Ppt on heat treatment of steel

Applying Heat Treating Processes Applying Heat Treating Processes.

amount and type of carbon present in the steel and the heat-treating process used in hardening the steel. Steel Hardening n The n The presence of carbon affects the physical properties most; however, carbon content and heat treatment go together. –Carbon –Carbon content will change the physical properties only slightly without heat treatment. n Heat n Heat treatment would have little effect if not for the carbon content of the steel. Steel Hardening n Carbon/

A Seminar on Case Hardening Methods

eliminated, the process is suited for in-line production. Faster process Energy efficiency Less distortion Small footprints Laser Surface Heat Treatment Laser surface heat treatment is widely used to harden localized areas of steel and cast iron machine components. There is no chemistry change produced by laser transformation hardening, and the process, like induction and flame hardening, provides an effective technique to harden ferrous /

Bachelor of Technology Mechanical

Materials UOG Lecture # 02 By: Jahangir Rana Heat Treatment Heat Treatment The amount of carbon present in plain carbon steel has a pronounced effect on the properties of a steel and on the selection of suitable heat treatments to attain certain desired properties. Below are some major types of heat treatment processes: Annealing Normalizing Hardening Carburizing Tempering Types Annealing Normalizing Hardening Carburizing Tempering Annealing Steel is annealed to reduce the hardness, improve machine/

Quenched Steels A quenched steel is composed of: Martensite – dark needles Retained austenite – light matrix regions in micrograph.

improved strength without lowering ductility and Cu is sometimes added to improve corrosion resistance. These steels are usually given no heat treatment after hot rolling, apart from a normalizing treatment for sections greater than 5 cm in thickness. Can you recall a normalizing heat treat? Summary of simple heat treatments for hypoeutectoid and hypereutectoid steels. A 1 is the eutectoid transformation temperature. A 3 is the ferrite proeutectoid temperature/

Definition of Manufacturing Processes Manufacturing processes are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing.

exceeds 1.5% carbon content) Highest strength and hardness Responds readily to heat-treatment products: cutting tools, cable, music wire and cutlery Grades of Steel Grade usually denotes the chemical composition of a particular steel Grades may vary in chemical composition from almost pure iron to a material of complex constitution. A particular grade of carbon steel usually has specified limits for various elements Grade Designation AISI and SAE/

Agricultural Mechanics CD Applying Heat Treating Processes Lesson A5–2.

amount and type of carbon present in the steel and the heat-treating process used in hardening the steel. Steel Hardening n The n The presence of carbon affects the physical properties most; however, carbon content and heat treatment go together. –Carbon –Carbon content will change the physical properties only slightly without heat treatment. n Heat n Heat treatment would have little effect if not for the carbon content of the steel. Steel Hardening n Carbon/

Fundamentals of metal and steel, heat treatment and material strengthening.

, dissolved mater. = C  Most widely used materials in the world  High strength, machined & formed easily  Steel are iron-carbon alloys that may contain appreciable concentrations of other alloying elements  Mechanical sensitive to the content of C < 1.0 wt.%  Thousands of alloys that have different compositions and/ or heat treatments. STEELS  Commonly classified according to C concentration a)Low CS b)Medium CS c)High CS  Subclasses/

2E14 Design of aluminium and stainless steel structures František Wald.

Assessment 2 Summary Notes Assessment 1 What are the advantages of aluminium structures? What is nature of heat treatment? How is indicated the heat treatment? 31 Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Products Assessment 2 /solidify. Permanent mold casting produced by feeding molten metal by force of gravity or low pressure into a mold constructed of durable material (iron or steel), and allowing it to solidify. Die casting produced by injecting /

Work Hardening | Annealing | Heat Treatment. Work hardening When metal is bent or shaped by hitting with a mallet, the area being reshaped becomes harder.

annealing the metal. Annealing the process of heating metal to soften it and remove the brittleness. This softens the metal which means it can be cut and shaped more easily Annealing aluminium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FxhdFsrzSmY&feature=player_embedded Hardening and Tempering High Carbon Steel is the only common metal that can be hardened by heat treatment. Hardening and Tempering Case Hardening Mild/

HEAT TREATING AND MATERIALS PROCESSING Created by The North Carolina School of Science and Math.The North Carolina School of Science and Math Copyright.

cooling to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT Hardening Tempering Normalizing/Annealing HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES Heating the metal to a predetermined temperature. Holding the metal at this elevated temperature for a certain period of time. Cooling the metal at a certain rate of time. HARDNESS OF STEEL Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation Most common/

05 Novembre 20031 Outgassing of vacuum materials and its reduction Paolo Chiggiato CERN CH-1211 Geneva 23 Tuesday 29 th of June 2004, IVC-16, Venice, Italy.

