Ppt on chromosomes and chromatin definition

BIO 121 – Molecular Cell Biology Lecture Section 2 A. Regulation of Transcription B. Regulation of RNA and Protein Processing C. Protein Structure and.

Chromosome, Gene and RNA Architecture 2.Cell-Specific Regulation of Chromosome Structure 3.Cell-Specific Regulation of Transcription Activation 1. Review of Chromosome, Gene and RNA Architecture a. Review of Chromatin Structure b. Chromosomal Gene Arrangement c. Single Gene Components d. Nuclear RNA, mRNA and/cell and K + inside? 2. Cells can control a protein’s activity directly - by mechanisms that target the protein itself Figure 3-58 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) a. Definition: “/

Chapter 19 The Organization and Control of Eukaryotic Genomes Things to Know: 1.All those bold-faced words again 2.Figure 19.1: the basics of DNA structure.

can be shuffled around and have their location (loci) changed.  This occurs in somatic cells ( not gametes) 2.Transposons and Retrotransposons  Definition: a transposon is simply/and thus expression. i.The highly condensed heterochromatin is usually not expressed because the transcription factors can’t reach those genes. ii.If a gene is near a nucleosome is it more or less likely to be transcribed? What about its proximity to the chromosome scaffolding? The Control of Gene Expression (cont’d) Chromatin/

2 points: Easy - Chromosomes Which stage of the cell cycle are these cells in? Be sure to hide the answer. Answer: Interphase.

? Chromatids 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes By definition, which cells have ½ the total number of chromosomes? Haploid 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes Which stage of the cell cycle is this cell in? Be sure to hide the answer. Answer: Metaphase 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes What is created during the S stage of Interphase? DNA (chromatin) 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes What is the human diploid chromosome number? 46 2 points: Easy/

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. Background ( The cell, Nucleus ). Cell cycle ( Mitosis & Mieosis ). Karyotype definition, procedure and importance. Cytogenetics.

two copies of each chromosome—one from the mother and one from the father— produces four haploid cells containing one copy of each chromosome. Definition: The transition of interphase to cell division (mitosis) and back to interphase. When/ 1 ) TO: a- Remove water from the cells. b- Kills the cell, lyses RBCs and preserve. c- Hardening the membranes and chromatin. d- Preparing the chromosomes for banding procedure. – 3 times of centrifugation + removing supernatant + adding fixative + centrifugation again at/

CYTOLOGY. Definition:- Cytology is the study of the cell. Introduction A cell is the basic structural, functional and biological unit of a living organism.

CYTOLOGY Definition:- Cytology is the study of the cell. Introduction A cell is the basic structural, functional and biological unit of a living organism Tissues that form part of the body consist entirely of cells and extacellular matrix elaborated by /nucleolus. It consists of tightly coiled portions of chromosomes. They are mainly found in inactive cells Euchromatin usually remains unstained and are abundant in relatively active cells. In females, sex chromatin or Barr body appears as an appendage in /

The Cell Cycle Mitosis and Meiosis

push off each other. Two nuclei begin to form, surrounded by the fragments of the parent’s nuclear envelope. Chromatin becomes less tightly coiled. Cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm, begins. Mitosis Cytokinesis Cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm, typically/ problems and can be removed by surgery. In a malignant tumor, the cells leave the original site to impair the functions of one or more organs. This typically fits the colloquial definition of cancer. In addition to chromosomal and metabolic /

Chromatin Modifications Vered Fishbain Reading Group in Computational Molecular Biology 21/12/2006.

regions (like the centromer). Euchromatin is non-condensed chromatin, includes active and repressed genes. Euchromatin is non-condensed chromatin, includes active and repressed genes. 2 nm 11nm 30 nm 300 nm 700 nm 1400 nm 30 nm fiber of Packed nucleosomes Chromosomal loops Attached to nuclear scaffold Condensed section of metaphase chromosome Entire metaphase chromosome “Beads-on-a-string” Chromatin Packing Double helix 10 5  m 5-10/

Genes & Chromosomes Chapter 24. Central Dogma (p.906) DNA replicates  more DNA for daughters (Genes of) DNA transcribed  RNA –Gene = segment of DNA.

chromosome Chromosome = “packaged” DNA –Many circular Genome – cont’d Bacterial DNA -- larger than viral –E. coli -- ~4.6 x 10 6 bp’s –Both chromosomal and extrachromosomal Usually 1 chromosome//May be another histone prot “sits” at outside –Stabilizes Fig.24-24 Chromatin Repeating units of nucleosomes (24-23) “Beads on a string” –Flexibly / is parental (served as template) –2 nd strand is newly synth’d Definitions Template –DNA strand providing precise info for synth complementary strand –= parental strand /

1 st Review Project collection. LO 2.7: The student is able to explain how cell size and shape affect the overall rate of nutrient intake and the rate.

