Ppt on current account deficit means

Pakistan Balance of Payment, Current and Capital Accounts Kamran Tabish (15770) Ghulam Abbas (14087) Faizan Khan (15568) Nehreeza Aklaq (15082) Nida Tariq.

situation has not been satisfactory since independence. The country with the exception of five years has been running a persistent deficit in her BOP on current account Years of Surplus in BOP of Pakistan  These years are as follows:  1950-51  1954-55  1955/Main exports partners are European Union (UK), United States, UAE, and Afghanistan. Exports of Pakistan Imports  Imports mean buying of goods and services from other countries to fulfill the domestic needs  Pakistan’s imports during July-March 2010/

HL Balance of Payments IB Economics The consequences of a current account deficit  If the current account is in deficit then the capital account will.

Payments IB Economics The consequences of a current account deficit  If the current account is in deficit then the capital account will have to be in surplus to balance out the deficit  This means one of three things will have to happen 1.Foreign exchange reserves may be used to increase the capital account  However, no country is able to fund long term current account deficits with reserves – eventually they will run out/

Objectives of macroeconomic policy Economic growth: Sustainable growth: Low and stable inflation rate: Full employment: BOP equilibrium on the current.

contribution to EU CAP The capital and financial account FDI Portfolio investments in shares and bonds Changes in the foreign exchange reserves Short-term capital flows (hot money) Current account deficits in the UK High value of sterling Continuous/side policies Structural adjustment programs Asymmetric information Externalities Absence of property rights Investment decisions Micro finance A means of providing poor families with small loans to help them engage in productive activities Key features: /

Topics on the balance of payments. Consequences of persistent current account deficits and financial account surpluses.

other side of the coin…. Consequences of persistent current account surpluses and financial account deficits  Low domestic consumption is characteristic of countries with current account surpluses and financial account deficits. This corresponds to lower standards of living compared with countries in the opposite situation Consequences of persistent current account surpluses and financial account deficits  The deficit in the financial account means that investment money is leaving the country and going/

1 MACROECONOMICS AND THE GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The Current Account, the Balance of Payments, and National Wealth 2 nd edition.

insufficient savings CA = NX + NFP +NFT = NX + (GNDI – GDP) = NX + (GNDI – C –I – G – NX) CA = GNDI – (C + I +G) absorption approach -if CA<0, then living beyond means 19-9 Current Account (CA) Why Current Account Deficits? CA = S – I CA = Spvt + Sgovt – I investment boom: generally good fall in private saving: good or bad Attending graduate school: good Luxurious living: bad fall in government/

Harvard Kennedy School Belfer Center Economics Seminar Series, Harvard Kennedy School : 2009 Lessons from the Current Crisis Belfer Center Library, 3-4:30.

. 45 The next crisis The twin deficits: The twin deficits: US budget deficit => current account deficit US budget deficit => current account deficit Until now, global investors have happily financed US deficits. Until now, global investors have happily financed US deficits. The recent flight to quality paradoxically / 48 In the short run, the financial crisis has caused a flight to quality which apparently still means a flight to US $. US Treasury bills have been more in demand than ever, as reflected/

National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments November 2011

Sg S = Sp + Sg Figure 4.1 of Macroeconomics: Policy and Practice by Frederic Mishkin The Meaning of Saving and Investment Budget Surplus and Budget Deficit If T > G, the government runs a budget surplus because it receives more money than it spends./– CA Countries can pay for investment either by using domestic saving or by borrowing foreign funds equal to the current account deficit. a current account deficit implies a financial capital inflow or negative net foreign investment. When S > I, then CA > 0 and/

The Balance of Payments

“good” or “bad.” Features of the BOP (cont.) BOP will always balance. A BOP deficit (surplus) means that the debit entries exceed (are less than) the credits. This imbalance applies only to a particular account or component of the BOP. Components of the BOP Current Account Capital Account Financial Account Current Account Entries The current account includes the value of trade in merchandise, services, income from investments, and unilateral transfers (refer/

Deutsche Bank Russia-2011: Narrowing the EM gap March 2011 All prices are those current at the end of the previous trading session unless otherwise indicated.

in exports starting from 2H 2010 14 Source: Rosstat, Ministry of economy, Deutsche Bank Global Markets Research Deutsche Bank Current account vs budget deficit, % GDP, 2009 Source: IMF 15 Deutsche Bank S&P ratings vs CDS spreads, bp, 2009 Deutsche Bank /Specific Disclosures Australia: This research, and any access to it, is intended only for “wholesale clients” within the meaning of the Australian Corporations Act. EU countries: Disclosures relating to our obligations under MiFiD can be found at http:///

Chapter 8 Balance of Payment Account Lectured by: Mr. SOK Chanrithy.

