Ppt on cell structure for class 8

Chapter 4 Immunoglobulins: Structure and Function Oct 17, 2002.

structure 4. Ig classes and biological activities 5. Antigenic determinants on Ig 6. B-cell receptor 7. The Ig superfamily 8. Monoclonal antibodies Basic structure of immunoglobulins Electrophoresis of serum proteins (Tiselius & Kabat, 1939) Immune sera Removed by Ag  globulin (  G) Immunoglobulin (Ig): IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD Antibody (Ab) Basic structure/ serum - mediates the immediate hyper- sensitivity reactions - responsible for the symptoms of hay fever, asthma, hives, and anaphylactic shock IgD /

Game Plan Lecture Biofilms Review of basic genetics Bacterial gene structure Gene regulation Mutations Lab Review growth control- temp and UV Growth control-

in a cell Genomics- molecular study of genomes Genotype- genes of an organism Phenotype- physical expression of the genes Figure 8.2 Review of DNA processing DNA structure Figure 8.3b DNA replication Figure 8.5 -Enzymes/for review LAB EXAM NEXT CLASS Figure 8.2 Review of DNA processing What changes a bacterium from planktonic to sessile (i.e. what causes biofilm formation)? Genes being turned on and off! Example: Differential expression of 2.9-17% P. aeruginosa genes between planktonic and biofilm cells/

Dental Microbiology #211 IMMUNOLOGY Lecture 5 Cellular Immunity: The functions of T cells.

lymphoid progenitors that arrive from the bone marrow. T cells are characterized by the expression of antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCR). T cells produce and express only the cell-bound molecules. Structure of the T cell Receptor Fig. 1 The TCR is composed of two /. 5 Plasma cell Th2 cell interacts with Ag MHC-class-II on B cell surface and releases IL-4, IL-5, IL-6. B cell divides then differentiates to become a plasma cell. T cell help for Ab formation by B cells Fig 6 B cells are also APC/

Overview of Immunology Organs and tissues Cells Molecules Components of IS Functions of IS Pathology of IR * IS: Immune system IR: Immune response Applications.

granzymes which enter the target cells Mechanisms of cytotoxicity Death of target cells See: 8-1 — Functions — Markers B Lymphocyte — Resognition — Activation — Functions Functions of B cell Th2 BCR + CD79 BCR Recognition of B cells  BCR ( B cell receptor): 1)Cell surface of Ig ( IgM and IgD) 2)Specific binding with antigen  CD79 Mediate B cell activation  CD19/CD20 1 ) Co-receptors for B cell activation 2 ) Specific marker of/

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Classes of Blood Vessels Arteries Carry blood away from heart Arterioles Are smallest branches of arteries Capillaries.

Classes / tunica interna, one cell thick Allow only a single RBC to pass at a time Pericytes on the outer surface stabilize their walls There are three structural types of capillaries: /the driving forces for transport through the capillary wall (filtration) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exchange of materials across the wall of a capillary Endothelial cell Capillary O 2/Venule NFP (net filtration pressure) is 10 mm Hg; fluid moves out NFP is ~8 mm Hg; fluid moves in Net HP 35 mm Net OP 25 mm Net HP/

UNIT B: Human Body Systems Chapter 8: Human Organization Chapter 9: Digestive System Chapter 10: Circulatory System and Lymphatic System Chapter 11: Respiratory.

important role in nerve generation in the PNS If an axon is severed, the myelin sheath remains and serves as a passageway for new fibre growth Myelin in the CNS In the CNS, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, a type of neuroglia Nerve regeneration/Progress 1.Identify the three classes of neurons, and describe their relationship to each other. 2.Describe the three parts of a neuron. 3.Distinguish the cell types that form the myelin in the PNS versus the CNS. 4.Review the structure of grey matter and white/

Lesson #7. Catalyst Per 3 Write down today’s topic in your T.O.C. Change yesterday’s topic to “Sex Ed” 1. What is a cell? 2. Do plants have DNA? 3. Mahalia.