. Prokaryotes contain a single circular chromosome, while eukaryotes contain multiple linear chromosomes. b. Three animal cell organelles are the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and the ER. The Golgi apparatus, consisting of a series of flattened membrane sacs (called cisternae), synthesizes and packages small molecules for transport in vesicles, and produces lysosomes. The nucleus includes the nuclear envelope, the nucleolus, and chromatin, and is the information center of the/

Genes & Chromosomes Part III, Chapters 24, 25. Central Dogma DNA replicates  more DNA for daughters (Gene w/in) DNA transcribed  RNA –Gene = segment.

to next nucleosome Another histone prot may“sit” outside –Stabilizes Chromatin Further- structured chromosomal mat’l Repeating units of nucleosomes “Beads on a string” /1 strand automatically specifies complementary strand seq –Base pairing rule: A w/ T and G w/ C ONLY in healthy helix –Each strand serves as template for partner/1 strand is parental (served as template) –2 nd strand is newly synth’d Definitions Template –DNA strand w/ precise info for synth complementary strand –= parental strand during/

Molecules and mechanisms of epigenetics. Adult stem cells know their fate! For example: myoblasts can form muscle cells only. Hematopoetic cells only.

only become blood cells......but all those cells have identical genome sequences! Modern definition of epigenetics is as follows: it is non- sequence dependent inheritance and chromatine changes. How can just paternal or maternal traits be expressed in offspring? This is called genetic imprinting. How can females express only one X chromosome per cell? We observe some changes in gene expression that are heritable/

Prokaryotes And Eukaryotes

Peroxisome Lysosome Cytoskeleton 3 Golgi complex Plasma membrane Nuclear envelope Nucleolus chromatin 4 Smooth ER Nucleus Rough ER 5 Source: Biochemistry by A.L.Lehninger, 4th edition Definitions of the components: Part 4: Eukaryotic cell structure 1 1./material of the cell in the form of chromosomes containing DNA molecules complexed with proteins known as histones. The nucleus is responsible for maintaining this genetic information by replication and for expression of genes performing various functions. /

17-1 Chapter 17: Outline DNA Mutation Chromosomes and Variations Chromatin SupercoilingGenome Structure RNA Transfer, Ribosomal, Messenger Heterogeneous.

17-1 Chapter 17: Outline DNA Mutation Chromosomes and Variations Chromatin SupercoilingGenome Structure RNA Transfer, Ribosomal, Messenger Heterogeneous and Small Nuclear Viruses 17-2 Definitions DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the genetic code molecule for most organisms. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA molecules are involved in converting the genetic information in DNA /


chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes In prophase, the chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes. The nuclear envelope breaks down and spindles form at opposite poles of the cell. During early prophase: Chromatin fibers become coiled into chromosomes with each chromosome/ attach to the centromeres of each chromosome. Centromere – structure holding the 2 DNA ladders together. This is produced during the “S” phase of Interphase. The following definitions and actual pictures are from the website:/


piece of chromatin that is used for cell division Sister Chromatids: A pair of identical Chromosomes Centromere: The center section where the sister chromatids are connected Sister chromatids Centromere TEM 36,600  DNA supercoil LE 8-4 Sister chromatids Centromere TEM 36,600  Sister chromatids Chromosome distribution to daughter cells Chromosome duplication 10.2 vocabulary (p. 279) In your journal, write the definition and do a/

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Higher Education Salman bin Abdualaziz University College of Science and Humanities Course Code: BIO 2010 Course Title:

Definition of Biology Biology(from the Greek words bios = life and logos = science or studying). It research at the science study of living organisms in terms of Beginning structure, function, distribution, adaptation, interactions, and/ Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cell Early AnaphaseLate Anaphase 4- Telophase: - Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reform. - Spindle fibers disappears - Chromosomes becomes long thin filaments (chromatin) Telophase Daughter Cells Plant /

Chromatid (97) – The identical rods of chromatin in chromosomes. Chromatin (62) – Thin strands of DNA in the nucleus that contain genetic material that.

