Ppt on gunn diode pdf

AEI105.1201 Types of Semiconductors Semiconductors can be classified as: 1.Intrinsic Semiconductor. 2.Extrinsic Semiconductor. Extrinsic Semiconductors.

tuning commonly used in TV receivers. AEI105.12747 (contd…) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) : Display Light source in Fiber optic comm. Photo diodes : Light detectors in Fiber optic comm. Tunnel diode: Negative resistance for Microwave oscillations Gunn diode :Microwave Oscillator. Shottkey diode: High speed Logic circuits AEI105.12748 Semiconductor diodes Fig. 1 Diode variants Visual - 1 AEI105.12749 Diode numbering First Standard (EIA/JEDEC): In this approach the semiconductor devices/


ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PATENT PRACTICE 2013

that Minton’s claim involved a substantial federal issue sufficient to trigger federal jurisdiction under 35 U.S.C. §1338(a). Gunn v. Minton (continued) In a unanimous decision, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed and remanded the case. Chief Justice Roberts/ ′925 Patent”) and 7,531,960 (the “ ′960 Patent”). Everlight alleged that Nichia never made the phosphor light emitting diodes described and claimed in their ‘925 patent because their process was incapable of doing so. As part of their pleading, Everlight /


C. Deng and D.L. Brower University of California, Los Angeles J. Canik, D.T. Anderson, F.S.B. Anderson and the HSX Group University of Wisconsin-Madison.

k  < 2.1 cm -1, (ii) k || < 0.07 cm -1 Solid State Source Solid State Source: –bias-tuned Gunn diode at 96 GHz with passive solid-state Tripler providing output at 288 GHz (8 mW) Support of Optical Transmission System: –2.5 meter tall, /and Receiver Array HSX Interferometer System - 9 chords (1.5 cm width) - 288 GHz Solid-State source 96 GHz gunn + tripler; ~ 3 mW - Schottky diode detectors (b.w. ~ 200 kHz) Density Evolution for QHS Plasma Flux Surfaces and Interferometer Chords Inversion Process: 1.spline/


are used for different applications in the RF domain Varactor diodes: for tuning applications PIN diodes: for electronically variable RF attenuators Step Recovery diodes: for frequency multiplication and pulse sharpening Mixer diodes, detector diodes: usually Schottky diodes TED (GUNN, IMPATT, TRAPATT etc.): for oscillator Parametric amplifier Diodes: usually variable capacitors (vari caps) Tunnel diodes: rarely used these days, they have negative impedance and are usually used for very fast/


Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer

the microwave power reflected from the cavity. Components of EPR spectrometer Circulator Waveguide Oscillator Detector Lock-In Amplifier Oscillator Power Power Supply Multimeter Gaussmeter Oscillator Microwave source Generally klystron or gunn-diode is used for oscillator. So, oscillator is a microwave source that send microwave to the resonator through the waveguide. I used the term “Microwave”, but there is some separate frequency/


NOAA NPOESS PREPARATION ACTIVITIES Gene Legg Office of Satellite Data Processing And Distribution Asia Pacific Satellite Data Exchange and Utilization.

mid-Oct; replacement of shorted backplane connectors Team working to define acceptable EMI specification relief (waiver) and risk mitigation Sensor Update - ATMS 83GHz and 92GHz Gunn Diode replacement » »Pre-EDU performance is acceptable 57GHz Gunn Diode Replacement » »Hittite and doubler diode reliability a concern; Alternate designs/additional tests in review IF development issues: » »Due to new chip developments utilizing three cutting edge MMIC technologies - » »lnP/


Introduction Electronics is defined as the science of the motion of charges in a gas, vacuum, or semiconductor. Today, electronics generally involves transistors.

for wireless optical communications 1907 Round demonstrated the first LED (using SiC) 1940 Russell Ohl discovered a p-n junction diode History of Semiconductors Russell Ohl – Inventor of a p-n junction (1940) In 1939, vacuum tubes were state/ diode). 1960, Kahng and Atalla demonstrated the first MOSFET. 1962, three groups headed by Hall, Nathan, and Quist demonstrated a semiconductor laser. 1963, Gunn discovered microwave oscillations in GaAs and InP (Ridley-Watkins-Hilsum-Gunn effect). 1963, Wanlass and Sah/


Esperimento DIAMED Consuntivo 2013 INFN gruppo IV Coordinatore: Gianluca Verona Rinati Unità: Roma2, To 1.

