Ppt on census and sample methods of collection of data

MA Quantitative Methods Official Statistics, Censuses and Sociology Peter Ratcliffe.

about the ‘ethnic group’ question?) Sampling Error? Even in a Census? Actually there is a small amount of non-response – around 2%. Significance? Data comparability – key issue for the analysis of social change or formal longitudinal analyses Measurement of ‘ethnic group’: ethical/political questions Why are such data wanted, and by whom? Are there dangers in such data being collected and made available to social scientists and others? Historical background to the/


Introduction to the Canadian Census of Population With Peter Peller Maps, Academic Data, Geographic Information Centre (MADGIC)

collects data from all members of a population in Canada the “de jure” method is used rather than the “de facto” Since 1941, sampling has been used – 2A Short Questionnaire – 2B Long Questionnaire Purpose of the Census Governed by the Statistics Act Used to determine the number of seats in parliament Used to adjust federal electoral district boundaries to achieve equal representation Federal transfer payments and much more… Historical Census/


Population and Migration Seeking your views Welcome and introductions Centre for Demography.

university and moving away after their studies Some encouragement to change GP registration at start of studies, but no encouragement when students leave Solution: what’s new? Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data Data on all HE students New term-time postcode detail collected by HESA for all institutions from 2007/08 academic year New detail received March 2009 Modelling in-migration Current method uses 2001 Census data/


The US Census and Secondary Data Sources 1. Secondary DataData that someone has collected, collated, or analyzed  The US Government provides many.

estimate the total number through sampling. 16 Census Collection Method – Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (ACE) 1.Create Interactive Coverage Measurement (ICM) a “second” census of 750,000 housing units from around the country 2.Match and compare ICM with enumerated census 3.Make an estimate of undercounts and errors using Dual System Estimation (DSE) Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation is the Census Bureau’s process for estimating the undercount using sampling methods. There are three basic/


Labor Market Information Methodology and uses Part 2 Dennis Reid Bureau of Labor Statistics San Francisco Regional Office October 2014.

CES Data Collection Data are collected primarily by BLS  BLS Data Collection Centers (DCCs) In Atlanta, Kansas City, Dallas, Fort Walton Beach, Chicago  States can opt to collect data for key/sensitive reporters Collected via a variety of methods:  TDE (Touchtone Data Entry): respondents call 800# and punch in data on touchtone phone  CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview): we call respondents  Mail: via a “BLS-790 shuttle form”  Electronically: Fax, FTP, diskette, website Distribution of Sample/


Q2010 course on “Quality reporting and metadata” May 2010, Helsinki August Götzfried and Eva Elvers.

rates are indicative of –quality of data collection and processing –not of quality of final data Attention paid to data editing should reflect significance of such errors 89 Measurement Errors (cont.) Methods of error evaluation Comparisons with other data at unit level –requires common unit identification scheme –accounting for conceptual or timing differences Re-interview with superior method –preferably for random sample of units 90 Measurement Errors (cont.) Methods of error evaluation (continued/


5 Marzo 2007 Fabio Crescenzi Andrea Mancini Istat (Italian National Statistical Institute) General Censuses Division Beyond the 2010 census round: plans.

field-checked geocoded lists of addresses; vii) delineation of census areas of 15.000 inhabitants; viii) collection of socio economic data by long form only from a sample of households. Perspectives beyond 2011 The innovations designed for 2011 are sufficient to achieve a stable and enduring balance between costs and benefits of a census? The answer is no, because costs remain high and too concentrated in time and the use of administrative data remains below the potential/


Medicaid Underreporting in the CPS: Results from a Record Check Study Joanne Pascale Marc Roemer Dean Resnick US Census Bureau DCAAPOR August 21, 2007.