▫If CA > 0, then exports of goods and services exceed imports and the country has a current account surplus. ▫If CA < 0, then imports exceed exports and the country has a current account deficit. the trade balance (or goods balance) can be defined as, GB = EX G – IM /every credit entry has a "+" placed before it while every debit entry has a "-". The plus on the credit side generally means that money is being received in exchange for that item while the "-" on the debit side indicates a money payment for /

Topic 4: Budgeting – Overview, Borrowing and Deficits 1.Goals of Fiscal Policy 2.Overview of budgeting in SA 3.Types of deficit classifications – actual.

as some tax revenues are used to pay off the debt) SA’s Primary Balance from 2002 to 2012 – current problem of a primary deficit Interest payments now fastest growing component of spending But, this has resulted in some years of borrowing to pay interest costs/The ‘ take-up rate ’ of social services must be taken into account – e.g. where people have the right to access certain services such as welfare grants, but the state ’ s administrative capacity means only a small % of those with the right are in a /

Chapter 13: Accounting Frameworks

trade surplus. © Kenneth A. Reinert, Cambridge University Press 2012 Fundamental Accounting Equation Intuition Domestic investment exceeds domestic savings (trade deficit) A trade deficit means that the Mexican economy is importing more goods and services in value terms/ Cambridge University Press 2012 Table 13.2: Mexican Balance of Payments, 2007 (billions of US dollars) Current Account Item Gross Net Major Balance Current Account 1. Goods exports 271.9 2. Goods imports -281.9 3. Goods trade balance -10.0 /

Recovery Plan Version th March 2013

) Dedicated JAG accredited Endoscopy Unit Obstetrics and Gynaecology Dedicated Outpatient facility Currently in deficit against plan, which in the main can be attributed to issues /has, in recent years, had an outdated Management structure with unclear accountabilities and responsibilities. It is likely that the complexity of the structure has/ creating follow-up attendances accurately; Outpatient summary, day case incompletion - means activity not logged; Failing to record co-morbidity, cross mapping errors /

2011 Examination Question (5) (a)“The currency swap contract behaves like a long-dated forward exchange contract, in which the forward rate is the current.

for a ride? Is the rest of the world totally stupid? No simple answers! The universal acceptability of the dollar has no doubt enabled the US to live beyond its means with huge twin deficits (fiscal and current account). The US is a huge consumer importing nearly anything and everything from anywhere and everywhere, never mind the yawning BOP/

Academy of Economic Studies Doctoral School of Finance and Banking Determinants of Current Account for Central and Eastern European Countries MSc Student:

closer to that of EU, the need for investment is likely to diminish. Results Fiscal Balance:  The coefficient is 0.13 which means that 13 percent of unit change in fiscal balance is reflected in the current account  Confirms the twin-deficits hypothesis  Confirms that there is no complete Ricardian off-set of changes in the way the public expenditure is financed. Real Effective/

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Department of Economics UADPhilEcon Global Imbalances Do we eat too much? The current Economic Crisis as.

different theories. *They focus on Minsky’s theory about financial crisis. 2.Select data. 3.Find the impact of the Current Account Deficit. *Estimate regressions with OLS. 4.Discuss Conclusions Theoretical Background Minsky (1970s) – Developed a model on the domestic economy / improves from 71% to 77%. US: CA against real wages improves substantially from 85% to 95%. These improvements mean that regression with lags and leads explain better the variance. Scatter plots with CA lags and leads: UK data shows/

Relations Between the Balance of Payments and Other Macroeconomic Accounts Thorvaldur Gylfason Course on External Vulnerabilities and Policies Tunis, March.