2 outgassing from stainless steels Ex situ heating at high temperature in vacuum furnaces (vacuum firing Heating in air (air bakeout) Passive coatings: BN, TiN. Active coating: Non Evaporable Getter coatings Part 6: Methods for the reduction of H 2 outgassing 60 Melting in electric Arc furnace (ARC) + AOD Refinement: Electro-Slag Remelting (ESR): Final ingot Thermo-Mechanical treatments RollingForging Thickness < 5mm: Cold-rolling Sheets/

Heat Treatment Ammar R. H. Alshemary Assistant Lecturer Department of Materials Engineering University of Kufa.

temperature and then quenched. By these three steps, a hard case and though core are obtained in the case of carburized steel. Definition of heat treatment Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating at a specific rate, soaking (holding) at a temperature for a period of time and cooling at some specified rate. The aim is to obtain a desired microstructure to achieve certain predetermined properties/


CHE 333 Class 10 HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL What and Why Heat Treat? HEAT TREATMENT is THERMAL PROCESSING to OPTIMISE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. By heat treatment a 10 to 1 ratio can be achieved between maximum and minimum Strength levels. At the same time a 50 to 1 ratio of ductility can be achieved. Thermal Treatments range from quenching to long holds, 24 hours, at a fixed Temperature. In all cases the thermal/

Chapter 9 - 1 Lecture 13 Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys ME 330 Engineering Materials Types of Metal Alloys Fabrication of Metals Thermal Processing.

- Lower temperature anneal to undo thermal stress or transformation mismatch stress Spheroidizing - Heat pearlite just below eutectoid temp to produce spheroidal structure; makes steel easier to machine Review: Heat Treatment of Steel Chapter 9 - 16 Surface Hardening Techniques Many applications, especially wear –Strong, hard, wear-resistant surface –Tough, fracture resistant inner core –Two different heat treatments - through, then surface Methods –Chose material with steep cooling curve –Case Hardening/

Chapter 2 Give me matter, and I will construct a world out of it. Immanuel Kant Materials.

, °F 0 100 200 300 400 500 600   +L L  +L  ++ 362 °F 61.9% Sn Eutectic Composition and Temperature Ferrous Materials        ° ° ° ° ° ° ° HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS 1.Annealing 2.Martensite Formation in Steel 3.Precipitation Hardening 4.Surface Hardening 5.Heat Treatment Methods Introduction Heat Treatment: Heating and cooling procedure to manipulate structural changes (affect materials properties) for mostly metals. Also for glass ceramics, tempered glass, powder metals and/

Changing Properties Produced by Neil Liggett. Heat Treatments Heat Treatment is carried out to give a material the desirable properties, both mechanical.

schemes can be identified through the temperatures of the tempering process. View the link of tempering – www.technologystudent.com/images4/heatt4.gif Heat Treatments. Annealing –  Exact opposite to hardening,  Relieves internal stresses,  Induces softness for machining, forming etc. Heat Treatments. Steel changes its colour throughout heat treatment processes – Image Taken: http://members.optusnet.c om.au/terrybrown/HeatTe mperChartEtc.html Heat Treatments. Normalising  This is similar to annealing/

Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Steels Manjunath M Project Intern UVCE Bangalore university.

minimum entropy state. Grain shape and size gets refined and homogeneous. Defect is elimination Process Of Cryogenic Heat Treatment Heat treatment sequence for maximum martensite transformations Quenching Cryogenic processing Tempering Austenitize Austenitizing Austenitization which means to heat the iron, iron based metal or steel to a temperature at which it changes crystal structure from ferrite to austenite. During austenitizing, the final alloying element partitioning occurs between the/