tenets of cell theory. Identify 4 organelles. Lesson #8 Cell theory & /Cell wall Hard outside layer of cell that makes it stiff Example: Concrete wall outside city Found in: Plant only Practice Label the cell parts on your microscope drawings Worksheet time Wrap-Up Add up your points for today. Today’s work  Your folder Tonight’s HW: finish class/class today). Changes Good lesson structure; inquiry focus worked Problem was the lab took forever and organelles was rushed. Should only do microscopes and cell/


PUNNETT SQUARE SCENARIO TO SHARE WITH THE CLASS. WE WILL SHARE THESE WITH THE CLASS AND WORK THEM OUT TOGETHER. TURN IN/. Growth, Repair and Replace 2. two identical cells 3. Heredity 4. dominant 5. recessive reappears 6. traits 7. different forms of a gene 8. gene 9. 10. one set of genes / same structure and similar genes 30. Cell Cycle 31. Mitosis- creates new body cells, IPMAC, two new cells are formed that are identical to parent cell; Meiosis- creates sex cells, IPMAC, IPMAC II, four new cells are formed/

Javad Jamshidi Fasa University of Medical Sciences, October 2015 The Biomembrane Structure & Function.

3 3 4 4 Image From: Lodish, Molecular Cell Biology 7e. 2013 5 5 6 6 7 Differ in their chemical structures, abundance, and functions in the membrane Phosphoglycerides Sphingolipids Sterols 7 8 8 9 glycerol 3-phosphate 9 10 All are /lipid rafts 18 19 Proteins associated with a particular membrane are responsible for its distinctive activities. The kinds and amounts of proteins associated with biomembranes vary depending on cell type and subcellular location. Membrane proteins are defined by their location /


expression ER membrane Lumen of ER Cytosol Transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP1 & 2) Transporter has preference for longer than 8 amino acid peptides with hydrophobic C termini. TAP-1 TAP-2 Peptide TAP-1 TAP-2 Peptide TAP-1/a complex with the floppy MHC Cytoplasmic peptides are loaded onto the MHC molecule and the structure becomes compact Maturation and loading of MHC class I Th-cell INVARIANT CHAIN (Ii) 1.Chaperone – conformation 2.Inhibition of peptide binding 3.Transport/retention/

AP Biology o TODAY: Is bigger better? Does size matter? o Plasma Membrane Homework due NOW. o Cells Quiz on Friday. o Quick KAHOOTS on tomorrow.

Play a key role in cell-cell recognition o ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from another antigens o important in organ & tissue development o basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune system AP Biology/ exterior of the cell; provides structure and support Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Microfilaments of cytoskeleton = may be bonded to membrane proteins; maintains cell shape; stabilizes the location of certain membrane proteins; aids in cell movement (cytoplasmic streaming, cell division, etc.)/

Classification of Living Things Why do we classify things?  Supermarket aisles  Libraries  Classes  Teams/sports  Members of a family  Roads 

the world.  Sumatran Tiger - Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum, Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Carnivora, Family Felidae, Genus Pathera, Species tigris  Many-celled  Most can move  Get energy by consuming other organisms  Examples: invertebrates, fish, birds, mammals The modern system of classification has 8 levels:  Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species Helpful way to remember the 8 levels  Dumb kids playing catch on freeways get squashed/

Data Structures Chapter 1 Programming Principles Andreas Savva.

No successor No successor 7 Examples Linear Structure Linear Structure Hierarchical (Tree) structure Hierarchical (Tree) structure Graph structure Graph structure Set structure Set structure Stack Stack Queue Queue Family Tree Family Tree Computer Directories Computer Directories Computer Network Computer Network London Underground London Underground You - Students in this class You - Students in this class 8 Why do we need data structures? Example – Towns Data Structure You need to visit all houses in/