97) – The identical rods of chromatin in chromosomes. Chromatin (62) – Thin strands of DNA in the nucleus that contain genetic material that directs the cell’s functions. DNA NOTES CREATURE DUE PASS BACK TEST 1. DNA is part of our definition of a living organism. 2. / the information to code for one specific protein. The structure of DNA is called a double helix. Backbone/Sides phosphate and sugars Bases/Rungs 4 different Nitrogen containing bases Adenine – A Thymine – T Guanine – G Cytosine - C Adenine only/

Objectives: Identify steps of cell cycle Catalyst: Make a T-chart for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

down Nucleolus and nuclear membrane breaks down 2. METAPHASE Shortest phase Shortest phase Chromosomes line up at center of the cell Chromosomes line up at center of the cell 3. ANAPHASE Centromeres split Centromeres split Chromosomes separate to become individuals Chromosomes separate to become individuals Ends when the movement of chromosomes stops Ends when the movement of chromosomes stops 4. TELOPHASE Chromosomes uncoil into chromatin Chromosomes uncoil into chromatin Nuclear membrane/

THE CELL CYCLE Chapters 6. Do organisms grow? How do organisms grow? Generally, do – (1) individual cells keep getting larger and larger? or (2) cells.

cell in an organism needs exactly the same DNA in every cell. Let’s start with some definitions…. Chromatin and Chromosome Remember: Chromatin is long and thin. It is uncoiled DNA. (DNA still keeps it’s double helix shape, however. A chromosome is coiled DNA. The DNA coils around proteins. Chromatin and Chromosome Gene A section of DNA that contains the code to make a protein. Somatic Cells versus Gametes/

Human gene expression and genomic imprinting Lecture 3.

; the interphase chromosomes seems to consists of these chromatin fibers Histone code A common shorthand is used for histone modifications. Specific aminoacid residues are identified by the type of histone, the one-letter amino-acid code and the position of the residue counting from /; CpG islands are typically 300 – 3 000 bp in length The usual formal definition of a CpG island is a region with at least 500 bp and with a GC percentage that is greater than 55% Methyl-CpG binding proteins with methyl/

Cell Cycle and Cancer. What you need to know Structure of chromosome and chromatin Phases of the cell cycle Stages of Mitosis Differences in plant and.

What you need to know Structure of chromosome and chromatin Phases of the cell cycle Stages of Mitosis Differences in plant and animal cell division Definitions of mitosis and meiosis Role of cyclin in cell cycle Definition and causes of cancer Possible prevention and cure for cancer 7.3 Chromosomes Chromosomes were first observed by the German embryologist Walther Fleming in 1882 The number of chromosomes varies enormously from species to species/

DNA and the Genome Key Area 1 The Structure of DNA.

were carried out by various scientists to definitively show which of the 2 was the hereditary material The following slides and PowerPoints follow these scientists and their experiments in showing DNA and not protein is the inherited material TRANSFORMING / to make NUCLEOSOMES The nucleosomes then pack together to make CHROMATIN fibres which loop along a protein scaffold Eventually you have a tightly coiled and folded chromosome structure Nucleosomes DNA double helix is wrapped around histone proteins /

Mammalian Cytogenetics Chromosome structure & karyotype Gene 405: Mammalian Genetics Fall 2002 17 September, 2002.

KARYOTYPE How to define a karyotype? Arrangement of all the chromosomes of a cell - based on size, shape and centromeric position - homologous chromosomes arranged together - according to an internationally agreed system of arrangement for the species - accurate identification of homologues (banding) - following international nomenclature Traditional definition Refined definition: Types of chromosomal aberrations Numerical Structural Euploids Aneuploids Human trisomies Trisomies involving:211318X161? What/

1. During what stage of the cell cycle does a cell divide its genetic material between two new cells? 2. What is chromatin? 3. What are chromosomes? 4.

 Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase  Key Point 2: During prophase:  Chromatin condenses into chromosomes Each chromosome looks like an X  The nuclear membrane disintegrates (breaks down and disappears) Nuclear membrane= outer layer of nucleus  Spindle fibers form  Key Point 3:/of your graphic organizer.  Write a brief description. Try to use your own definitions as much as possible. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE CHROMOSOMES IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART!  Draw a picture of what is happening in each/

CELL DIVISION AND REPRODUCTION © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Duplication of the chromosome and separation of the copies Continued elongation of the cell and movement of the copies Prokaryotic chromosome 1 2 3 Division into two daughter cells Figure 8.2B Prokaryotic chromosomes THE EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.  Eukaryotic cells 1- 2- 3- The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell division © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.  Define chromatin  To prepare/

Review of Genome Language and some Facts

different levels. Broad definition: position nucleotidic sequences with respect to longer nucleotidic sequences (DNA matrix). For instance, placing a gene responsible for a disease on the chromosome in which it is/chromatin and mitotic chromosomes. This structure increases the packing ratio to about 40. (c) The final packaging occurs when the fiber is organized in loops, scaffolds and domains that give a final packing ratio of about 1000 in interphase chromosomes and about 10,000 in mitotic chromosomes/

 Interphase  Mitosis  Cytokinesis  is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time, it grows DNA replicates, and.