Numerical modeling and experimental results → good agreement between data and the FEM model based on the Shockley-Ramo- Gunn theorem 8 Fabrication process of the novel 3D detector: a) An intrinsic diamond layer, 50 µm in thickness/, M., Bucciolini, M., Casati, M., Talamonti, C., Marinelli, M., Prestopino, G., Tonnetti, A., Verona-Rinati, G. A synthetic diamond diode in volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetry (2013) Medical Physics, 40 (9), art. no. 092103 Marinelli, M., Milani, E., Prestopino, G., Verona/


© S.N. Sabki Revision Revision CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 8.

lower than hi-lo structure © S.N. Sabki TRANSFERRED-ELECTRON DEVICES (TEDs) Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs), widely know as Gunn diodes, are gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium phosphide (InP) devices which are capable of converting direct current (DC) power /). Give rise to a quantum size effect that can alter the band structures & enhance device transport properties Resonant Tunneling Diode (RTD) (Basic QED) Semicond. double-barrier struc. contains 4 heterojunctions (GaAs/AlAs/GaAs/AlAs/GaAs), 1 quantum/


I II III IV Solid State Device Conductor Semiconductor Anti-conductor Elemental Semiconductor Compound Semiconductor Extrinsic (Doped) N-type, P-type.

III IV Solid State Device Conductor Semiconductor Anti-conductor Elemental Semiconductor Compound Semiconductor Extrinsic (Doped) N-type, P-type Intrinsic (Undoped) Si, Ge Diodes Transistors General Special U-wave Point-contact diode Zener diode Light emitting diode Schottky diode Varactor diode Photo diode Tunnel diode Gunn diode PIN diode BJT FET (unipolar) NPN transistor PNP transistor Binary semiconductor GaAs, ZnS, InP Trinary semiconductor GaAsP, AlGaAs Quaternary semiconductor InGaAsP HBT/HEMT JFET/


Fixed-value resistor Variable resistor Voltage-sensitive resistor (varistor) Resistors Sources Constant-voltage source Constant-current source AC oscillator.

Reversible-direction circulator Mode suppressor for both coaxial and waveguide transmission Diodes Rectifier (junction) diode A K Zener (undirectional breakdown) diode Bidirectional breakdown diode Constant-current (field-effect) diode Tunnel diode Tunnelrectifier (backward) diode Schottky (hot-carrier) diode P-i-n diode Gunn diode, also impatt diode Step-recovery(snap, charge-storage) diode Varactor (variable- capacitance) diode Transistors NPN transistor Multiple-emitter npn transistor PNP transistor E E/


ECEE 302 Electronic Devices Drexel University ECE Department BMF-Lecture 1-092302-Page -1 Copyright © 2002 Barry Fell 23 September 2002 ECEE 302: Electronic.

focus of this course Types of Devices –Diodes –Bi-Polar Transistors –Field Effect Transistors (FETs) –Integrated Circuits (ICs) –Solid State Lasers –Solid State Switches –Negative Resistance (IMPATT, TRAPATT, GUNN Effect) Physics of Devices –Crystal Growth –Band/ Principals that form the basis for Solid State Physics –Conductors –Insulators –Semi-conductors Study of Devices –Diodes –Bi-Polar Transistors –Field Effect Transistors –Integrated Circuits –Lasers –LEDs –Solid State Switches –Negative Resistance/


Discovery Lab School of Computing & Information System Florida International University.

one direction, while blocking current in the opposite direction ˃Protect circuits from high voltage surges - Avalanche diodes ˃Regulate voltage - Zener diodes ˃Electronically tune radio and TV receivers - Varicap diodes ˃Generate radio frequency oscillations - Tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes ˃Convert light into either current or voltage - Photodiode ˃Produce light - Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Bus (power line) Vertically 5 pin Connected Vertically 5 pin Connected » Busser ˃Pin (-)  (e, 1/


