 68402Slide # 73 Beam Bearing Plates   Design of a beam bearing plate would require checking:   1- Web Yielding and Web crippling to determine N   2- Bearing capacity to determine B   3- Plate moment capacity to /

##### FOOTINGS Footings are structural elements that transmit column or wall loads to the underlying soil below the structure. Footings are designed to transmit.

designed in such away to settle independently of each other. Introduction Footing Types The type of footing chosen for a particular structure is affected by the following: 1. The bearing capacity of the underlying soil. 2. The magnitude of the column loads. 3. The position of the water table. 4. The depth of foundations of adjacent buildings. Footings may be classified as deep/

##### 1 GTStrudl Modeling and Analysis Of Friction Bearing Base Isolation Michael H. Swanger, Ph.D. Georgia Tech CASE Center GTSUG 2007 June 18-21, 2007 Jupiter,

9 Background R & D – Modeling of Friction Bearing Systems Reinhorn, Constantinou, et. al., SUNY Buffalo Teflon bearing behavior 3D-BASIS – Computer Program for Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Base Isolated Structures Whittaker, Fenves, SUNY Buffalo, University of California Berkeley/ 2000.0 FREQ 8.0 INTEGRATE - FROM 0.000000 TO 1.0 AT 0.001 END TRANSIENT LOAD LOAD LIST TL1 DYNAMIC PARAMETERS STORE VELOCITY ON STORE ACCELERATION ON STORE ABSOLUTE ACCELERATION USE EXTERNAL FILE SOLVER MAXIMUM /

##### INTRODUCTION Building construction, the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures, primarily those used to provide shelter.

large area is needed from a spread footing, mat foundation is more economic. Advantages Spread the load in a larger area-Increase bearing pressure Provides more structural rigidity-Reduce settlement Heavier-More resistant to uplift Distributes loads more evenly DEEP FOUNDATIONS When shallow foundations cannot carry the loads Due to poor soils conditions When upper soils are subject to scour Piles-prefabricated small-size (usually/

##### INS 324 STEEL STRUCTURES Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Dr. KIVANÇ TAŞKIN.

pre-fabricated trusses and sometimes as lintels. Pipe: Steel pipe is also used as a structural member, specifically as column, in building construction. It has three classifications- the standard weight, extra strong, and double-extra strong. Its high strength-to-weight ratios give it excellent load bearing capabilities. It has also uniform wall thickness and exceptional concentricity simplifying fabrication and reducing material costs/

##### 1. 2 The control of implementation of fire protection requirements during the process of design, construction and operation of buildings and structures.

to any underground or aboveground utilities crossing the territory of the site or passing nearby. 48 2. Fire resistance grade of the works and its structural elements: load-bearing walls and columns; load-bearing walls and columns; inter-floor structures; inter-floor structures; façade walls and internal walls; façade walls and internal walls; walls of fire escape routes; walls of fire escape routes; staircase flights/

##### foundations are generally grouped into two categories:

and caisson to create a rigid box weight of earth displaced by foundation is equal to total weight of structure, thereby minimizing settlement from consolidation Deep Foundations used when soil near surface has poor load-bearing capacity they transmit load through weak soil strata (overburden) to stronger, load-bearing stratum (eg., bedrock, dense sand and gravel, etc.) loose soil bedrock Types of Deep Foundations PIERS where/

##### Falsework Definition Any temporary structure used to support a permanent structure during its erection until it becomes self supporting Code of Practice.

inspected before use. 5.   Only load-bearing couplers to be used for scaffolding /Bearing Capacity for Soils & Rocks: Unweathered Rock 600 - 10 000 kPa Non-cohesive Soil 100 - 600 kPa Cohesive Soil 75 – 600 kPa Checklist for Mobile Scaffold Tower Checklist for Mobile Scaffold Tower..Teaching_NotesTEMP_WKmultimediaScaffold-MobileTower.jpg Checklist for Mobile Scaffold Tower Dimensions Height between lifts not to exceed standard spacing Loading No overloading working platform nor the scaffold structure/

##### BEARING.

of which supports the others.The supporting member is called Bearing. CLASIFICATION OF BEARING Bearing are classified depending upon the load. Bearing are also classified depending upon the type of contact. 1. Sliding contact bearing - journal bearing - plane bearing 2. Antifriction bearing - Ball bearing - roller bearing TERMINOLOGY • Inner race • Outer race • Inner and outer diameters • Width FUNCTION OF BEARING • A bearing permits relative motion between two machine members while minimizing Frictional/