://www.synapses.co.uk/genetics/tsg3.html http://www.fractalposter.com/fractals/anaphase-1514.html.  Nuclear membrane + nucleolus reappear, chromosomes loosen up, and they become chromatin. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Telophase.jpghttp://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section3.rhtml Mitosis definitions Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time, it grows/

Meiosis-A prelude to reproduction. I.Terminology A.karyotype –1. human 46 –2. homologous pairs –3. diploid condition –4. note various sizes and shapes.

and shapes –5. genome B. Chromatin 1. heterochromatin 2. eucrhomatin 3. 1.8 meters C. Relationship between chromatin and chromosome 1. chromatin 2. chromosomes 3. histone proteins 4. nucleosome 100µm (b) 4. Scaffolding proteins 2µm Scaffolding Proteins DNA 5. Summary of chromosome complexity C. Terms of chromosome/ vs. maternal 3.genes vs. alleles How many chromosomes do you see? Enter answer text... 1.4 2.8 3.10 4.No clue E. Synapsis 1.Definition 2.Forms tetrads 3.Function-analogy of identical twins 4/


Jolly” bodies are seen in post splenectomy. A fragment of chromosome which is detached and left in the cytoplasm after the extrusion of the nucleus, / throughout  B, At high magnification, small lymphoid cells with condensed chromatin and irregular or cleaved nuclear outlines (centrocytes) are mixed with a population/either circumstance, definitive treatment must be directed at the underlying cause. THROMBOCYTOPENIA Isolated thrombocytopenia is associated with a bleeding tendency and normal coagulation /

THE CELL (eukaryotic) The IB Biology Juniors. Nucleus Definition: Region of the cell containing chromosomes, surrounded by a double membrane, in which.

) The IB Biology Juniors Nucleus Definition: Region of the cell containing chromosomes, surrounded by a double membrane, in which there are pores; provides for storage and protection of chromosomes; contains DNA and RNA Functions Stores hereditary material referred to as chromatin Stores proteins and RNA in the nucleolus Site for transcription in which mRNA is produced Site for exchange of hereditary molecules (DNA and RNA) between the nucleus/

Introduction to Cancer 1. Cancer Incidence and Mortality 2. What Is Cancer 3.History of Cancer Research.

the genetic mutations in different cancer types and subtypes.  The data generated by these initiatives are already reshaping our definition of cancer: cancer is a group /cells also undergo genetic alterations as they divide, both at the nucleotide and chromosomal levels. However, they are programmed to undergo cell death in response /oncogenic events found in cancer. Some of these kinases signal directly to chromatin. Activating and inactivating mutations of these have been noted in a range of malignancies. /

Cell Division and Cell Function ROUND ONE ROUND TWO.

is the thread like mass of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes when condensed? Definitions 600 What is chromatin? Definitions 700 What is the double rod of condensed chromatin? Definitions 700 What are chromosomes? Definitions 800 What are each identical rod or strand of the chromosome? Definitions 800 What is a chromatid? Definitions 900 The structure that holds chromatids together Definitions 900 What is the centromere? Definitions 1000 This is the place where/

Heterochromatineuchromatin (and facultative heterochromatin) Different types of chromatin Constitutive heterochromatin: constitute ~ 10% of nuclear DNA.

“stem” cells  Both processes must involve reprogramming of epigenome! Epigenetics and epigenetic regulation Definition of Epigenetics: heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes/ associated genes/chromatin domains Epigenetics example #1: Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated gene expression globin genes are/ DAPI  -MeK27 H3 X inactivation involves sequential epigenetic modifications of the silenced chromosome Epigenetics example #3 Position effect variegation in Drosophila w +/+ w -/- w /

Bell Ringer PAGE 74 Define the following terms! –Chromosome- structure composed of DNA & proteins –Chromatin- Material that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes,