Chapter 4 Eukaryotic Microorganisms

celled ,they are produced in a sac called an ascus. There are usually 8 as-cospores in each ascus. Various ascocarps formed by different ascomycete fungi. plectocarp pyrenocarp discocarp Basidiospores are single-celled spores, they are borne on a club-shaped structure/when plus and minus strains are both present. Neurospora (Class Ascomycetes) : this genus is widely used in the study of genetics and metabolic pathways. Some species are responsible for food spoilage, and some species are used in industrial /

Proteins - Many Structures, Many Functions 1.A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids connected to a specific sequence 2.A protein’s function depends.

to some other molecule. –For example, antibodies bind to particular foreign substances that fit their binding sites. –Enzyme recognize and bind to specific substrates, facilitating a chemical reaction. –Neurotransmitters pass signals from one cell to another by binding to receptor sites on proteins in the membrane of the receiving cell. Levels of Protein Structure 1.Primary structure 2.Secondary structure 3.Tertiary structure  are used to organize/

Immunoglobulins, immune response Martin Liška. 1. The structure of immunoglobulins.

cells membrane antigen receptor on B cells IgE in normal conditions low amounts in serum mainly bound on mast cells (binds through Fc  R) anti-helminth defense immediate type allergic reactions Ig subclasses differences in H chain structure/Isotype switching during the immune response, plasma cells switch from producing IgM to IgG or to another Ig class (IgA, IgE) the switch involves a / lymphocytes Precursors from week 7, from week 8-9 lymphocytes move into thyme, where they differentiate TCR gene segments/

Cytoskeleton Providing structural support to the cell, the cytoskeleton also functions in cell motility and regulation.

–The outer doublets are also connected by motor proteins. –The cilium or flagellum is anchored in the cell by a basal body, whose structure is identical to a centriole. Fig. 7.24 The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by the/ of cytoplasm in the cell. –This speeds the distribution of materials within the cell. Fig. 7.21c Intermediate filaments, intermediate in size at 8 - 12 nanometers, are specialized for bearing tension. –Intermediate filaments are built from a diverse class of subunits from a family/

AP Biology 2007-2008 Ch. 5.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function.

Membrane Proteins  Proteins determine membrane’s specific functions  cell membrane & organelle membranes each have unique collections of proteins  Classes of membrane proteins:  peripheral proteins  loosely bound to surface of membrane  ex: cell surface identity marker (antigens)  integral proteins  penetrate lipid bilayer, usually across whole membrane  transmembrane protein  ex: transport proteins  channels, permeases (pumps) AP Biology 8 Example: Aquaporins let water in and out of/

AP Biology 2007-2008 The Cell Membrane AP Biology Draw 13 boxes on a piece of paper  In each box you will be writing an answer to a question found in.

Why are proteins the perfect molecule to build structures in the cell membrane? AP Biology Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? nonpolar & hydrophobic AP Biology Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids/ pinocytosis receptor-mediated endocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion non-specific process triggered by molecular signal AP Biology One of these is not like the others…  Write your answer in box #8 Exocytosis Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis AP Biology 2007-/

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.


Life with Carbon Chapter 8 Section 4

Life with Carbon Chapter 8 Section 4 The four classes of organic compounds required by living things are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids /acids and one alcohol, glycerol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance found in all animal cells. The body needs cholesterol to build cell structure and to form compound that serve as chemical messengers. Lipids (Cont..) Lipids do not dissolve in water Lipids / body is NaCl. Other salts help to keep blood pH balanced and also help for healthy teeth and bones.

Major Histocompatibility Complex and T Cell Receptor

is site to which CD4 on T cell binds Structure of Class II MHC (continued) Transmembrane region – stretch of hydrophobic amino acids spanning membrane Cytoplasmic region – contains sites for phosphorylation and binding to cytoskeletal elements Structure of Class II MHC Plasma membrane Cytoplasm CHO NH2 COOH α1 α2 β2 β1 Variability For Polymorphism Peptide-binding grooves for class I and class II MHC are structurally similar Both have a peptide-binding/

Cells Structure and Function Chapter 7

Cells Structure and Function Chapter 7 Lipid monomer = gylcerol and fatty acids Identify the class of lipids that form biological membranes (cell/of CELLS Taken as a group, living things evolve over time Some short videos/songs for Cell Theory History and Scientists of Cell Theory Cell /cells Help build cilia and flagella Centrioles: Found: Within the cytoplasm only in animal cells Structure: Made of a microtubules (tubulin) arranged in 9 groups of 3 Function: Used to organize cell division (mitosis) 9 8/

Javad Jamshidi Fasa University of Medical Sciences Biomembrane Structure & Function.