(all nominal) Recall:  R = X – Z + F So,  R -1 = 30 – 50 + 15 = -5, so R -2 = 15 Current account deficit, overall deficit Current account deficit, overall deficit  R -1 /Z -1 = 10/50 = 0.2 Equivalent to 2.4 (= 0.212) months of imports Equivalent to 2.4 (= 0.212) months of/2/3, M can increase by 14% Hence, M can expand from 70 to 80 Alternatively, by quantity theory of money MV = PY Constant velocity means that %  M = %  PY = %  P + %  Y If so, income elasticity of money demand is 1 Forecast for /

The Balance of Payments. © 2002 by Stefano Mazzotta 1 Learning Outcomes 1. Definition of the balance of payments (BOP) and its accounts 2. Some macroeconomic.

floating exchange rate regime (“free float”), the exchange rate is determined by the laws of supply and demand. This means no government intervention. Therefore, ORA = 0 orCA = - KA © 2002 by Stefano Mazzotta 20 Determinants of home/investment abroad © 2002 by Stefano Mazzotta 21 Economic intuition behind CA < 0 The current account deficit implies that –imports > exports –the current supply of home currency > the current demand for home currency –there exists a net demand for “investments” in home currency/

THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE NATION The balance of payments Fundamentals of balance of payment accounting Defining international economic.

credit items is exactly equal to the total of debit items. Hardly does this occur. There is either a deficit or a surplus in the current accounts of the balance of payments. The balance of payment disequilibrium is a situation whereby payments of visible exports or /also refer to the number of Kenyan shillings that cam be bought using one US dollar. A rise in the exchange rate means that there is a reduction in the value of one currency in relation to another. The reduction is known as depreciation. A/

The Origin of Economic Crisis-1991 Unsustainable fiscal deficit of the government caused the crisis Internal imbalances in the fiscal situation and external.

deficit and current account deficit dituation of Indi a The fiscal imbalance Main indivcators of fiscal desicit are The budgetory deficit The revenue Deficit Gross Fiscal Deficit GFD Revenue Deficit denotes the difference between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure. The conventional deficit (budgetary deficit/ to Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the financial system To infuse greater compitiion Means of Better Supervision The report of CFS was placed before the parliament in December 1991/

AS: 3.2.3 E CONOMIC PERFORMANCE 2.3.4 The balance of payments on current account Why do countries trade with each other?

each other? 2.3.4 T HE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ON CURRENT ACCOUNT  The importance of international trade for an economy such as the UK  The current account comprises trade in goods, trade in services, income flows and transfers  The meaning of a deficit and a surplus on current account  The factors that influence a country’s current account balance such as productivity, inflation and the exchange rate and economic/

Trade Surplus Trade Deficit Balance of Trade. Exchange Rates: Types of exchange rates; 1. Flexible (floating) exchange rate systems; supply and demand.

Current accounts; all exports & imports of goods/services in a year. Capital accounts; the purchase or sale of real or financial assets in a year. Official reserves accounts; the reserves of foreign currency held by central banks to make up any net deficits./ the U.S……………….…-10 - Official reserves ………………......................….-5 +exportenter [A + here means we will export a stock of foreign money($’s will enter U.S.] - importexit [A - here means we will import a stock of foreign money($’s will exit U.S.] /

Minnesota State Budget: Projected Budget Deficit and Budget Overview January 2011 Minnesota Senate Fiscal Staff Office of Senate Counsel, Research and.

1/19/20115 Current Biennium (FY 2010-11) $399 million positive balance assumed to carryforward to FY 2012-13. FY 2012-13 $6.2 billion deficit after carryforward./ transit, after offsets to the General Fund; however, declining MVLST revenues means that transit is not projected to receive any revenue until 2014 Transit in/2012-13 Spending by Agency (in 000s) – continued AGENCY:General FundAll Funds Accountancy Board960 Arch/Eng. Surveyors, Etc. Board1,548 Barber Board514 Combative Sports Commission00 /

Balance of Payments– By Prof. Simply Simple Just like individuals, countries also have to maintain an account of all their dealings with the rest of the.

either physical assets or financial assets of one country by the residents of another country. Now what comprises the capital account A surplus or deficit in different components of the BoP account can provide a snapshot of a countrys economy. A surplus in the current account may mean that the country is receiving more money by exporting its goods and services to other countries whereas a/

The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account Professor Roberto Chang Rutgers University January 2007.

consumption choice depends on the present value of income, not on its timing. In contrast, savings and the current account do depend on the timing of income. C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1 Q2 CA Deficit in Period 1 C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1’ Q2’ CA Surplus in Period 1 A’/. C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1 Q2 Suppose that this is the outcome under free capital mobility C1 C2 O A Q1 Q2 Capital controls mean that agents cannot borrow in the world market, that is, points in the budget set for which C1 > Q1 are not available. C1 C2 O /

A Note on The Current Account: Why the large current account deficit of the United States is not a bad thing.