’s Statistical Methods Group. Switching From Retrospective to Current Year Data Collection in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) Anne T. Kearney U.S. Census Bureau John P. Sommers Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 36 Important Terms Retrospective Design: collects data for the year prior to the collection period Current Year Design: collects data in effect at the time of collection Survey Year: the year of data being collected in the/


INFO 7470/ECON 7400/ILRLE 7400 Measuring Business and Economic Activity John M. Abowd and Lars Vilhuber with contributions by Jim Davis, Brent Moulton.

one or more paid employee The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the ASM in each of the 4 years between the economic census which is collected for years ending in 2 and 7 The economic census - manufacturing is the sample frame from which the ASM is chosen and presents more detailed data than the ASM Both input and output measures collected http://www.census.gov/manufacturing/asm/ INFO 7470, please do not/


By Dr. Pranali Kothekar Moderator : Dr. Abhishek Raut Sources of Health Information in India.

not available quickly. Two methods of collection of data in a census de - facto method : Persons are enumerated according to their location at the time of enumeration. This method is used in developing countries like India. de - jure method:The persons are assigned according to their“usual” place of residence and not according to their location at the time of census. This method is used in USA. Census in India The first census in India in modern/


WelcomeTo Census Evaluation and Post Enumeration Survey (PES) of Bangladesh Presented by Ashim Kumar Dey Director(Deputy Secretary), Census Wing and Project.

Post Enumeration Check) Phase 3 : Sample census. 10 Method of Enumeration  House to house interview method  Floating Population are enumerated at census night.  Modified De-Facto method of enumeration adopted for collection of data for the main census and the PEC  De-Jure method of enumeration is followed in the sample census  People on duty and on board were counted at their usual residences 11 Stages of Census Operation Stage 1 : Pre-census activities Stage 2 : During census activities Stage 3 : Post/


1 National Center for Health Statistics Record Linkage Program Christine S. Cox, Chief, Special Projects Branch (SPB) Office of Analysis & Epidemiology.

be executed in the RDC with output returned by email Census RDC- access NCHS data using any one of the nine Census RDCs. Census RDC- access NCHS data using any one of the nine Census RDCs. For all methods of access, restricted data files remain in RDC and output is inspected for disclosure violations For all methods of access, restricted data files remain in RDC and output is inspected for disclosure violations 88 On-Site Access/


2-1. Data Collection Data Vocabulary Data Vocabulary Level of Measurement Level of Measurement Time Series and Cross-sectional Data Time Series and Cross-sectional.

2-1 Data Collection Data Vocabulary Data Vocabulary Level of Measurement Level of Measurement Time Series and Cross-sectional Data Time Series and Cross-sectional Data Sampling Concepts Sampling Concepts Sampling Methods Sampling Methods Data Sources Data Sources Survey Research Survey Research Chapter 22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-3 Data Vocabulary Data is the plural form of the Latin datum (a “given” fact).Data is the plural form of the Latin datum (a “/


Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Professions Research Training Scheme Training Workshop May 2004 The Survey Method Paul Lambert Applied Social Science,

(1) Can be representative / large scale  Probability theories justify generalisation from samples  Surveys can handle census or other large sample data collections and analysis  Parsimonious summary of the relation between variables on many cases NMAHP Research Training: Survey Method, May 2004 13 Strengths of surveys (2) Extensive methods research  Eg, tests of reliability and validity - Bryman 2001 pp70-74: StabilityFace validity Internal reliabilityConcurrent `` Inter-observer consistency Predictive/


FPP Chapter 19 Surveys. General Idea Parameter Statistic Inference Sample Population.

Dispatch. Problems with Minnesota survey Random sampling comment 1 Say you collect data on units using a method other than a random sample, and you know these data are not representative of the population of interest. Then, you take a random sample from these collected data. This random sample is representative of the population. Wrongo !! Large random samples are representative of the population in the frame. Effectively, this methods uses the unrepresentative, collected data as a frame. By randomly/


商务统计学 Statistics for Business. What is the purpose of this course? To introduce you to the basic concepts of descriptive statistics found in business.

the types of data and methods of collecting data We have discussed the types of data and methods of collecting data Make sure you are familiar with these types and methods Make sure you are familiar with these types and methods Sampling Methods Population ( 总体 ) - The set of individuals, items, or data from which a statistical sample is taken Population ( 总体 ) - The set of individuals, items, or data from which a statistical sample is taken When observing a population, we are carrying out a census (the/


Chapter 1. Statistics may be defined as "a body of methods for making wise decisions in the face of uncertainty." ~W.A. Wallis LEARNING GOAL Understand.