Chromosome- structure composed of DNA & proteins –Chromatin- Material that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes, consists of DNA with histone proteins –Centrioles- structures that comprise of microtubules, located inside the animal centromeres –Centromere- structure that joins sister chromatids together –Sister Chromatid- one strand of replicated chromosome and/ –The strands coil back up forming 2 instead of 1 Bell Ringer- Definitions PG 74 Helicase- Unzips DNA Polymerase- Reads DNA Leading strand- Reads straight/

 Double helix  Nucleotide  Semiconservative replication  DNA polymerase  Chromatin.

of DNA that is open-ended, having a definite beginning and end  For prokaryotes, which have a circular chromosome, one replication site  CHROMATIN: Relaxed form of DNA in the nucleus  DNA is wrapped around a protein at multiple sites  Chromatin condenses to form a chromosome  From unpacked to packed  DNA  Chromatin (DNA + protein)  Chromosome  Why “move”?  Used for cell growth, replacement, and sexual reproduction  Ensures that all cells receive/

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

suicide? Why would a cell commit suicide? Describe the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, chromatin, chromosomes, and nucleoli in terms of structures and key functions. Name something that you KNOW must get out of the nucleus for cells/ that interact with each other via vesicles includes ER, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, microbodies, and in some definitions the nuclear membrane and the plasma membrane endomembrane system endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – membrane network that winds through the cytoplasm/

Meiosis-A prelude to reproduction. I.Terminology A.karyotype –1. human 46 chromosomes –2. homologous pairs –3. diploid condition –4. note various sizes.

. 1.8 meters 2. DNA 3. exists in a non-dividing cell C. Relationship between chromatin and chromosome 1. chromatin 2. chromosomes 3. histone proteins 4. nucleosome 100µm (b) D. Terms of chromosome structure 1. Monad 2. Dyad 3. Centromere 4. Sister chromatids E. Homologous chromosome pairs 1. definition 2.paternal vs. maternal 3.genes vs. alleles 4.synapsis 5.tetrad 6. sister vs. nonsister chromatids How/

ifomis.de 1 Outline Part 0: HL7 RIM Part 1: Survey of GO and its problems Part 2: Extending GO to make a full ontology Part 3: Conclusion.

.de 40 http:// ifomis.de 41 Primary aim not rigorous definition and principled classification but rather: to provide a practically useful framework for/ifomis.de 47 / GO:0008608 microtubule/kinetochore interaction =df Physical interaction between microtubules and chromatin via proteins making up the kinetochore complex http:// ifomis.de 48 / GO:/ cells, or chromosomes. The word activity helps distinguish between the protein and the activity of that protein, for example, nuclease and nuclease activity. In/

Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Lecture II: Molecular and Genetic Measures Jan 10, 2012 Joe Wiemels HD 274 (Mission Bay) 514-0577

to immobilized nucleic acid probe 3. Scanning using a high definition optical device 4. Conversion of the raw image to data, followed by normalization steps and subsequent analysis and interpretation. Microarray basics Some Applications for Microarray: 1.SNP genotyping/ phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence DNA methylation, histone modifications, accessible chromatin, chromosome structure 01_02.jpg CH 3 5-methyl- The “fifth base” 42 5-methyl-C facts Only occurs/

Biology 9 Unit 9: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance.

where the nucleus disappears and spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes that are now visible. Inside the nucleus the chromatin fibers transform from a disorganized group of fibers to thick organized strands called chromosomes viewable with a light/ chromosomes. 8. The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis. Column B a. Crossing over b. Homozygous c. Fertilization d. Meiosis e. Nondisjunction f. Zygote g. Haploid h. Alleles Practice Assessment 2: Match the definition in/

1 Day Date Subject To be read prior to this class period: Th3/12Chapter 7 T3/17 students = epigenetics Richie Th3/19students = toxicology and cancer Anna,

rats 4) queen ants 5) transgenerational 6) Richie’s paper on the “methylome” imprinting embryonic stem cells 22 Definition from Genetics: allele = one version of a gene. chromatin = DNA plus associated proteins. Chromosomes are composed of chromatin. Looking ahead to Chapter 10: Altered chromatin can be inherited and is called an epiallele. Pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet have offspring predisposed to obesity. In Chapter/

Inside a Cell A Tour of the Chromosomes Humans, giraffes, chickens, gorillas or watermelons are made of cells.

all new cells. How does this happen? DNA (and all other cell parts) are “photocopied by MITOSIS!!!!!!!!! Watch this mitosis video! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G-3BDlnK58 Mitosis helps you *grow new cells *replace injured/damaged cells Answers to “The Cell Cycle” Reproduce cells Interphase, chromatin, chromosome Mitosis – Prophase, disappear, spindle fibers, double stranded chromosome (called centromere) – Metaphase, line (middle) – Anaphase, contract/