A Note on The Current Account: Why the large current account deficit of the United States is not a bad thing. The Current Account (CA) All the things exchanged between nations include goods, services, income, gifts and financial assets. If all/ E = I= X – M = I f Y – E = S – I d = X – M = I f The Implications So what does a current account deficit mean, going from these three basic identities? 1. The country has negative net foreign investment and is a net borrower from the rest of the world. 2. The country /

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

labels; Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD: Evolution of the Disorder Still (1902/perhaps 80 % continue to be impaired by their symptoms and meet current diagnostic criteria. A significant number of children with ADHD (probably over /to account for ADHD in most children. In fact probably 95% of hyperactive children show no evidence of documentable neurological impairment. This does not mean, /

1 Introduction to Award Types Award/Post-Award Terminology Negotiation and Account set up Other Post-Award actions and area of focus Functions of the Partners.

when there will be substantial Federal scientific or programmatic involvement. Substantial involvement means that, after award, scientific or program staff will assist, guide, coordinate/ project –To add or remove trainees/personnel –To resolve a deficit by transferring salary to a sundry –To update salary allocation to/- How do Investigators Register? The institutions have an account. Investigators set up profiles on this account. Currently done by Human Research Affairs –Administrator for logistics –QI/

Understanding Current Account Deficit. Lets understand this concept through an interesting story!

day. As a usual morning practice, Vinay was reading a business paper when he came across the term Current Account Deficit. He wondered what it meant and asked Rajendra to explain. Rajendra tells him that if he answers a few questions, the meaning of the term Current Account Deficit will get clear. Rajendra asks Vinay to name the sources of his income? Vinay identifies them as Salary/

Toward a New Political Economy for the U.S. Ron Baiman For the Chicago Political Economy Group (CPEG) Center for Tax and Budget Accountability 70 E. Lake.

Positive Service Sector Growth When we talk about the service economy, what are we referring too? Do we mean consumer and product services such as retail and wholesale, warehousing, technical support, and repair and maintenance; /deficit in Goods. 2007 US Current Account in Services (millions of current dollars): 26 Not just “old” industries The US has even been running a deficit in “high technology” since 2002. Chinese imports are half of our deficit in manufactured goods and over 100% of our deficit/

Data Liberation Initiative Overview of the national accounts Gylliane Gervais March 2009.

comparisons! “At annual rates” means converted to annual level – /current prices and/or constants Output, intermediate consumption, value added Output and product (GDP) Income, wealth, assets Expenditure, deficit, debt Saving, saving rate Capital formation (or investment) What are the national accounts? Rearrangement and aggregation of financial statements of individual transactors in the market economy National accounting Business accounting Production account Income Statement } Income & expend. accounts/

17 - 1 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Advanced Accounting 8/e, Beams/Anthony/Clement/Lowensohn Corporate Liquidations and Reorganizations Chapter.

particular class alike – Provide adequate means for the plan’s execution – Prohibit the issuance of nonvoting securities 17 - 22 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Advanced Accounting 8/e, Beams/Anthony/Clement//deficit (700,000) Deficit December 31, 2003$(1,050,000) 17 - 41 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Advanced Accounting 8/e, Beams/Anthony/Clement/Lowensohn Tiger Balance Sheet at December 31, 2003 Current assets Cash$150,000 Accounts receivable, net 350,000 Inventory 370,000 Other current/

Jeffrey Frankel James W. Harpel Professor of Capital Formation & Growth, Harvard University Global Macroeconomic Address: The Impact of Current Economic.

resume widening. The imbalances will now resume widening. 70 Global current account imbalances – China’s surplus and America’s deficit – narrowed ≈ ½ in the 2009 recession. Global current account imbalances – China’s surplus and America’s deficit – are expected now to widen again some, with recent recovery/come? It didn’t come in 2008: The financial crisis caused a flight to quality which evidently still means a flight to US $. Chinese warnings in 2009 may have augured a turning point: Premier Wen worried US/