sampling and become familiar with several common methods of sampling. Definitions Censuscollection of data from every member of a population. Samplecollecting data from part of a population. Representative sample—a sample in which the relevant characteristics of the sample members are generally the same as the characteristics of the population. What are advantages and disadvantages of collecting data using a census? What are advantages and disadvantages of collecting data using a representative sample/


2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses Workshop on Civil Registration and Vital Statistics in the UNESCWA Region Cairo, Egypt, 3 - 6 December.

siblings will weigh more heavily in the sample. Information on number of siblings may be used to reduce this effect. 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses Workshop on Civil Registration and Vital Statistics in the UNESCWA Region Cairo, Egypt, 3 - 6 December 2007 General Comments  The methods for collecting mortality data and their related issues evolve over time.  Application of new and existing methods in different countries sheds light on/


Alternatives in Census Designs Fourth Taskforce Meeting on Population & Housing Censuses Cairo, 4-5 September 07 Neda Jafar ESCWA

up on non respondents  Personal interview to non-respondent TypeData Sources PeriodicityAdvantagesConstraintsPrerequisites Traditional census and annual surveys - traditional census for short form -Sample surveys for long form type of data -every 10 yrs - Annually collect long- form data through 10 yrs - reduce operational complexity of 10 yr census -Complete updated frame -Timely and quick release of data -Enhances professional ism - high financial commitments for survey component -Estimation procedures/


Formulas, Ratios, Estimates, and Counts… The Historical Roots of Quantitative Public Policy in the U.S Margo Anderson History & Urban Studies University.

research organizations and universities to collect and produce data products 4 Origins and Structure History helps! – The 1787 Constitution created the platform of the system. – The Constitution created two different types of statistical or public data collection and reporting: the decennial census the reports on government revenue and expenditures 5 Useful Distinctions Survey Data: Data collected for research or policy purposes only, usually sampled: CPS, SIPP, ACS Administrative Data: Data collected for/


United Nations Regional Workshop on the 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses: Census Evaluation and Post Enumeration Surveys, Bangkok,

on Population and Housing Censuses: Census Evaluation and Post Enumeration Surveys, Bangkok, Thailand, 10-14 May, 2010 Implementation of PES (contd.) Factors contributing to non-sampling error  Vague objectives of the PES  Duplication or omissions due to imprecise definition of boundaries of EAs  Inappropriate methods of interviewing  Lack of trained and experienced field interviewers and supervisors  Inadequate identification particulars of sampling units  Errors occurring in data processing United/


ICAP M ETHODOLOGY W EBINAR D ECEMBER 7, 2011. Upcoming Methodology Webinars January 26: Using routinely-collected data to estimate patient retention in.

Selection of method and data collection Data analysis and dissemination Key Methods Collected from MARPs Census and enumeration Capture-Recapture Multiplier methods Nomination Collected from the general population Population surveys Network scale-up Consensus/Delphi Methods that rely on data collected from MARPs Census and enumeration - method Census methods count every individual in a population Enumeration methods count only sub-set of individuals selected from a defined sampling frame, and then/


United Nations Regional Workshop on the 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses: Census Evaluation and Post Enumeration Surveys, Addis.

pilot test contribute to establishment of matching rules, reconciliation procedures and logistical flows of documents between PES and census  Estimates of precision for the PES can be made based on pilot test results, such as sampling errors United Nations Regional Workshop on the 2010 World Programme on Population and Housing Censuses: Census Evaluation and Post Enumeration Surveys, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 14-18 September 2009 Implementation of PES (contd.) Data collectionMethod commonly used in a/


Sample Surveys AP Statistics Chapter 12. Learning Goals 1.Population versus Sample 2.Sample Surveys 3.Generalizing Results 4.Sampling Frame & Sampling.

the other hand, if our data come from some of the climbers, we have sample data. Learning Goal #1: Data Collection The quality of the results obtained from any statistical method is only as good as the data used. – The reliability and accuracy of the data affect the validity of the results of a statistical analysis. – The reliability and accuracy of the data depend on the method of collection Conclusion: “GARBAGE IN, MEANS GARBAGE OUT” Sampling methods that, by their nature, tend/


Sample Surveys Chapter 12. Objectives Population Sample Sample survey Bias Randomization Sample size Census Parameter Statistic Simple random sample Sampling.