Molecular Cell Biology 7e. 2013 6 7 Differ in their chemical structures, abundance, and functions in the membrane Phosphoglycerides Sphingolipids Sterols 8 9 /are responsible for its distinctive activities. The kinds and amounts of proteins associated with biomembranes vary depending on cell type and /cell membranes is mediated by membrane transport proteins Each protein transports a particular class of molecule (such as ions, sugars, or amino acids) and often only certain molecular species of the class/

Chapter 19 – Viruses (structure, reproduction, pathogens)

another (agents of gene transfer in gene therapy). Fig. 19-2. What causes tobacco mosaic disease? Fig. 19.3. Viral structure (colorized TEM). Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat (capsid). Fig. 19.4. A simplified viral / memorize viral classes and families). Fig. 19.8. The reproductive cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. Photos (left, TEM) show HIV entering and leaving white blood cells. DNA synthesized from the viral RNA is incorporated into the white blood cell’s chromosomal/

Genetics. Mitosis & Meiosis Review p 45-47 A.The Cell Cycle 1.The dividing cell goes through a cycle of events known as the cell cycle 2.Cycle divided.

:1 b.F 2 phenotype ratio is 3:1 8.The Dihybrid Cross a.Law of independent assortment b/ above into the search line. Print out the article and bring it to class. We will make plans Hardy-Weinberg Law We will go into this in/linked rings) b.Pyrimidines, cytosine and thymine (single ring) DNA Structure B.DNA Functions 1.Storage of Genetic Information a.A “Gene” /. important for the genetic improvement of plants (example very sweet corn) Little Review DNA – 1. must carry genetic material from cell to cell and form/

Kingdom Animalia. Eukaryotic (Domain Eukarya) All Multi-cellular (unlike Protists) All Heterotrophic (unlike Plants) No cell walls (unlike Fungi and Plants)

most animals are marine! – ~8/10 th s of all organisms are Arthropods/cell Phylum Porifera As sponges get larger, they need structural support Most have spicules, supporting structures/Class Hydrozoa, Order Siphonophora Within class Hydrozoa, lies the Order Siphonophora, the Siphonphores – Siphonophores consist of colonies of medusa-like and polyp-like individuals, each specialized for a specific function – Specialized features include a gas-filled float, tentacles lined with nematocysts, and digestive cells/

Income and Social Class. 13-2 Consumer Spending and Economic Behavior General economic conditions affect the way we allocate our money A person’s social.

for social mobility Homogamy: We tend to marry people in similar social class 13-6 Class Structure in the United States 13-7 Class Structure Around the World China / India: rise of middle class/ rigid class structure still exists, but the dominance of its aristocracy is fading (Chavs) 13-8 Relationship Between Income and Social Class Whether social class or income/traffic China: showing off pampered only child Russia: cell phones with gems, expensive ties Indonesia: retro cell phone the size of a brick 13-17 /

Cellular Division - MItosis

to grow, repair damaged structures, and reproduce. Read Page 142 and 143 as a class Think about and write the following questions 6. What happens during the cell cycle? 7. What are the two new cells called? 8. What do the daughter cells do once they are formed? 9. What are the three main steps of the cell cycle? Answers 6. The cell grows, prepares for cell division, and divides/


substances through body; provides structure and support 8) Nervous System Major Structures: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs Functions: Regulates behavior, maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems; controls sensory and motor functions 9) Reproductive System Major Structures: Testes, penis (males),/red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets * We’ll be taking a look at how all the systems must work together as one unit for the human body to function properly. * In health class, you’/


cell in dryer conditions. If conditions for growth are not suitable, the cells can become microcysts to survive long periods of time. 4. - A diploid zygote is formed when two compatible myxamoebae or swarm cells fuse. This is known as plasmogamy and karyogamy. 5. After a time of feeding and growing, the zygote develops into a single celled multinucleate structure/ Chytridiomycota. *The division has a single class, Chytridiomycetes, and three orders : Chytridiales/ than male gametes. 8. Males are attracted /