Balance of Payments 4.5. Current Account The Balance of Payment is a record of all in – and outflows in a country arising from economic activity in the.

date they will also get all there money back. Imbalance If the current account is in deficit than the capital account will have to balance this out by being in a surplus. Foreign reserve may be used to increase the capital account – can not be sustained long term Foreign ownership in a country means they must have faith in the domestic country but at the same/

The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account Professor Roberto Chang Rutgers University March 2013.

consumption choice depends on the present value of income, not on its timing. In contrast, savings and the current account do depend on the timing of income. C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1 Q2 CA Deficit in Period 1 C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1’ Q2’ CA Surplus in Period 1 A’/. C1 C2 O C1 C2 B A Q1 Q2 Suppose that this is the outcome under free capital mobility C1 C2 O A Q1 Q2 Capital controls mean that agents cannot borrow in the world market, that is, points in the budget set for which C1 > Q1 are not available. C1 C2 O /

Current Events intelligence/2015/03/18/the-federal- reserve-should-lay-out-clear-monetary- policy-ruleshttp://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-

means more choices and a higher standard of living. 3 Capital Flows and the Balance of Payments: Keeping track of international transactions by using: Balance of Payments Accounts Modeling the Financial Account /accounts. The current account and the capital account. Which countries have the highest account surpluses and account deficits? The Loanable Funds Model Revisited Loanable Funds Markets in Two Countries Current or Capital Account? Identify if examples are counted in the current or capital account/

Fiscal Cliffs, Debt Limits, and Unsustainable Deficits: Can the US Really Run Out of Dollars? L. RANDALL WRAY, LEVY INSTITUTE & UMKC

for 2.5 years Clinton projects surpluses for next 15 years All Gov’t debt will be retired But: Private debt explodes and then recession restores deficits. Why: The Meaning of Zero: 0=Private Bal + Govt Bal + Foreign Bal PRIVATE SECTOR BALANCE + GOVERNMENT BALANCE = CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE Accounting Identity of Financial Balances INTERNAL FINANCIAL BALANCE EXTERNAL FINANCIAL BALANCE THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Purported Unsustainability of Government/

Macro Review Day 5. International Trade Policy, Comparative Advantage, and Outsourcing 9 Balance of Trade Trade deficit = exports < imports Trade surplus.

36-12 International Financial Policy 36 The Current Account The current account (lines 1–14) is the part of the balance of payments account in which all short-term flows of /.S. Imports increase Demand for foreign currency to buy imports increases which means the supply of the dollar increases The increase in supply of the dollar/ of high exchange rates: Imports increase and exports decrease causing a trade deficit Trade deficits can have a contractionary effect on the economy 37-26 Macro Policy in/

Michigan Association of Municipal Clerks Basics of Governmental Accounting/Budgeting Presented By:Chrystal Simpson, CPA June 16, 2016.

and its availability to finance expenditures of the period. This generally means that revenue is accrued if received within 30 to 60 days from year-end. 20 Basis of Accounting 6 Full-accrual Basis  Enterprise Funds  Internal Service Funds /? + Amount of fund balance (deficit) accumulated + Amount of fund balance (deficit) accumulated from prior years and the estimated surplus or deficit expected in the current year?  4.Is the budget balanced (including fund balance or deficit)?  5.Has the budget been/

--- Chinese Capital Account and Current Account Financial Market of China.

in appreciation of RMB  1. Means that the domestic market is occupied by/current account and capital account. =>If a government runs a current account surplus and has no change in official reserves, then the current account surplus must be balanced by a capital account deficit. Recall: Current Account + Capital Account = Change in Official Reserve Account From the data above, China is now experiencing a “Double Surplus” in both current account and capital account. =>If a government runs a current account/

Trade – A2 Economics. Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand the UK current account Objectives: Define UK current account Analyse the UK’s import and export.

increase in the value of £ against the $ was the main reason the deficit was so high 2007-2008 Deficit narrowed by £6.1bn in 2007 and £12.6bn in 2008. Trade in services and income outweighed deficit in trade of goods. Evaluation: Does the current account deficit matter? Read the Article. What does the current account deficit mean for the UK economy? Does it matter? Plenary Discuss whether you feel/