Robotics Research Laboratory Louisiana State University.

one direction, while blocking current in the opposite direction ◦ Protect circuits from high voltage surges - Avalanche diodes ◦ Regulate voltage - Zener diodes ◦ Electronically tune radio and TV receivers - Varicap diodes ◦ Generate radio frequency oscillations - Tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes ◦ Convert light into either current or voltage - Photodiode ◦ Produce light - Light Emitting Diodes (LED) COL1COL2 COL3 ROW1 ROW2 ROW3 ROW1 ROW2 ROW3 COL1 COL2COL3 COL1COL2 COL3 ROW1 ROW2 ROW3/


先端超高周波情報工学 ( 博士後期課程 ) 先端超高速情報工学 ( 留学生特別コース) Advanced High-Speed Communication Engineering Hirohito Yamada Optical devices and integrated optical circuits.

Rack to rack → Board to board → Chip to chip → On chip interconnection Cited from: C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics™ Technology Enabling Optical Interconnects” Luxtera, Inc. Light Peak Infiniband DDR(20Gbps)AWG24 Up to/Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd Kyushu Univ. Optical network Photo diode Optical signal Electrical signal Laser diode Laser diode Header analysys Optical devices Electron devices Optical modulator Optical modulator Laser diode Optical modulator Electronic switch Label detection Optical(O) – /


SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES INTRODUCTION. Semiconductor Devices In year 2010 sales volume of the electronic industry will reach three trillion dollars and will.

resistance charecteristics in a heavily doped p-n junction, which led to the discovery of the tunnel diode which is important for ohmic contacts and carrier transport through thin layers. 1960: The most important device/ and atmospheric-pollution monitoring. During this year Gunn invented transferred- electron diode which is used in such millimeter-wave applications as detections systems, remote controls, and microwave test instrument. 1965: IMPATT diodes operation was first observed by Johnston et al/


The story so far.. The first few chapters showed us how to calculate the equilibrium distribution of charges in a semiconductor np = ni2, n ~ ND for n-type.

.. ECE 663 Field Dependence of velocity Velocity saturation ~ 107cm/s for n-Si (hot electrons) Velocity reduction in GaAs ECE 663 Gunn Diode Can operate around NDR point to get an oscillator ECE 663 GaAs bandstructure ECE 663 Transferred Electron Devices (Gunn Diode) E(GaAs)=0.31 eV Increases mass upon transfer under bias ECE 663 Negative Differential Resistance ECE 663 DIFFUSION ECE 663/


1 숙명여자대학교 지구환경연구소 Ground-Based Microwave Observation of Stratospheric Ozone April 3, 2003 Jung Jin Oh Sookmyung Women’s University Seoul, South Korea.

0,6) rotational transition of stratospheric ozone at 110.8359 GHz has been observed using Schottky diode mixer receiver at Sookmyung Womens University in Seoul during Feb, 2002 by total power method. The/ Amp. (2) LO INJECTION : Doubler  LO Atte.  Directional Coupler (3)  Isolator  Gunn Osc.(4) (3) Directional Coupler  Harmonic Mixrer  Diplexer (4) PLL Module : Gunn Oscillator(50~49GHz), 100MHz Reference Oscillator 8 숙명여자대학교 지구환경연구소 Observation of Stratospheric Ozone Typical Observed Spectra (Feb 6,/


Microwave Oscillator By Professor Syed Idris Syed Hassan

Eng Engineering Campus USM Nibong Tebal 14300 SPS Penang One-port negative Oscillator using IMPATT or Gunn diodes Negative resistance device is usually a biased diode. Oscillation occurred whence ZL= -Zinwhich implies Stability of oscillation Oscillation takes place when the / high Q-factor choose parts that have low losses: Resonator Series resistance of capacitors Series resistance of tuning diode PCB. Measure phase noise from VNA (for checking) Verify power input signal no higher than 10dBm Reduce input/