Note:  At 4 days a zygote becomes an embryo  At 8 weeks an embryo is called a fetus.

the endometrium to be maintained  Pregnancy tests look for hCG in the urine  The amniotic cavity forms /8 of them)  gastrulation – the process by which a two-layer structure turns into a three- layer structure  gastrula – state of embryonic development when the embryo is made of three layers  ectoderm – outer layer of cells in an embryo  mesoderm – middle layer of cells in an embryo  endoderm – inner layer of cells/size  Read the paragraph on page 541 as a class To Do:  With a partner or on your own/

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF UBIQUITIN Laura Martínez (152691), Marina Reixachs (152699), Gemma Vidal (154235) Structural Biology UPF 2014-2015.

(UBA1 – yeast) INTRODUCTION UBIQUITINPOLYUBIQUITIN E1 ENZYMES CONCLUSIONS E1 STRUCTUREClass: α/β MoeB/ThiF domain 3 layers (α/β/α) 7 β-strands /structure of the APPBP1-UBA3-NEDD8- ATP complex reveals the basis for selective ubiquitin-like protein activation by an E1. Mol Cell. 2003 Dec;12(6):1427-37. Lee I, Schindelin H. Structural insights into E1-catalyzed ubiquitin activation and transfer to conjugating enzymes. Cell/Catalytic cysteine is placed adenylation domains. 8. About polyubiquitin chains. a) /

Copyright © Terry Felke-Morris WEB DEVELOPMENT & DESIGN FOUNDATIONS WITH HTML5 7 TH EDITION Chapter 8 Key Concepts 1 Copyright © Terry Felke-Morris.

8 Key Concepts 1 Copyright © Terry Felke-Morris LEARNING OUTCOMES  In this chapter, you will learn how to...  Create a basic table with the table, table row, table header, and table cell elements  Configure table sections with the thead, tbody, and tfoot elements  Increase the accessibility of a table  Style an HTML table with CSS  Describe the purpose of CSS structural pseudo-classes/ a text title or caption for the table.  Complex tables: Associate table cell values with their corresponding headers /

LECTURE OUTLINE Nu ER MHCI MHCII CD8 T Cell TCR CD4 T Cell Brief overview of immune system to introduce the molecules you will study this semester The.

be released or edited out of class II prior to peptide loading) We just haven’t figured this out yet. DM-DR1 Crystal Structure Modeling by Miloje Savic Data from Pos et al, (2012) Cell DMDR DMDR New Model for DM Function Binding of the peptide/stim Antibody BCR (membrane bound antibody) Putting it all together: anatomy of the immune response to a virus For more information: Text Books: Janeway’s Immunobiology 8 th Edition (by Ken Murphy) How the Immune System Works (by Lauren Sompayrac) Free On-line Resource/

Cells Development of the Cell Theory Introduction to Cells Organelles Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane Cytomembrane System Nucleus.

at varying times. Dyes called quantum dots can simultaneously reveal the fine details of many cell structures. Here, the nucleus is blue, a specific protein within the nucleus is pink, mitochondria look yellow, microtubules are green, and actin filaments are red. Someday, the technique may be used for speedy disease diagnosis, DNA testing, or analysis of biological samples. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/

COMP 116: Introduction to Scientific Programming Lecture 25: Cell Arrays and Structures.