##### ANATOMY OF DENTURE BEARING AREA

load short duration 6. It is responsibility of the dentist to recognize the problem and institute procedure to correct the source 7. Excessively thick mucosa should be evaluated for possible surgical reduction The presence of fatty tissue provide a cushioned type of support ,so hard palate is primary stress bearing area The residual alveolar ridge is covered by tissue which in its structure/that the jaw joint is a weight-bearing jointThe non-working condyle is more loaded than the condyle on the working side/

##### DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Contd. Final Design Diagram 4.5 FOUNDATIONS AND FOOTINGS DESIGN 4.5.1 Introduction: Foundation is the part of the structure through which the load of the structure is transmitted to the ground. A combination of footing and foundation distributes the load on the bearing surface (the soil) and keeps the building level and plumb and reduces settling to a minimum. Footing and foundation are/

##### 2. FOUNDATIONS.

) - In USA classified according to Unified Soil Classification System Porous (sandy) Clays 2.5 PROPERTIES OF FOUNDATION Strength: Load bearing capacities: Crystalline rocks (very strong - 12,000 psf), sedimentary rocks (intermediate - 6,000 psf) and other types of/pressure (for all 3 types of failure) Crushed stone Weeps Overturning Cantilevered Footing Reinforcing Sliding Key Waterproofing Structures Below Ground subject to penetration of ground water More extreme, if below H2O table Two basic approaches/

##### Building Construction

America. These typical “Downtown USA” buildings provide many challenges to firefighters, such as void spaces and common walls allowing rapid fire extension and little structural protection. Type IV: Heavy Timber Block or brick exterior load-bearing walls and interior structural members, roofs, floors, and arches of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces Buildings are quite stout Used for warehouses, manufacturing buildings, older churches/

##### Bridge Seismic Isolation Study on a Full Scale Bridge Test Myrto Anagnostopoulou SEESL Structural and Test Engineer Ricardo Ecker Lay Ph.D. Candidate Andre.

, Q d  Effective stiffness, K eff  Post-yield stiffness, K d  Damping ratio, ζ  Phenomena effecting isolator properties:  Temperature  Aging  Wear or Travel  History of loading  Which are the max and min probable values of the bearing properties within the structure’s lifetime?  Can all phenomena occur simultaneously? Pn Pn λ max = λ max,1 ·λ max,2 ·λ max,3 ··· λ min = λ min,1 ·λ min,2 ·λ min,3/

##### BEARING OR CRUSHING Bearing Stresses (Compression Perpendicular to the Grain) Allowable stresses for compression perpendicular to the grain are available.

wood. For round washers, assume l is equal to the diameter of washer. BEARING OR CRUSHING To check for a bearing failure (crushing of wood fibers), divide the imposed load by the area of contact and compare this determined actual bearing stress to the allowable bearing stress. If the actual bearing stress exceeds the allowable bearing stress, a failure results. The multiplying factors for indicated lengths of/

##### ENCE 455 Design of Steel Structures

Overview of Theory for Design LRFD Slip-critical Connections(cont) (4.9.1) Where Rstr= nominal slip resistance per bolt at factored loads m = number of slip (shear) planes Ti = minimum fastener initial tension given in AISC Table J3.1 = mean slip coefficient/ For Evaluation: For back checking: Sequi Example 7.8 Combined Shear and Tension Bearing-type connections Slip-critical connections Sequi Example 7.9 Basic of welding Structural welding is a process whereby the parts to be connected are heated and fused /

##### COLUMNS.

shear and bending stresses. 1/39 Structural Members for transferring vertical loads horizontally Beams Structural Members for transferring vertical loads horizontally action of beams involves combination of/Load-bearing walls Non load-bearing Load-bearing walls are those designed to carry super-imposed loads (transferred through roofs etc), in addition to their own weight (self weight) Non load-bearing walls carry their own load only. They generally serve as divide walls or partition walls. Load bearing/

##### Topic C1 Superstructures - walls

stud construction, metal stud or solid brick. Internal partitions are either load-bearing or non-load-bearing. Load-bearing partitions help to distribute the loads of the building down to the foundations. They are usually constructed of brick or blocks. Non-load-bearing partitions carry their own load and any attached fixtures and fittings. They can be removed to allow the internal structure of the building to be changed without any/