Brian Schmidt Principles in Data Reduction. Producing “Good Data” Essential to have a good working instrument Essential to take all of the relevant calibration.

or their difference) adjusted by the gain. Measuring the Linearity In the lab, use a diode, and take different length exposures to see brightness of diode. or Under take gain test with several pairs of images at different light levels. Does /spectrograph so that the slit is near the parallactic angle. Broad Blue filters are to be avoided when imaging (e.g. Gunn-g) at high airmass. Use Atmospheric Dispersion Compensator Atmospheric Extinction Extinction per airmass depends on wavelength, on altitude, and on/


Physical Phenomena for TeraHertz Electronic Devices Jérémi TORRES Institute of Electronics of the South University Montpellier France Jérémi TORRES Institute.

-Ge laser Quantum cascade laser Electronic THz Devices Indirect Multiplication Nonlinearities Difficulties : current, temperature, contact resistance, efficiency, noise Difficulties : current, temperature, contact resistance, efficiency, noise Direct Gunn, RTD, Impatt diodes Schottky, varactor diodes Magnetron, Carcinotron FETs, HEMTs Main Features of THz Radiation Non ionizing Strong interaction with molecules Transmitted through many materials Higher resolution than microwaves Applications in Spectroscopy/


Electronic Circuits Chapter - 6.

of an amplifier VHF, UHF & Microwave Amplifiers Klystrons Uses Velocity Modulation Parametric Amplifiers Uses a varactor diode and separate oscillator Uses varying reactance for amplification Low noise on the output Microwave Semiconductor Amplifiers Geometry of/a crystal oscillator Microwave Oscillators Magnetron A diode vacuum tube with a specially shaped anode surrounded by a magnet Used for UHF and Microwave frequencies Used in microwave ovens Gunn Diode Use a resonant cavity to control frequency/


先端超高周波情報工学 ( 博士後期課程 ) 先端超高速情報工学 ( 留学生特別コース) Advanced High-Speed Communication Engineering Hirohito Yamada Optical devices and integrated optical circuits.

communication Rack to rack → Board to board → Chip to chip → On chip interconnection Cited from: C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics™ Technology Enabling Optical Interconnects” Luxtera, Inc. Light Peak Infiniband DDR(20Gbps)AWG24 Up to 20m/ different signal → 4 th generation Optical network Photo diode Optical signal Electrical signal Laser diode Laser diode Header analysys Optical devices Electron devices Optical modulator Optical modulator Laser diode Optical modulator Electronic switch Label detection Optical(O) –/


TYPICALLY REALIZABLE COMPONENTS IN MICS Passive components Low pass,high pass Band pass,band stop with medium to large bandwidths Directional couplers.

circuits Branches Antennas Semiconductor Circuits Demodulators Receiver and up-converter mixers Field effect and bipolar transistor amplifiers Transistor-power amplifiers Frequency multipliers PIN-diode switches PIN-diode phase shifters Limiters Modulators Oscillators and transistors,Gunn and IMPATT diodes Controllable attenuators Subsystems High frequency receiver components Transmitters(small-signal and pulsed transmitter) Phase controlled antenna modules(phased array antennas) Doppler radar modules/


InP HBT Digital ICs and MMICs in the 140-220 GHz band 805-893-3244, 805-893-5705 fax Mark Rodwell University of California, Santa.

& transit time Applies whenever AC signals are removed though Ohmic contacts applies to: bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors, Schottky diodes RTDs, photomixers, photodiodes Why arent semiconductor lasers R/C/  limited ? dielectric waveguide mode confines AC field away from /Low Power CML Static Divider Designs Divide-by-4 at 128.6 GHz, S 3 RSC Technology Measurements performed at UCSB, GUNN Source Used For CLK Input RSC Wafer # xxxx, Divider ID: R3C2 #5A, Fabricated at RSC, Design at UCSB /


Review of WVRs in Astronomy Alan Roy MPIfR (Wiedner)