= ones(2,3,2); >> B(:,:,1) = [1:4; 5:8]; >> B(:,:,2) = [7:10; 13:16]; Most common 3D array/cell via indexing. ◦ Prefer structures when you want to name each element individually Use cell arrays for storing an array of strings. Summary Review Cell Arrays & Structures  doc cell  MATLAB → Programming Fundamentals → Classes (Data Types) → Cell Arrays  MATLAB → Programming Fundamentals → Classes (Data Types) → Structures Practice working with  Cell Arrays  Structures  Operators for Cell Arrays & Structures/

Kingdom Animalia Multi-celled Heterotrophic (Consumer) Has a Nucleus (Eukaryotic) It is the largest Kingdom so far. (See Link)See Link There are over.

.  Reproduction = Mostly Sexual (two parents)  Symmetry = Bilaterally Symmetrical  Classification Structures 1.Have many cell layers 2. Have tissues and organs. 3.Havemany cells, a body cavity, 3 to 400 + pairs of jointed legs, an exoskeleton, 4. Have 2 or 3 body sections,  Samples:  7A = Class Crustacea (crayfish)  7B = Class Insecta (lubber grasshopper)  7C = Class Merostomata (Horseshoe crab)  7D = Class Trilobite. THIS ONE IS EXTINCT. Phylum Echinodermata: Station/

CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section F: The Cytoskeleton 1.Providing structural.

doublets are also connected by motor proteins. The cilium or flagellum is anchored in the cell by a basal body, whose structure is identical to a centriole. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin /8 - 12 nanometers, are specialized for bearing tension. Intermediate filaments are built from a diverse class of subunits from a family of proteins called keratins. Intermediate filaments are more permanent fixtures of the cytoskeleton than are the other two classes. They reinforce cell/

Legaturi in cristale Klein, 1993: capitolul 4. Arrangement of atoms determines unit cell geometry: – Primitive = atoms only at corners – Body-centered.

cell classes – Same as crystal classes Unit Cell Geometry 3 Coordination Polyhedron and Unit Cells They are not the same! BUT, coordination polyhedron is contained within a unit cell Relationship between the unit cell/ for transition/cell Volume occupied by atoms (spheres) Space filling = (Fe, Cr, Mo, W, Ta, Ba...) 2.2 Simple close packed structures (metals) Other types of metal structures Example 1: BCC Example 3: structures of manganese far beyond simple close packed structures! space filling = 68% CN = 8/

Blood Week 9 Dr. Walid Daoud, A. Professor. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) ____________________________ Total leukocytic count = 4,000-11,000/mm 3 Classification:

of B-lymphocytes: - Plasma cells. - Memory cells. Varieties of T-lymphocytes: - Cytotoxic (Killer) T-cells. - Helper T-cells. - Suppressor T-cells. - Memory T-cells. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) ___________________________________ It is a protein on cell membrane genetically encoded by chromosome 6. Two classes:. MHC class I protein: on all nucleated cells.. MHC class II protein: on antigen presenting cells, mostly macrophages. MHC proteins are specific for individual and distinguish self from/

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION “The Class Cell” C. Dianne Phillips, GK-12 Fellow, Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Ann Harbison,

report their function to the other organelles in the cell. ***End of first class · The class will resume their cell structure and review functions. · The cell will now be given an assignment: 1) Production of ATP from glucose or 2) Cellular Respiration · The class cell will now brainstorm and produce a “concept map,” strategy, for how to carry out the process based on the function of each organelle. Each/

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ASSIGNMENT In a group of 3 or 4 you are to create an information handout of a particular structure of the digestive.

structure of the digestive system and present their information to the class. Your handout must include: description and picture of the structure, function of structure, and how the structure/human is about 5 m long. False: its about 8 m long Every day 11.5 litres of digested /the Bacteria in my gut DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERS/ DIAGNOSIS TECHNIQUES For this group (2-3 people) assignment you are to /pancreas to release insulin (via beta cells) into the blood stream. When receptor cells sense a return to the set/