Population Sample Sample survey Bias Randomization Sample size Census Parameter Statistic Simple random sample Sampling frame Stratified random sample Cluster sample Multistage sample Systematic sample Pilot Voluntary response bias Convenience sample Undercoverage Nonreponse bias Response bias Sampling variability Data Collection The quality of the results obtained from any statistical method is only as good as the data used. – The reliability and accuracy of the data affect the validity of the results of a/


Data Methods and Sources An overview Mark Collinson MRC/ Wits Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System Wits School of Public Health Wits Demography.

, malaria, and nutrition among women and children. Aims to improve and institutionalise the collection and use of data by host countries for program monitoring and evaluation and for policy development decisions. DHS methods Sample Design The sample is generally representative: – At the national level – At the residence level (urban-rural) The sample is usually based on a stratified two-stage cluster design: First stage: Enumeration Areas (EA) are generally drawn from Census files Second/


United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Revising the Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses New York, 29 October – 1 November.

census-year long form to collect these detailed data from a sample of the population (para. 1.72). United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Revising the Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses New York, 29 October – 1 November 2013 Review of National Experiences for 2010 Censuses Report of the United States of America on the 2010 World Population and Housing Census Programme “Countries are becoming more creative in their census designs and developing new census methods/


Administrative Data and the Official Statistics System Emma Mawby- Statistics New Zealand July 2016 With thanks to the Administrative.

be delayed Coverage (sample or census?) Sample (May be a census) Census Is sampling error present?yesno Concepts/Definitions Match survey objectives Match operational requirements Uses Statistical Classifications and Standards Yesperhaps Sample SurveysAdministrative Data Collector Trained survey collectors Collection method under control of the surveyor Administration staff Operational staff Collection method restricted by operational requirements and constraints Data capture and storage Designed for survey/


Census in Phases Prof. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal. Outline of Presentation Introduction to Census Essential Features of Census Uses of population Census Introduction.

design is a variation on the traditional census design and focuses on counting the population and collecting only the basic demographic data in the census year. A very large household survey collects and tabulates detailed demographic, social, economic, and housing data every year throughout the decade, replacing a census-year long form to collect these detailed data from a sample of the population. It may not be necessary to collect data on all topics every year, since/


Definition of statistics A branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of quantative and qualitative.

have been collected Statistics a collection of methods for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data Population the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied; the collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied. Census Collection of data from every member of a population. Sample Sub collection of members/


Sample Survey and Sampling Methods Course unit ECON 53115 MA/MSSc in Economics Dr. WM Semasinghe Dept. of Economics 10/2/2016.

, recording the measurements, the methods of collection of required data before starting the field work. It is very necessary to assign adequate supervisory staff for the inspection of field work. Plans must be made for handling non-response errors i.e. the failure of the enumerator to obtain information from certain sample units. 10/2/2016 ix. Summery and Analysis of the Data The analysis of data may be broadly considered under the/


Workshop on World Programme for the Census of Agriculture 2020 Amman, Jordan 16-19 May 2016 Master Sampling Frame: What? Why? How? & pilot tests Technical.

’d) 2. Review other censuses and surveys in your country with a focus on sample frames. Examples are the population census, national household surveys, and price collections for the Consumer Price Index. 3. Review administrative data and other possible sources for building and/or updating a list of farms or agricultural holders. 4. Obtain information on census or survey systems in countries of similar size, form of agriculture, and capabilities. 28 8 steps to/


Advancing Improvements in MCH Outcomes Using Local Area Estimates from the National Survey of Childrens Health An Overview of Methods and Field Applications.

common methods If research is the goal, it is best to use the Research Data Centers at CDC or Census Bureau to access the data for local areas of interest Potential Bias in this Methodology  There are timing differences between when state and local data were collected: state-level data collection for the NSCH (2011-12) and ACS (2008-12) slightly varied.  The number of stratifying groups are limited by state sample size/