Radio Observatory Woody et al. (2000) Two levels of Dicke switching reduce effects of gain and offset drifts: 1)PIN-diode attenuators adjust the Line-Continuum output to be zero for blackbody loads; output measures deviation from a flat spectrum. 2)/Uncooled mixer (Tsys = 2500 K) CouplerMixer Filter Detector V/F Power splitter 1.2 GHz 4.2 GHz 7.8 GHz Oscillators Gunn oscillator 91.655 GHz 183.31 GHz +/- 8 GHz Double-sideband mixing makes measurement insensitive to filter shape Used coupler + power splitter/


Magnetic techniques for molecular and nanometric materials Dante Gatteschi & Roberta Sessoli February 2008.

Unlike NMR the field is scanned and the frequency is fixed . General design of an EPR spectrometer Source klystron (conventional) FIR lasers ( > 240 GHz) Gunn diodes (95-400 GHz) Carcinotron (very High power) Detector crystal diodes bolometers Schottky diodes Transmission line rectangular waveguides up to 150 GHz) corrugated waveguides. via space with refocusing devices oversized waveguides Magnet electromagnets (up to 1.5 Tesla) superconductive/


Simplified Radar Block Diagram

frequency, whereas fine tuning and AFC can be provided by modulating the operating voltage. (U.S. Army photo.) A Gunn oscillator is the basic transmitter, which is coupled to a single antenna through the circulator. Transmitter power reflected back from the/ C5), a circuit for discharging the storage circuit (V2), and a pulse transformer (T1). In addition this circuit has a damping diode (V1) to prevent reverse-polarity signals from being applied to the plate of V2 which could cause V2 to breakdown. With no/


Amateur Microwave Communications Ray Perrin VE3FN, VY0AAA April 2010.

supplies Tens or hundreds of milliwatts output –Receiver Same Klystron used as local oscillator No RF amplifier Direct injection to mixer diode (10 dB NF) IF typically 30 MHz –Waveguide feed Wideband FM 1950s / 1960s –Line of sight paths only Theoretical/10 GHz plus other bands available –100 km path worked by VE3ASO (sk) from Foymount to Gatineau Park Wideband FM 1970s –Gunn diode replaces klystron –Otherwise, similar technologies No preamp or power amp –Max range still typically 50 – 100 km over land –/


New Materials and Designs of Semiconductor Detectors New developments are driven by particle physics and applications in: Medical & Synchrotron X-ray Imaging.

TV screens InSb, CdSe, PbTe, HgCdTelight detectors Si, GeIR and ionizing radiation detectors GaAs, InPmicrowaves (the Gunn diode) GaAs, AlGaAs,...semiconductor lasers IIIIIIVVVIVII BeBCNOF MgAlSiPSCl Ca ZnGaGeAsSeBr Sr CdInSnSbTeI p-typen-type dopants for Si and /levels (normally ionized at room temperature) conduction band occupied at room temperature NB strong T dependence Two basic devices: p-n diode, MOS capacitor Detector Structure conduction band Band gap + - electron valence band Si: E g = 1.1 eV, c /


Some observations on phase noise from local oscillator strings. By KØCQ Dr. Gerald N. Johnson, retired P.E.

some more phase noise. Besides phase noise, all oscillators have amplitude noise which we neglect because BALANCED mixers ignore it. Single diode, FET, and half frequency mixers do not ignore amplitude noise. And any frequency multiplier that has a threshold WILL convert / a -60 dBc/Hz phase noise bandwidth of 100 MHz isnt common except for a poorly filtered noise source like a Gunn diode or klystron. And from the audience: WA1ZMS/4 says his employer figures -90 dBc/Hz is good enough for their equipment/


Modulator-Based, High Bandwidth Optical Links for HEP Experiments G. Drake, W. S. Fernando, R. W. Stanek,D. G. Underwood High Energy Physics Division,

photonic transceivers," Group IV Photonics, 2008 5th IEEE International Conference on, vol., no., pp.362-364, 17-19 Sept. 2008 [16] C. Gunn, et al., “A 40Gbps CMOS Photonics Transceiver”, Proceedings of SPIE 6477, 64770N (2007). [17] BT Huffman et al.The Radiation Hardness of/ receiver, and we will have large losses (We can still focus what we get to a small device like an APD or PIN diode ). This is typical of space, Satellite, etc. applications.  If we start with an optimum diameter, the waist can be near/