H. HogenEsch, 2005 Antibody structure and function Parham – Chapter 2.

Fragment H. HogenEsch, 2005 Immunoglobulin classes (isotypes) H:     L-chain:  or H. HogenEsch, 2005 Structure of immunoglobulins H. HogenEsch, 2005 Structure of immunoglobulins H. HogenEsch, 2005 /,530 = 3.4 x 10 6 combinations H. HogenEsch, 2005 Mechanisms for additional diversity in immunoglobulins Imprecise joining of gene segments Random nucleotide addition at /> 10 8 different specificities H. HogenEsch, 2005 Organization of C H genes Fig. 2.19 H. HogenEsch, 2005 Naïve mature B cells express IgM/

Chapter 13 Income and Social Class. 13-2 Consumer Spending and Economic Behavior General economic conditions affect the way we allocate our money A person’s.

Discretionary income: money available to a household over and above that required for a comfortable standard of living 13-4 Individual Attitudes Toward Money Wal/marry people in similar social class 13-7 Class Structure in the United States 13-8 Class Structure Around the World China / India: rise of middle class Japan: status- and brand-/ traffic China: showing off pampered only child Russia: cell phones with gems, expensive ties Indonesia: retro cell phone the size of a brick Invidious Distinction: we/

1 Organic Chemistry The Structure and Function of Macromolecules.

classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers –Carbohydrates –Proteins –Nucleic acids –Lipids CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS 4 Classes/8 –Cellulose is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells 19 Cellulose is difficult to digest –Cows have microbes in their stomachs to facilitate this process Figure 5.9 20 Chitin, another important structural/–Form double helix –Stores hereditary information –Provides instruction for every protein in the body Nucleic Acids 50 Ribonucleic /

Biomedical Week 2 This is a very brief review of biochemistry and how this effects cells.

cells. The following material is based and borrowe d from a course called Biochemistry online: An approach based on chemical logic http://employees.csbsju.edu/hjakubowski/classes/ch331/bcintro/default.html Three important ideas from chemistry are: 1.The structure/of Saint Benedict / Saint Johns University. These materials are available for educational use. 2. How do proteins fold to form structures with a unique 3D shape? How do these 3D structures give a specific function to proteins? How do proteins, which/


to retain Variable regions whilst exchanging Constant regions that contain the structures that interact with cells. J regions C2C2CC C4C4C2C2C/deleted from the genome An IgE - secreting B cell will never be able to switch to IgM, IgD, IgG1-4 or IgA1 Model for Class Switch Recombination (CSR) AID (Activation Induced (citidin)/Clone 4 Clone 5 Clone 6 Clone 7 Clone 8 Clone 9 Clone 10 CDR1CDR2CDR3 Day 6 CDR1CDR2CDR3CDR1CDR2CDR3CDR1CDR2CDR3 Day 8 Day 12 Day 18 Deleterious mutation Beneficial mutation /

11-3 1. What is a cell (use notes if necessary)?.

cells. – –Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. – –New cells are produced from existing cells. Cell Diversity Cell Shape Cell Shape –Shape reflects function Function of Nerve cell? Shape? Function of Skin Cells? Shape? Cell Diversity Cell Size Cell Size –Cells vary in size  Nerve cells in giraffe neck vs. Human egg cell - size of a. –Cell/. What organelle are you assigned and what’s its function? 11-8 1. What limits cell size (notes)? Teach an organelle: Groups of two w/ one /

Cell Death It is estimated that 10 10 cells are born and die each day in a human body (10 14 ). Apoptosis: Greek word meaning “ a falling away”, proteolytic.

for normal growth and development, tissue homeostasis, as well as defense against pathogens. Decreased apoptosis can lead to cancer, autoimmunity, and viral infections. Excessive Apoptosis can lead to AIDS, Neurodegenerative disorders, and Stroke. Ultrastructural Features of Apoptosis Cell Lineage in the C. elegans embryo Nature Structural Biology 8/ IL-2R  chain TCR  chain MHC class I (H-2K ) invariant chain Ii  -2 microglobulin MHC class II (E , E  ) IL-2 IL-6 IL-8 GM-CSF G-CSF TNF-  (cachectin)/

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