##### Project 1 CONSTRUCTION & STRUCTURES 2 CONSTRUCTION AND STRUCTURES 2

framing system are: economical large spaning ability ease and speed of erection simple construction 4.5m PLAN OF THE STRUCTURE STEEL PORTAL FRAME CONSTRUCTION – MITRE 10 CASE STUDIES STEEL PORTAL FRAME CONSTRUCTION – MITRE 10 PLAN OF THE STRUCTURE 46.5m MEMBER SIZE SPACING Load bearing columns 610 U.B. 101kg 6.2m End 100 U.B. 15kg 6m Beams 410 U.B 54kg Purlins/

##### Static Structural Analysis

user-defined Coordinate System) March 29, 2005 Inventory #002215 4-25 … Bearing Load Bearing Load (was called “Bolt Load” in prior releases): Bearing Loads are for cylindrical surfaces only. Radial component will be distributed on compressive side / components are under “Thermal.” Can request in different results coordinate systems Thermal strains not available with an ANSYS Structural license Only available for shell and solid bodies. Line bodies currently do not report any results except for deformation/

##### SIVA 1 Soil Mechanics-II Bearing Capacity of Soils Dr. Attaullah Shah ground.

the types of foundation under the existing conditions by taking into account (i) the bearing capacity of the soil to carry the required load, and (ii) the adverse effects on the structure due to differential settlements. Eliminate in this way, the unsuitable types. 4. Once/ the water table is 17.25 kN/m3. Determine (a) the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil, (b) the net bearing capacity, and (c) the net allowable bearing pressure and the load/m for a factor of safety of 3. Use the general shear failure /

##### By PARIKH KALPESH. Overview Introduction Structural evaluation of the bridge deck, girders, abutment, and piers Recommended non destructive tests Short.

shear failure mode Smallest of these values governs. Design strength is Φ t P n =1044.818 kips Design of the Bearings Elastomeric Laminated Bearing for Structural Movement Size: 406 mm ×27 mm× 43 mm Structural Resistance- Maximum dead load + live load (zero rotation) Maximum dead load + live load (full rotation) Shear Movement Allowed Shear Stiffness KN/mm Rotation about longer axis (1rad/100 KN) Long Term Repair Solutions/

##### 1 2003 IBC ® Structural Provisions, Scope and Organization with Florida Amendments Course No. 0004824 Based on the 2003 International Building Code ®

been deleted. (Already covered by the Threshold Buildings law.) All seismic provisions have been omitted. 65 Florida Amendments Structural observation provisions have been deleted. Section 1714.5 Exterior window and door assemblies, was completely revised for consistency with /Must conform to ASTM C 55 for concrete brick, ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick, ASTM C 90 for load bearing concrete masonry units or ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units. (s. 2103.1) –Mortar must/

##### Richard Sadokpam, 0601431 CURTAIN WALL Structural Seminar Submitted by Richard Sadokpam B.Arch 8 th Sem. 060143.

Submitted by Richard Sadokpam B.Arch 8 th Sem. 060143 GENERAL CONCEPTS Curtain Wall Curtain walls are non-load bearing exterior walls with the following characteristics: They are suspended in front of the structural frame Their own dead weight and wind loads are transferred to the structural frame through point anchorages. The design of the joints between the curtain wall elements and the fastening technique/

##### AEROSPACE STRUCTURES Prof. Alessandro Airoldi INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE.

to the development of another very effective structural typology: Thin load bearing skin (stressed skin), reinforced by longitudinal stringers and internal frames SEMI-MONOCOQUE STRUCTURES They still represent the basic structural concept in all aerospace structures (toghether with truss structures) Space Structures - Prof. Alessandro Airoldi 12 Introduction to the course Stressed skin constructions in aircraft structures STRESS SKIN STRUCTURES Thin load bearing skin Longitudinal stringers Transverse Frames/

##### Dr. Merve SAGIROGLU Prof. Dr. Ali Memari Steel Structure-2015 Dubai, 16 – 18 November 2015 EVALUATION OF CONNECTION SYSTEMS IN MODULAR CONSTRUCTIONS.

an example before stacking process Modules can be divided into three types according to their load-bearing characteristic: Load bearing modules -- gravity loads are transferred through the side walls in the modules, Load bearing corner-supported modules -- gravity loads are transferred via edge beams, and Non-load bearing modules – modules are supported by any structure. Modules Steel Structure-2015 Dubai, 16 – 18 November 2015 The various module types that resist both vertical/

##### PCI 6 th Edition Lateral Component Design. Presentation Outline Architectural Components –Earthquake Loading Shear Wall Systems –Distribution of lateral.