Dr inż. Agnieszka Wardzińska Room: 105 Polanka cygnus.et.put.poznan.pl/~award Advisor hours: Monday: 9.30-10.15 Wednesday:

that have a closed form solution. A trivial example is a circuit consisting of a current source and an exponential diode. Voltages and currents in circuits containing only a few nonlinear circuit elements may be found using graphical methods for solving / a negative resistor. Negative Resistance exists along some are of the V-I curve in certain electronic components such as the Gunn Diode used in microwave electronics. In certain regions of the V-I curve, the current drops as the voltage rises. source/


ABOUT DOMAIN STRUCTURES, GENERATION OF FIELDS AND PROCESSES IN STARS AND THE UNIVERSE A.G.Oreshko Moscow Aviation Institute (State University) 125871,

Moscow Aviation Institute (State University) 125871, Moscow, Russia. Fig. 1a Domain instability in explosive emission plasma in magneto-isolated diode of electron accelerator C Fig.1 b Electrical domain in a spark discharge Fig.1. The scheme of the stable electric domain/ of a star receive a significant impulse under which action they leave Galaxy or are grasped by " a black hole ”. References 1. Gunn J.B. Instabilities of current in III-V semiconductors.-IBM Journ. Res. Dev., 1964, v.8, 2, p.141- 159./


Design and Testing of Apertures in Conductive Film for Wireless Communication 2010 AMTA Atlanta, GA Eric K. Walton The Ohio State University ElectroScience.

in between them in a RF absorbing enclosure X, Ka, Ku radar bands; three sets of Gunn oscillators and Schottky diodes were used. Both systems proved to be very repeatable and gave results consistent with MOM modeling and experimental test range data/ Gunn Oscillator Horn Antennas Schottky detector X, K, Ka COATED VS. UNCOATED (NO GLASS) Example experimental/


FEASIBILITY STUDIES IN HIGH RESOLUTION THz SPECTROSCOPY CHRISTIAN ENDRES FRANK LEWEN MARTINA WIEDNER OLIVER RICKEN URS GRAF THOMAS GIESEN STEPHAN SCHLEMMER.

, 3 rd harmonic Efficiency > 5% for 3 rd harmonic Frequency ~ 300 – 3000 GHz Structure Performance 14 mono GaAs 70 periods 3 mono AlAs Superlattice Diodes for 0.3 – 3.0 THz Current-Voltage Curve 3 rd,5 th,7 th, and 9 th harmonics of 100 GHz Input Methanol at 337, 501/, J. Faist Institut f¨ur Quantenelektronik, ETH Zürich, Switzerland Mode operation IV. First Phase Locked QCL at 1.5 THz SL Martin Puplett HEB Gunn 122 x 2 GHz 244 GHz IF = 200 MHz PLL 6 th harmonics 1.5 THz QCL Referenz 1-2 mW 1.5 THz U.Graf, M/


Electron Density Distribution in HSX C. Deng, D.L. Brower Electrical Engineering Department University of California, Los Angeles J. Canik, S.P. Gerhardt,

 < 2.1 cm -1, (ii) k || < 0.07 cm -1 Solid State Source Solid State Source: –bias-tuned Gunn diode at 96 GHz with passive solid-state Tripler providing output at 288 GHz (8 mW) Support of Optical Transmission System: –2.5 meter tall/ Filters: –mounted inside port windows to reduce diffraction of the window Interferometer Schematic Plasma Phase Comparator Sawtooth Modulator Filter Gunn 96 GHz Tripler 288 GHz Filter Amp. Mixer Lens Detection System 9 channels Probe Reference ∆Ø=∫n e dl HSX Interferometer/


SILYL FLUORIDE: LAMB-DIP SPECTRA and EQUILIBRIUM STRUCTURE Cristina PUZZARINI and Gabriele CAZZOLI Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Università di.