Corporate Liquidations and Reorganizations

/12 Re-valuation Fair value 6/30/12 AFTER 6/30/12 Cash 50 150 300 Accounts receivable 500 350 335 Inventory 370 25 375 Other current assets 30 Land 200 100 Building, net 450 425 (75) Equipment, net 330 290/ Publishing as Prentice Hall Disclosures Adjustments to historical values Assets Liabilities Debt forgiveness Prior retained earnings or deficit eliminated Significant factors in determining the reorganization value Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright ©2012 Pearson/

Brazil 1998-1999. What is Balance of P. C.  When a country that has a large budget deficit, it has difficulty maintaining a fixed exchange rate, ultimately.

means that foreign exchange reserves are falling rapidly, or are being maintained only by a level of foreign borrowing.foreign exchange reserves “Four Zones of Economic Discomfort” Brazil has been located in Zone 3 for many years, with varying degrees of underemployment and current account deficits/up to the devaluation is consistent with the balance of payments crisis model; rapid expanding current account deficit constant government spending The Russian Financial Crisis in 1998 ○ Russia’s 1998 default on /

Balance of payments Trade deficits and surpluses Foreign exchange markets.

0.0 As you can see, the United States had a large current account deficit in 2006 6 U.S. imports have exceeded U.S. exports since 1976, and the trade deficit has widened 7 U.S. trade deficit in 2006 by country or region U.S. imports more goods from /one national currency expressed in terms of another national currency. For example, the dollar price of the British pound is $1.49 -- meaning it takes $1.49 to buy 1 pound An exchange rate is the price of one national currency expressed in terms of another /

The National Income Accounts

national income and domestic residents’ spending or absorption: Y – (C+ I + G) = CA CA balance is what we produce (Y) less domestic demand. We can live “beyond our means” if we run a current account deficit, import more than we export, and borrow the difference from foreigners. CA balance is the excess supply of domestic financing. If we produce and earn more than domestic/

Gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. Silver standard is a monetary system in.

world’s major currencies were floating — in other words, the currency exchange rates no longer were governments principal means of administering monetary policy.floating 2. Special Drawing Rights  In 1960s substantial economic expansion lead to weakening of / in the currency market to stop their currencies appreciating Led to the developing world as a whole preventing current account deficits in 1999 It was in response to unsympathetic treatment following the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. The call for/

Fund Accounting and Government-Wide Statements Reporting Including GASB 34 November 12, 2012 William Spinelli, CPA, MBA Finance Director, City of Leesburg.

are recorded only when paid “modified accrual accounting” 69 Fund Balance Fund Balance/Net Assets - Difference between assets and liabilities reported in a governmental fund 70 Deficit Unreserved Fund Balance Deficit - claims on current financial resources exceed the balances of those resources Always to be taken seriously Deficit may indicate a fund is “living beyond its means” 71 Deficit of Revenues to Expenditures Situations that may justify/

The Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board Back to the Future Back to the Future FASAB Update AGA Richmond Chapter Seminar Holiday Inn Koger Conference.

of the deficit excluding interest beyond the 75-year horizon implies that the ratio of debt to GDP would continue to grow beyond the 75- year horizon. The continuing rise in this ratio means that current policy /repairs) Open Issues: –Measurement techniques –Relevant metrics to report (dollars and/or condition) Task force of facilities managers, accountants, and auditors formed to assist Evaluating Existing Standards Why –Cost/benefit issues? –Communication challenges –Expectations How –Outreach to preparers/

International Capital Flows and Capital Account Liberalization Thorvaldur Gylfason.

the balance of payments is defined as B = X – Z National income is Y = E + X – Z Therefore, current account is B = X – Z = Y – E Two sides of the same coin: Deficit means that Z > X and E > Y Surplus means that X > Z and Y > E Foreign Investment Capital flows Foreign borrowing, portfolio investment, foreign direct investment Trade in equities depends on Interest/

Healthcare Across Borders - September 2003 Current And Emerging Technologies In Insulin Pumps And Continuous Monitors John Walsh, P.A., C.D.E. North County.

carb counting Accurate bolus calculations based on carb and BG need while accounting for BOB to avoid insulin stacking Accessible history Precise basal adjustment Reminders to/- September 2003 Bolus On Board Prevents insulin stacking Improves bolus accuracy Reveals current carb deficit or insulin deficit For an accurate BOB, the pump must have an accurate duration of /Look at the trend, not just the individual value Rapid rises usually mean you need more insulin Expect some lag period Drifting may occur No /

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