Changing the Properties of Steels

soft core, or in extreme cases prevent hardening altogether. The Heat Treatment Process “Pearlite” (ductile) BCC + Fe3C with different microstructures How you heat treat makes all the difference to the steel you get “Martensite” (brittle) Tempering The brittleness of martensite makes hardened steels unsuitable for most applications. This requires the steel to be tempered by re-heating to a lower temperature to reduce the hardness and improve the/

Mild Steel MG Cylinders

:1984 Recommended procedure for heat treatment of welded fabrications IS 11083:1984 Method for evaluation of friction and wear properties of materials against steel surface IS 11630:1986 Method of ultrasonic testing of steel plates for pressure vessels and special applications IS 12457:1988 Code of practice for evaluation repairs and acceptance limits of surface defects in steel plates, and wide flats IS 13417:1992 Code of practice for heat treatment of steel D K Singhal Basically/

Classification and Selection of Materials and Components

likely to break or snap if put under great pressure. The industrial heat treatment of steel is a very complex and precise science. TEMPERING This process reduces the hardness a little but toughens the steel. It also significantly reduces the brittleness of the steel so that it does not break easily. After hardening, the steel is reheated and held at a set temperature before either being allowed to/


improve wear characteristics If the carbon content is too low, or the proper heat treatment is not done correctly, the results may not show any value at all, or may even show the contrary characteristics But controlled cryogenics processing can act as a stress relief in any circumstances Applications of cryogenic treatment of steels Cutting tools for different machining operations: sawing, milling, drilling, broaching, turning, slitting/

INTRODUCTION Hongkong Ruikun Holdings Group Co., Ltd. is modern enterprise focusing on steel trading and investment internationally. We are performance.

SUS301HTSUS304HT High hardness, high strength , and high fatigue strength Automobiles, electronic products,and spring sheet steel SUS304 Widely used; corrosion resistant 、 heat resistant, good mechanical properties in low temperature, good drawabity and bending treatment properties without thermal treatment hardening, no- magnetic Domestic appliances (Kitchen utensils of category 1 and 2), cupboard, indoor pipes, heater, boiler, automobile parts, medical apparatus, building material/

Heat Treatment of metals

hardest and most brittle of the microstructures. Heat Treatment An operation, or series of operations, involving the heating and cooling of steel in the solid state to develop the required properties. Related to the crystalline structure of carbon and iron. Heat Treatment Low carbon steels are generally used as rolled and in most cases do not respond well to heat treating High carbon steels and alloys use heat treatment as the means of achieving the ultimate/

Heat Treatment ISAT 430. Module 6 Spring 2001Dr. Ken Lewis ISAT 430 2 Heat Treatment Three reasons for heat treatment To soften before shaping To relieve.

Module 6 Spring 2001Dr. Ken Lewis ISAT 430 2 Heat Treatment Three reasons for heat treatment To soften before shaping To relieve the effects of strain hardening To acquire the desired strength and toughness in the finished product. Module 6 Spring 2001Dr. Ken Lewis ISAT 430 3 Heat Treatment Principal heat treatments Annealing Martensite formation in steel Precipitation hardening Surface hardening Module 6 Spring 2001Dr. Ken Lewis ISAT 430 4/

Evaluation of Special Quality Die Steels NADCA Project Die Materials Specifications Task Group Wheeling, IL - February 2009.

CAPABILITY HEAT TREATMENT (Oil Quench) IDHRC12345Av. % of Capability Dievar43.718 17 1617.3 84% 236742.31514 1314.0 105% E38K43.016 15 15.3 68% Tuf- Die 44.01716 1416.0 81% VACUUM HEAT TREATMENT Average Maximum Crack Length Superior Steels (Oil quench) Total Crack Area Superior Steels (Oil Quench) Average Maximum Crack Length Superior Steels (Vacuum Quench) Total Crack Area Superior Steels (Vacuum Quench) SET-UP for Vacuum Heat Treatment of/

Chapter 11 Part 2 Metals and Alloys.