1 American Community Survey Idaho State Data Center Boise September 7, 2005.

How do the samples compare? Differences ACS samples every year and spreads sample over 12 months; census samples once a decade and uses the entire sample at the same time ACS subsamples for personal visit follow-up; court ruled against census subsampling Census sample estimates based on about 18 million housing units; ACS 5 year estimates based on about 11 million housing units 13 How does data collection compare? Similarities Primary method is self/


ESDS: Using and archiving research data Laurence Horton Economic and Social Data Service UK Data Archive 03 November 2008.

or developing a methodology or research tool by studying sampling methods, data collection and fieldwork strategies and topic guides although researchers often publish a section on methods used, researchers own fieldwork diaries can offer much insight into the history and development of the research encourage researchers to reflect on the researchers own experiences Difficulties in re-using data practice of secondary analysis of qualitative data is not a commonplace research activity Major barriers/


ESDS: Using and archiving research data Louise Corti Associate Director UK Data Archive University of Glamorgan 8 September 2008.

developing a methodology or research tool by studying sampling methods, data collection and fieldwork strategies and topic guides although researchers often publish a section on methods used, researchers own fieldwork diaries can offer much insight into the history and development of the research encourage researchers to reflect on the researchers own experiences Teaching and learning older classic studies and more contemporary focused sets of transcripts can provide unique case material for teaching/


The Evolution of Survey Process Quality

theory and sample design ISI agrees to promote extended investigation of representative methods in the mid-20s Tschuprow, stratified random sampling, early 20s The 1934 Neyman paper on the representative method and optimum allocation Neyman develops theories for sampling (cluster sampling, ratio estimation, two-phase sampling) and confidence intervals Fisher’s random experiments Nonsampling error theory in the 1940s Interpenetration 1946, Mahalanobis The US Census Bureau survey model 1959-1964 Data quality/


Index number construction and new variable derivation

at basic prices Stage 2: Product group weights – Value of output obtained via census/survey Stage 1: Product weights – Value of output obtained via census/survey Individual sampled products assigned to one product group 17 March 2010 ECLAC, Santiago/ Manufacturing Statistics for ECLAC member states Deflation method Work load Reduced (less detailed data collection and processing) BUT: price index needs to be calculated Responsibility shifts to another area “Duplication” of work can be avoided 17 March 2010 /


STATISTICAL METHODS I STATISTICAL METHODS I Prof. Elizabeth M. Role, Ph. D. Prof. Elizabeth M. Role, Ph. D.

of methods for organizing, displaying, and describing, data by using tables, graphs, and summary measures. Inferential Statistics Consists of methods that use sample results to help make decisions or predictions about a population. Census TERMINOLOGIES Population Sample Random Sample Representative Sample Sample Survey Statistics Survey Element Non-random Sample Data Variable Population is the collection of all elements whose characteristics are being studied. Sample is a portion of the population of/


Sampling Design & Procedure.

Resource constraint should guide the decision on the sample size In any marketing research project, money and time are limited Other constraints include the availability of qualified personnel for data collection The Sampling Design Process Execute the Sampling Process Execution of sampling process requires a detailed specification of how the sampling design decisions with respect to the population, sampling frame, sampling unit, sampling technique, and sample size are to be implemented If households are/


Application of a small area estimation method to make better use of existing data in Bangladesh Nobuo Yoshida April 20, 2011.

-sampling error  Cons  Fairly complex method  Increasing error in execution of the method What is the ELL method?  Two main features  Impute consumption in CENSUS/CWIQ without it  Imputation models are estimates in a large multi-topic survey including both consumption and other indicators What is CWIQ?  CWIQ (Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire) survey  Invented to collect data for producing simple indicators  Intended to use it for quick data collection and collect a large sample/


ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF POPULATION SIZE ESTIMATES OF PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS (PWID) Waimar Tun, Population Council 20 th International AIDS Conference.

sample recapture Capture-recapture Network scale up Population-based survey Census Nomination counting Unique object multiplier Mapping, key informants, observation counting Data from PWID collected for other purposes (IBBSS, registries, service data) Source: University of California, San Francisco RDS – Sequential Size IBBSS integration Size estimation methods increasingly being integrated worldwide – Leverages existing resources – Adds value to behavioral and seroprevalence data already being collected/


§ 1.3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 2 DESIGNING A STATISTICAL STUDY GUIDELINES 1.Identify the variable(s) of interest (the focus) and the population of the study.