. SUPPLY and SYNCR ref: 73 MHz |f RF - nf S | HP8642A SYNTH MIX corr fGfG fGfG MULTIPLIER InSb DETECTOR PREAMPL LOCK - IN 10 MHz freq. standard 1.666 kHz ref GUNN DIODES THERMOSTAT or liquid N 2 system Measurements: Lamb-dip technique Corner cube mirror Cell InSb detector Polarizer Frequency modulated source Scheme of the radiation path Using free-space cell G/


High E Field Transport BW: Sect. 8.10, p 198YC, Sect. 5.4; S, Sect. 4.13; + Outside sources.

is a valid concept Hot & non-equilibrium carriers & their effects are important for some devices: –Laser diodesGunn oscillators –Field effect transistors Under what conditions can it be assumed that the carrier distribution function is the quasi/ Differential Resistance (NDR) or Negative Differential Mobility (NDM) at high enough fields (only for some materials, like GaAs). –The Gunn Effect (only for some materials, like GaAs). Possible topics: 1. The general “hot” carrier problem 2. Impact ionization & /


ABSOLUTE 17 O NMR SCALE: a JOINT ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY and QUANTUM-CHEMISTRY STUDY Cristina PUZZARINI and Gabriele CAZZOLI Dipartimento di Chimica “G.

. SUPPLY and SYNCR ref: 73 MHz |f RF - nf S | HP8642A SYNTH MIX corr fGfG fGfG MULTIPLIER InSb DETECTOR PREAMPL LOCK - IN 10 MHz freq. standard 1.666 kHz ref GUNN DIODES THERMOSTAT or liquid N 2 system Measurements: Lamb-dip technique Corner cube mirror Cell InSb detector Polarizer Frequency modulated source Scheme of the radiation path Using free-space cell G/


Measurement of Electron Density Profile and Fluctuations on HSX C. Deng, D.L. Brower, W.X. Ding Electrical Engineering Department University of California,

i) k  < 2.1 cm -1, (ii) k || < 0.07 cm -1 Solid State Source Solid State Source: –bias-tuned Gunn diode at 96 GHz with passive solid-state Tripler providing output at 288 GHz (8 mW) Support of Optical System: –2.5 meter tall, 1 ton/ loss –attenuation ranging from 92db at 28 GHz to 68 db at 150 GHz. Interferometer Schematic Plasma Phase Comparator Sawtooth Modulator Filter Gunn 96 GHz Tripler 288 GHz Filter Amp. Mixer Lens Detection System 9 channels Probe Reference ∆Ø=∫n e dl Beam Expansion Optics and /


Automated Double Frequency Test System (DFTS). DFTS General potentialities: automated detection, identification and measurement of parameters for the.

Fig.6. Double Frequency Testing of RF Signal Generator or Transmitter DFTS Fig.7. Double Frequency Diagram for an IMPATT Diode Generator Showing Nonlinear Dependence of Frequencies of Some Intermodulation Oscillations on Test Signal Frequencies f 1, f 2 DFTS Fig.8/Radio Receiver (see Fig. 3a) Area a is used for RFA testing DFTS Fig.11. Double Frequency Diagram of a Gunn Diode Amplifier DFTS Fig.12. Double-frequency diagram of the Tu-134 plane radar receiver ADFTS example for Radio Receivers Testing (Type /


ECE 563 & TCOM 590 Microwave Engineering Planar Transmission Lines: Striplines and Microstrips October 14, 2004.

grounded planes –2 conductor line, no lower frequency cutoff: down to f=0, up to cutoff of first TE mode. –Miniaturization Stripline Compared to coax or waveguide –Advantage if Gunn diodes or mixer diodes to be apart of circuit design. –Advantage, large bandwidth, mini-size –Disadvantage- lack of isolation, lower power handling Dominant mode - TEM Stripline Losses Attenuation due to conductor losses (approximate/


PLAN OF MY PRESENTATION OVER VIEW OF OUR PROGRAME RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING –AN APPROACH SUBMILLIMETER SCIENCE GOALS STUDY OF STAR FORMING REGIONS DATA.