in North-South Walls Step 3 – Determine Wall Forces Shear in North-South Walls Step 3 – Determine Wall Forces Shear in East-West Walls Load Bearing Shear Wall Example Given: Load Bearing Shear Wall Example Given Continued: –Three level parking structure –Seismic Design Controls –Symmetrically placed shear walls –Corner Stairwells are not part of the SFRS Seismic Lateral Force Distribution LevelC vx FxFx 30.500471/

##### STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS IN BULDING CODES

as well as along the axis of the members. Contd Shear Wall. A wall bearing or non bearing designed to resist lateral seismic forces acting on the face of the wall. Space Frame. A structural system composed of inter connected members. Other than bearing walls, which are capable of supporting vertical loads and, when designed for such an application, are capable of providing resistance to/

##### Design of Steel and Composite-Structures for Seismic Loading – Safety Requirements, Concepts and Methods – Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard Fehling, University.

Elemente ergibt das Dissipative Behaviour eines Bauwerks. Bearing resistance Bolts Seismic Design of Steel Structures Codes: EN 1998 (or: DIN 4149 = EN 1998 simplified) codes for steel structures and materials Seismic Design: Make use of / verification of behaviour rather than verification of strength The behaviour of a structure under seismic loading is mainly determined by: Regularity – avoid extreme straining/ loading of certain members Redundancy – enable reserves of saftey Ductility – plastic /

##### Structure Kingspan Metro Building System

of masonry cladding – localised areas can be supported e.g. Gables in stepped terraces Discontinuous load paths require hybrid solution Cantilevered structures - modest balcony structures can be supported often in combination with tie rods or posts Significant relocation or demolition of load-bearing walls once complete without retro-fit steel support structures – knock-out panels for future Lifetime Homes provision [lift/hoist etc] can be easily/

##### Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation In Low Strength Masonry Buildings

of water w.r.t. salts & defects & water content in wood Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation C. Technology Architectural Design Structural Design Based On Load Bearing Wall Construction Methods Quality Practices Construction Management Generally Low strength masonry wall is non/ :1 lime: 6 sand) We have to temporary support the roof before strengthening the wall. Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation load bearing walls(May be Brick or Stone) have inbuilt deficiency. Each Brick have different strength Thickness of/

##### Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Presentation No.3 Presentation From TSG.

& Rehabilitation Corner Connection 150 1000 16 Ø,1.15 m Plan 250 mm 500 mm t Steel Grouting 8 Ø @200c/c Section 210 Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Strengthening Of Foundations a.Introducing new load bearing members b.Improving the drainage of the area to prevent saturation of foundation soil c.Providing apron around the building to prevent soaking of foundation d.Adding strong elements in/

##### 33rd Turbomachinery Research Consortium Meeting

2012, Master Thesis, Texas A&M University. Predictions for a five-pad TPJB Five pad, Rocker-back tilting pad bearing (LBP) Specific load, W/LD 1MPa-2.5MPa (363 psi) Journal speed, W 500rpm-3krpm Number of pads, Npad 5 Configuration LBP/-2014 Year IV Enable model for operation with laminar/transition & turbulent flow conditions. Validate the constructed pad FE structural surface deformation model with comparisons to test data. Include pad flexibility on the prediction of frequency reduced TPJB dynamic force/

##### Practical Design and the implications of the Blizzard of ‘96 BSE 2294 Animal Structures and Environment Dr. Susan Wood Gay & S. Christian Mariger Ph.D.

structure the builder will simply use the table to determine dimension and grade required instead of calculating the actual stress and deflection. Typical Span Table (Floor Joists) Table 1 Southern Pine Floor Joists (Maximum spans given in feet and inches inside to inside of bearings) Design Criteria: Deflection limited to span in inches divided by 360 (live load/ 24” on center, supporting a calculated live load of 47 lbs/ft 2 and spanning 14’- 0” between bearings. –Look at the span table for floor joists/

##### BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS of Shallow Foundation

BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS of Shallow Foundation A foundation is required for distributing the loads of the superstructure on a large area The design of foundations of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, etc. generally requires a knowledge of such factors: The load of the superstructure The requirements of the local building code The behavior of stress –strain of soils The geological conditions To/

##### PILE FOUNDATION BY-.

MODE OF TRANSFER OF LOADS End bearing piles Friction/Floating piles Combined end bearing piles CLASSIFICATION BASED ON USE Load bearing piles Compaction piles Tension piles Sheet piles Fender piles Anchor piles CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DISPLACEMENT OF SOILS Displacement piles Non-displacement piles LOADS APPLIED TO PILES Combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment loading may be applied at the soil surface from the overlying structure. For the majority/