Genomes. Definition Complete set of instructions for making an organism Complete set of instructions for making an organism master blueprints for all.

occurring at specific points on the chromosomes, by which hereditary characters are transmitted and determined, and each is regarded as a particular state of organization of the chromatin in the chromosome, consisting primarily DNA and protein Gene classification coding genes non-coding genes Messenger RNA Proteins Structural RNA Structural proteinsEnzymes transfer RNA ribosomal RNA other RNA Chromosome (simplified) intergenic region Gene Molecular definition: DNA sequence encoding protein What/

Anatomy and Physiology Honors Midterm Exam Review – Part 1 Chapters 1-3 2015-16 By Mrs. Shaw.

Chapter 1 Vocabulary review – Characteristics of Life Match the correct term with the definition Reproduction1. Production of new organisms and new cells. Circulation__2. Movement of substances in body fluids. Movement__3. Change in position/inner and outer membrane. Nuclear Envelope Notes The Nucleolus – small, dense body composed largely of RNA and protein. Ribosomes form in the nucleolus. Chromatin – loosely coiled fibers of DNA and protein called chromosomes. The Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin Notes/


long thread of DNA packaged with proteins. It is replicated before division and visible in a stained cell. B. Chromatin: eukaryotic genetic material made of DNA and protein. C. Chromatid: one of the two copies of chromosome after it has replicated. D. Gene: a heritable character that controls a specific character. More definitions E. Genome: the genetic complement of an organism. F. Mutation: change in/

Multi-Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Stem Cell Behaviour

Kinetochore MolecularMotorProtein © LES/PUC-Rio Role Diagram Environment Cell Chromosome Centrosome Chromatin 1 CellMembrane * Substance Cell Chromosome 2 Chromatid Nuclei Centrosome NuclearMembrane Chromatin 2 Centriole * MolecularMotorProtein © LES/PUC-Rio References M. d’Inverno, and J. Prophet. Modelling, simulation and visualisation of adult stem cells. In P. Gonzalez, E. Merelli, and A. Omicini, editors, Fourth International Workshop on Network Tools and Applications, NETTAB, pages 105–116, 2004. M. d/

Cellular Biology School of Life Sciences Shaanxi Normal University 1.

or D phase (mitosis or division) means the time from the beginning to ending of mitosis. The definition of cell cycle time: Percentage labeled mitoses (PLM) is a regular method for that. Label cells with/chromatin is condensed; ② set up polar sites and start to form spindle; ③ nucleolus is disassembled; ④ Nuclear membrane (envelope) disappeared. In prophase, the chromatin became short and visible under microscope. Each chromosome include two chromatids. Two centrioles have already formed in S phase, and/

Twenty-five years of the nucleosome Kornberg and Lorch 1998, Cell 98: 285.

H3 throughout chromosomes during cell division Thus, this must play a role is chromosome condensation during mitosis 3. Models- 1. Phosphorylation + acetylation allows activation of gene expression, depending on context 2. Phospho-H3 loosens chromatin, enhancing /Histone H3 Bromodomain of a HAT Chromodomain of a chromatin remodeler Methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation of histones Science 292:65, 2001 Is there a “Histone Code”? Definition- “Covalent modifications of histones constitute an intricate /

Huck-Hui Ng Genome Institute of Singapore 17 July 2010 Stem cells and epigenetics.

? Sequence-specific transcription factor recruits multi-subunit complexes that can modulate transcription and chromatin structure. Taatjes et al. (2004). Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 5(5):403-10 Oct4  A POU/variegation Metastable states (on and off) Single cell Grown up colony Epigenetic properties: 1)Mitotically heritable 2)Cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence Unifying definition of epigenetic events: The structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register/

目 录目 录 Chapter two Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids.

10 nm fiber Transv erse section lengthwisesection 30 nm fiber chromosome 300nm solenoid chromatin The folding of nucleosomes, the chromatin condensation, the formation of chromosome 目 录目 录 Genes consist of regulatory region and large protein-coding segments. Genome is a whole sequence of/various bases (pH 7.0) Cytosine Adenine Guanine Thymine Uracil Wavelength 目 录目 录 2. DNA denaturation Definition Double helix of DNA Single strand The denaturation factors heating, chemical reagents, ultraviolet light 目 录目 录 /

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