development for ground and Space born telescopes Fabrication of detectors ( Schottky, HEB and SIS) Local Oscillator development (OPML, Gunn Oscillator, BWO) Development of Back end Electronics (AOS,CTS and Filter bank) First stars and galaxies in the early /surface Thin lightly doped n-type epitaxial layer is grown on an n+ GaAs substrate Guard ring eliminate unwanted edge breakdown SCHOTTKY DIODE  Niobium junction works up to 700 GHz  Niobium-Titanium-Nitride works up to 1.2THz  DSB noise tem. ~ /


National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics Laboratory for Nonlinear Dynamics of Electronic Systems LNDES Professor.

industrial, scientific and educational centers in UKRAINE LNDESIRE NASU Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics Millimeter Wave vacuum and solid state electronics: Magnetrons, Klystrons, BWO, Diffraction Radiation Generators, Terahertz Lasers; Gunn diodes, IMPATT-diodes Millimeter Wave Waveguide components Quasi-optics: Open Resonators, Terahertz Trans. Lines Radar, Sonar and EM & Acoustics Waves Propagation Radiophysics of Semiconductors and Solids Biophysics andRadio-Astronomy Remote Sensing of Earth/


Saja Ghazi Omar. What is a Microwave History of Microwave Microwave Sources Uses of a Microwave Microwave Frequency Measurements Theory Effect on Health.

High-power microwave sources use specialized vacuum tubes to generate microwaves. Low-power microwave sources use solid-state devices such as thefield-effect transistor (at least at lower frequencies) tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes U SES Communication Radar Radio astronomy Heating and power application Spectroscopy M ICROWAVE FREQUENCY BANDS The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to/


Radiation Sources for Spectroscopy and Imaging in the Submillimeter/Terahertz Frank C. De Lucia Ohio State University Advisory Group on Electron Devices.

and Developing Appropriate Source Technology with Applications of Interest << 1 MHz Fundamental Oscillators/Amplifiers (BWOs,TWTs, GUNNs, Klystrons) Harmonic Generation OPFIR Femtosecond Demodulation 1 - 100 MHz Quantum Cascade Lasers Cw/Mode Locked Laser Driven/can be shown to be low Appropriate Technology Developed: Compact, high resolution solid state sources based on diode harmonic generation technology have been developed Potential for Low Cost: Rapid expansion of wireless communication technology to/


微波工程 期中報告 老師:陳文山 班級:研碩一甲 學生:黃英勝 A Long, Winding Road, Alfred Riddle Alfred Riddle is with M/A-COM Technology Solutions Inc.,100 Chelmsford.

, although some noise sources dominate in certain regions and many approximations can be made.  During the 1960s, Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) and Gunn diode oscillators became the prime solid-state sources of high- frequency signals. Since IMPATT diodes are very noisy, injection locking techniques were used to reduce the oscillators spectral width. At Bell Labs, Kurokawa (Figure 5) used a Taylor series/


Challenges and Opportunities Currently most pulsed THz systems are based on Ti-Sapphire laser systems with ZnTe crystals as THz emitters and detectors.

pulsed broadband THz imaging system by using optical rectification for THz generation and EO sampling for THz detection. Fig.2, A CW THz imaging system with a GUNN diode as THz source and a Schottky diode as THz detector. Conclusion We measured THz radiation from CdTe crystal at different wavelengths via the process of optical rectification. It is demonstrated that in the range/


Radiation and Photometry  Radiation: The process by which energy can be transferred from one body to another by electromagnetic waves in the presence.

l Photovoltaic Cells: Silicon or Selenium Cells l Semiconductor material is “doped” with a small amount of impurity. These impurities produce diode type devices. One impurity (boron) produces electron “holes,” (the acceptor p-type) and the other (phosphorous) produces extra/ of radiation incident on the sensor to obtain the intensity in various bands. Measuring reflected solar radiation l Gunn-Bellani Pyranometer (Integrator) Uses 2 bulbs attached to a burette. Space between bulbs is evacuated of air./


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