IDENTIFYING THE DATA COLLECTION METHOD What method of data collection would you use to collect data for a study where you would like to determine the chance of getting three girls in a family of three children? A.Take a census B.Use a simulation C.Perform an experiment D.Use sampling 5 IDENTIFYING THE DATA COLLECTION METHOD What method of data collection would you use to collect data for a study where a drug was given to 10 patients and a placebo/


Formulas, Ratios, Estimates, and Counts… The Historical Roots of Quantitative Public Policy in the U.S Margo Anderson History & Urban Studies University.

or public data collection and reporting: the decennial census the reports on government revenue and expenditures 8 Understanding the Statistical System As embedded in the larger political, social, economic and demographic situation of the US As shaping the larger political, social, economic and demographic situation of the US As a technical system 9 Useful Distinctions Survey Data: Data collected for research or policy purposes only, usually sampled: CPS, SIPP, ACS Administrative Data: Data collected for/


U.S. Census and American Community Survey Overview Open a web browser and go to:

://tinyurl.com/tufts-census US Census Bureau Collection Methods Three basic methods of collection Census (100%) Survey (sample) Administrative records Two Types of Census by the US Decennial census: population and housing  On the 0’s (2000, 2010) Economic census: business and industry  On the 2’s and 7’s (2002, 2007, 2012) Census = the enumeration of entire population or universe of collection units such as housing units or businesses Survey Types Data collected from sample of population, that represents/


Workshop on Improving Gender Statistics in Rwanda Session 4 Mainstreaming Gender into Statistics Collection and Reporting Serena Lake Kivu Hotel, Rubavu.

to provide more frequent, reliable and finely disaggregated data than sample surveys, and to provide insights into gender issues not well covered by census or survey data. But, their usefulness may be limited because their primary focus is administration not statistics. They may be problems for example, because – Their coverage, completeness of records, definitions, classifications and collection methods may be deficient for purposes of gender statistics, and – The details they hold may/


HCP, MOROCCO 1 THE MOROCCAN EXPERIENCE IN THE CENSUS CARTOGRAPHY AND THE GIS Introduction Cartography –Objectives –Methodology Urban Rural –Difficulties.

time of the census and the sampling surveys. This concerns the names of streets, avenues, facilities (schools, colleges, high schools, clinics, hospitals, hotels, etc.). HCP, MOROCCO 10 Urban area cartography 2.Partition the territory of cities and urban centers into census districts, on the updated map funds. A district is a well delimited geographical zone including a number of households to be counted by a census taker during legally fixed census data collection/


U.S. Census and American Community Survey Overview Open a web browser and go to:

Census Overview Modified from Census Bureau Presentations www.census.gov Collection Methods Three basic methods of collection Census (100%) Survey (sample) Administrative records Two Types of Census by the US Decennial census: population and housing  On the 0’s (2000, 2010) Economic census: business and industry  On the 2’s and 7’s (2002, 2007, 2012) Census = the enumeration of entire population or universe of collection units such as housing units or businesses Survey Types Data collected from sample of/


Sullivan – Fundamentals of Statistics – 2 nd Edition – Chapter 1 Section 2 – Slide 1 of 22 Chapter 1 Section 2 Observational Studies, Experiments, and.

– Section 2 ●Learning objectives  Distinguish between an observational study and an experiment  Obtain a simple random sample 2 1 Sullivan – Fundamentals of Statistics – 2 nd Edition – Chapter 1 Section 2 – Slide 4 of 22 Chapter 1 – Section 2 ●There are different ways to collect dataCensus  Existing sources  Survey sampling  Designed experiments ●These are good methods of data collection, if done correctly Sullivan – Fundamentals of Statistics – 2 nd Edition – Chapter 1 Section 2/


授課老師:洪新原 教授 組員: 陳大為 黃微雯 蔡厚華

analyzing the various subpopulations or strata to enable different research methods and procedures to be used in different strata Stratified Sampling(cont.) Study the characteristics of sub-gropus. e.g. restaurant Stratification is also called for when certain population different methods of data collection are applied in different parts of the population. e.g. company employees If data are available on which to base a stratification decision, how shall we/


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