(high speed machine tool), H (hot working) The letter describes the heat treatment – A (air hardening), O (oil quenching), W (water quenching) UNS designation – all tool steels start with a “T” Stainless Steels Excellent corrosion resistance Contain 12 to 30% Chromium Cr oxidizes easily and forms a thin continuous layer of oxide that prevents further oxidation of the metal Cr is a ferrite stabilizer Ferritic Stainless/

Heat Treatment R. Manna Assistant Professor Centre of Advanced Study Department of Metallurgical Engineering Institute of Technology Banaras Hindu University.

and Properties, Butterworth-Heinemann, Third Edition, 2006 R. C. Sharma: Principles of Heat Treatment of Steels, New Age International (P) Ltd. Publisher. Charlie R. Brooks: Heat Treatment: Structure and Properties of Nonferrous Alloys, A. S. M. Publication. 4 Definition of heat treatment Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating at a specific rate, soaking at a temperature for a period of time and cooling at some specified rate. The aim is to/


in carbon content up to about 1%. Percent elongation decreases with increase in carbon content indicating that steel with high carbon content is found to have low ductility and vice-versa. HEAT TREATMENTS OF STEEL The properties of steel may be improved by applying the following heat treatments: HEAT TREATMENTS OF STEEL----contd. MECHANICAL TESTING OF STEEL Steel should be tested as fabricated because fabrication affects mechanical properties significantly Following are the various tests conducted on/

Chapter 5 Ferrous Alloys.

Chapter 5 Ferrous Alloys Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should understand: Applications of steel and cast iron. Compositions of plain carbon steel, alloy steel, high alloy steel and cast iron. The basic process of making iron and steel. Applications of plain carbon steel, alloy steel, and cast iron. Heat treatment of steel. Surface hardening and its applications. Key Concepts Ferrous alloys generally refer to iron and steel. Approximately 85% of all metals used for industrial applications in/

What’s Heat Treatment.

ISSUES TO ADDRESS... • How are metal alloys classified and how are they used? • What are some of the common fabrication techniques? • How do properties vary throughout a piece of material that has been quenched, for example? • How can properties be modified by post heat treatment? Classification of Metals Alloys Steels Ferrous Nonferrous Cast Irons Cu Al Mg Ti <1.4wt%C 3-4.5 wt%C/

Heat Treatment of Metals

and cementite. This micro-structure is called pearlite which is very important in iron and steel technology, because it can be formed in almost all steels by means of suitable heat treatments. Contd… The alloy containing 0.80% of carbon is called the eutectoid steel. Upon cooling the eutectoid steel below 723°C, all of the austenite is transformed into pearlite. Alloys with less than 0.80% C are/

PD 211 Principles of Metal Cutting Dr T Mwinuka. PD 211 Principles of Metal Cutting 2hours Lecture + 1hour Tutorials Objectives To impart to the science.

sensitivity Manganese (Mn) Through hardening, strength, impact strength, wear resistance, fatique resistance, over heating resistance Machinability. Hardening temperature Are known as alloy steels. When properly heat treated, these steels can cut at temperatures up to 250-300 o C. Structure: Similar to carbon steels i.e. Martensite Heat Treatment: Similar to carbon tool steels. Contents of hard particles: 5-10% Hardness: Due to carbides and martensitic matrix. Cutting Temperature/

Types of Material IE 351 Lecture 3. Engineering Materials.

(conversion to austenite) –Quenching (control cooling rate –Tempering (reduce brittleness) Heat Treatment of Metals Precipitation hardening –Solution treatment (  -phase conversion) –quenching –precipitation treatment (aging) Surface hardening –Carburizing –Nitriding –Carbonitriding –Chromizing and Boronizing Heat Treatment of Steel Precipitation Hardening Solution treatment Quenching Precipitation treatment Furnaces for Heat Treatment Fuel fire furnaces –gas –oil Electric furnaces –batch furnaces box/

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I 1. TYPES OF METALS 1.01 Aluminum 1.02 Iron 1.03 Steel 1.04 Copper 1.05 Tin 1.06 Zinc 1.07 Brass 1.08 Bronze 1.09 Chromium 1.10 Nickel.

CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT 3.01 Steel Bars 3.02 Wire Fabric 3.03 Expanded Mesh 3.04 Laths 4. STORAGE & CARE FOR METAL REINFORCEMENT  Mechanical finishes - obtained by grinding polishing, scratching, sandblasting, embossing, or other treatment of the surface to achieve /& CARE FOR METAL REINFORCEMENT 2.03WELDING2.METHODS OF JOINING METALS  Two types of fusion welding: The gas flame now generally used is acetylene mixed with oxygen. It will deliver about 5500˚F of heat which is sufficient to melt the welding rod/

Chapter 9 Spur Gear Design. The big picture: What to learn in chapter 9? A spur gear has involute teeth that are straight and parallel to the axis of.

give the needed Sac. If so,determine the required hardness. Then specify a steel material and its heat treatment by referring to Appendices 3 and 4. 2.If a higher Sac is needed, see Table9-3 for properties of case- hardened steels. 3.Appendix 5 will aid in the selection of carburized steels. 4.If flame or induction hardening is planned,specify a material with a good/


relieve the stresses resulting from cold working, shearing, or gas cutting. Through this microstructure of specimen does not change. UET lahore CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT TREATMENT TECHNIQUES UET lahore TEMPERING Tempering is a heat treatment technique applied to ferrous alloys, such as steel or cast iron, to achieve greater toughness by decreasing the hardness of the alloy. The reduction in hardness is usually accompanied by an increase in ductility/

CONTENTS Introduction Pipes & Fittings Plastic Films & Laminates. Containers Woven Sacks Plastic Flooring Cellular Plastics Testing of FRP References.

of film. Thickness of the film: Low thickness of film has higher tendency of blocking Static charges, Surface treatment, Printing, Pre – treatment, Storage condition etc also affect the blocking. Long storage duration increases the tendency of blocking. 125 Corporate Training & Planning HEAT SEALABILITY Heat sealability of the packaging film is one of/by ASTM D1564. 218 Corporate Training & Planning EQUIPMENT : It consists of a steel ball of 0.625-inch diameter and arrangement for holding and free fall on /

Www.sdhm.com.cn www.sdhm.com.cn Application and Technology Research of HM-HRC Technology on Hot Stove Regeneration of BF One time investment. Takes back.

heat absorption of linings is increased (about 60% of heat absorption of objective heated is from the lining radiation) and large amount of heat that cannot be transferred through the external wall of furnace will change into the heat with 1~5μm wave length radiating into the hearth. The heat with 1~5μm wave length can be easily absorbed by the objectives heated, such as steel billet, so the heat efficiency of furnace/

Recent Developments in Surface Treatment of Steel Sheets Tae-Yeob Kim Coating & Electrical Steel Research Group Technical Research Laboratories Pohang.

Treatment of Steel Sheets Tae-Yeob Kim Coating & Electrical Steel Research Group Technical Research Laboratories Pohang Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. Contents Contents  Introduction  Facilities & Products  Technical Trends  Technical Developments  Prospects Target Properties of Surface Treatment/Laminated (Adhesive) Film Film Adhesive Adhesive CG or EG CG or EG 50 ~ 100  DecorationFurniture Internal panel Laminate Steel (Heat Sealing) PET (cry.) PET (cry.) PET (amor) PET (amor) TFS TFS 15 ~ 25  Permeation /

steel sheets for BRAUN TUBES Frame Inner Shield Band.

can be manufactured upon demand. Thickness (mm) Width (mm) Coating Weight (g/m 2 ) Post-treatment 0.4 ∼ 2.3 min. 16 40 ∼ 160 Chromated, Oiled, No treatment steel sheets for BRAUN TUBES Characteristics SuperGalum for Band [ Level of oxidation with continuous heating ] Excellent heat resistance ※ Extensive use at temperatures of around 315 ℃ or less causes very little change in ALCOT and does not affect its attractive/

Alphabet Soup of Metal Classification Systems SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers AISI – American Iron and Steel Institute ASTM – American Society for.

. This makes aluminum softer and more uniform in structure. Carburizing, Cyaniding and Nitriding are all methods to surface harden steel by adding carbon to the outer layer. Precipitation Heat Treatment or Aging When aluminum ages it becomes tougher. Raising and holding the temperature of aluminum to about 300 degrees accelerates the aging process. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0/


quickly  Normalishing Warm-up process is caught up with open air cooling Teknologi dan Rekayasa  Stainless steel (Stainless steel)  Stainless Steel Martensitik Stainless Steel Martensitik  Stainless Steel Feritik  Stainless Steel Austenitik Stainless Steel Austenitik Teknologi dan Rekayasa Heat treatment Influence at Stainless steel Sensitisation of Change of microstructure towards improvement of in-prisoner to attack at grain boundary Made Cool Quickly defect / distortion Made Cool Slow Precipitation/

PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS When making a new device/component, most often we come across a very familiar problem-selection of fit for purpose.

are: Cu, V, Ni, W, Cr, Mo, etc. These alloys can be strengthened by heat treatment. They are ductile and formable. Typical applications of these HSLA steels are as support columns, bridges, pressure vessels. . Medium carbon steels: Stronger than low carbon steels and are less ductile than low carbon steels. They can be heat treated to improve their strength. They are often used in tempered condition. Ni, Cr/

Manufacturing Processes Chapters 4 (10 and 11): Fundamentals of Metal Casting & Metals For Casting Ahmed I. Ateyat, MSc Department of Mechanical Engineering.

aluminum is 660 º C, so pouring temperatures for Al casting alloys are low compared to cast iron and steel. – Their properties make them attractive for castings: light weight, wide range of strength properties attainable through heat treatment, and ease of machining. Magnesium alloys: –The lightest of all casting metals. –Other properties include corrosion resistance, as well as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios/

Ferrous Metallurgy: The Chemistry and Structure of Iron and Steel

in drain grids Grey cast iron showing the graphite flakes in a pearlite matrix Steel 0.001% to 1.5% carbon Wide range of properties due to: Variation in carbon content Cold working Heat treatment Addition of alloying elements Microstructure of Steel Five main constituents: Ferrite Austenite Cementite Pearlite Martensite Ferrite The structure of pure iron. Has a body-centred cubic (BCC) crystal structure. It is soft and/


rolled “rod” is pulled through a die having an opening smaller than the original cross-section of the rod. Wires and some rods are prepared by this method. FACTORS THAT AFFECT PROPERTIES OF STEELS Carbon content Heat treatment and shaping method Presence of harmful elements Presence of alloying materials. Carbon Content For steel C → ~0.05-2% usually <1.5% It affects both strength & ductility. As it increases/

1 CON 251 Ferrous Metals Lecture 1. 2 Introduction Metals form about a quarter of the earth crust by weight One of the earliest material used dated back.

. Alloys containing around 18% Nickel. 24 High Speed Steel Medium Carbon steel alloyed with Tungsten, chromium, vanadium Very hard Resistant to frictional heat even at high temperature Can only be ground Machine cutting tools (lathe and milling) Drills 25 Heat Treatment A process used to alter the properties and characteristics of metals by heating and cooling. Three stages of heat treatment 1. Heat the metal to the correct temperature 2. Keep/

Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry

Quenching (CDQ) Features & Benefits: Better coke quality Reduces emissions Recovers sensible heat of coke Generates electricity Water conservation Disadvantages: High initial cost Space constraints Difficult for retrofitting/Treatment Plant for treatment of effluent generated during rolling process Others Sewage Treatment Plant and utilization of treated effluent for industrial use Concord Blue Technology for treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) To sum up Adopting sustainable practices for iron & steel/


Gutierrez-Miravete Rensselaer at Hartford Monterrey, Mexico, Julio, 2000 Course Outline 1.- Physical Metallurgy of Steel 2.- Phase Transformations in Steel 3.- Solidification of Steel 4.- Heat Treatment of Steel 5.- Welding and Surface Treatment of Steel 6.- Supplementary Reading 1.- Physical Metallurgy of Steel 1.1.- Iron 1.2.- Iron-Carbon Alloys 1.3.- Steels 1.1.- Iron Thermodynamic Properties Phases Crystal Structures 1.2.- Iron-Carbon Alloys Crystal Structures Phases and Microstructures Thermodynamic/

Metallurgy of High Strength Steel N. Yurioka

bainite Martensite and lower bainite Microstructure of steels -II Rolling direction Upper bainite Ferrite and pearlite Formation of upper bainite in cooling -I Nucleation of ferrite Growth of ferrite Formation of upper bainite in cooling -II Heat treatment of steels Normalizing treatment of ferrite-pearlite steel Grain refining Hot rolling processes Microstructure of hot rolled steel As rolled Normalized TMCP-II Quenched & tempered Features of steels As rolled steel Ferrite –pearlite Low strength, Low YR/

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