# Ppt on arithmetic micro operations

##### Part II Addition / Subtraction

switches Fig. 5.13 One stage in a Manchester carry chain. Apr. 2015 Computer Arithmetic, Addition/Subtraction Details of a 5-Bit Manchester Carry Network Dynamic logic, with 2-phase operation Clock low: Precharge (ci = 0) Clock high: Pull-down (if gi = /inputs. Hybrid: 5 levels 32 cells Apr. 2015 Computer Arithmetic, Addition/Subtraction 6.6 VLSI Implementation Aspects Example: Radix-256 addition of 56-bit numbers as implemented in the AMD Am29050 CMOS micro Our description is based on the 64-bit version of/

##### 1 Program exercise -Yacc Use Lex and Yacc to generate a compiler for Micro/Ex Micro/Ex is an extension of Micro. %the beginning of an test data for Micro/Ex.

–Declare A, Integer –Declare A, Integer_array,20 –Declare B, Float –Declare B, Float_array,20 Arithmetic instruction –I_SUB i1,i2,t –I_ADD i1,i2,t –I_DIV i1,i2,t –I_MUL i1,i2,/i1,i2 –F_CMP f1,f2 Jump instruction –J,JE, JG, JGE, JL, JLE, JNE Subroutine operation –CALL rn,a1,a2 »rn: the name of the subroutine »a1 and a2 could be integer /data, you can show it. –What you have learned and experienced during the implementation of Micro/Ex compiler. E.g. You could show your daily record of the implementation. –In /

##### William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8 th Edition Chapter 15 Control Unit Operation.

Internal data pahs External data paths Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing —Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations Execution —Causing the performance of each micro-op This is done using Control Signals Control Signals Clock/

##### CHAPTER 16 – CONTROL UNIT OPERATION

interface Transfer data from an external interface to a register Perform an arithmetic or logic operation, using registers for input and output CE Control Unit Functions Sequencing: control unit causes the processor to step through a series of micro-operations in sequence, based on the program being executed Execution: control unit causes each micro-operation to be performed CE Control Signals Control Unit Block Diagram CE/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations CS.

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) – 6 – CS213, F’06 Assembly Programmer’s View Programmer-Visible State EIPProgram Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used / 0x45 0x0c 0x03 0x45 0x08 0x89 0xec 0x5d 0xc3 – 14 – CS213, F’06 Basic Assembly Instructions  Data Moving OperationsArithmetic and Logical Operations – 15 – CS213, F’06 Moving Data movl Source,Dest: Move 4-byte (“long”) word “b”->8, “/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Sept. 10, 2002 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode – 6 – 15-213, F’02 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited /Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction

4 2001 42M Added 8-byte formats and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited /Program Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching Memory Byte addressable array Code, user data, (some) OS data Includes stack used /

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Jan 27, 2004 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode – 6 – 15-213, S’04 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited /Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Sept. 14, 2004 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

marketplace Lack of backward compatibility Disappointing performance – 7 – 15-213, F’04 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently /Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack/

##### Micro-operations Are the functional, or atomic, operations of a processor. A single micro-operation generally involves a transfer between registers, transfer.

the Processor ALUExternal data pathsControl Unit RegistersInternal data paths Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical operations Functions of Control Unit Sequencing Causes the processor to step through a series of micro-operations Execution Causes the performance of each micro-operation This is done using Control Signals Model of Control Unit/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

8, or 10 bytes No aggregate types such as arrays or structures Just contiguously allocated bytes in memory Primitive Operations Perform arithmetic function on register or memory data Transfer data between memory and register Load data from memory into register Store / to 64 bits in 2004 Evolution continues through current Core and Xeon processor – 42 – X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited top /

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations X86.1.ppt CS 105.

Itanium 22002221M Big performance boost Hasn’t sold well – 8 – CS 105 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited/ Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8 th Edition As Annotated by C. R. Putnam Chapter 15 Control Unit Operation.

paths – registers & ALU External data paths  registers – memory  registers – I/O Modules  registers – System Bus Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external interface Transfer data from external interface to register Perform arithmetic or logical operations using registers for I/O Functions of Control Unit using Control Signals Sequencing —CU causes the CPU to step through/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

Added 8-byte formats and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode – 6 – X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently /Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations CS 105 “Tour of.

processor Ivy Bridge20121.4B Things are going crazy here… – 7 – CS 105 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited/) Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations CS 105 “Tour of.

processor Ivy Bridge20121.4B Things are going crazy here… – 7 – CS 105 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited/) Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

5M Added conditional move instructions Big change in underlying microarchitecture Pentium 4200155M Core Duo2006291M X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper / of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions /

##### EE345 - Micro-Controllers Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates Prof. Ahmad Abu-El-Haija.

is it important?  Defines rules of “calculations” Example: arithmetic on natural numbers  Set of elements: N = {1,2,3,4,…}  Operator: +, –, *  Axioms: associativity, distributivity, closure, identity elements, etc. Note: operators with two inputs are called binary  Does not mean they are restricted to binary numbers!  Operator(s) with one input are called unary March 5, 2016EE345 – Micro-Controllers4 George Boole Father of Boolean algebra He/

##### X86 Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

8-byte formats and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode – 6 – CSCI-2500 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Now, a /Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### The PC System unit: looking in the box

motherboard as the PCs central nervous system. In a PC, the following are attached to the motherboard : Micro processor (main processor) Support electronic circuitry (for example on chip handles input/output signals from the peripheral /processor chip. Computer on a chip: The microprocessor The Arithmetic and logic unit: it performs all computations (addition , subtraction, multiplication and division) and all logic operation. A logic operation compares tow pieces of data , ether alphabetic and numeric/

##### CS364 CH16 Control Unit Operation

Internal data paths External data paths Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations Execution Causing the performance of each micro-op This is done using Control Signals Control Unit Block/

##### William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8th Edition

Internal data pahs External data paths Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations Execution Causing the performance of each micro-op This is done using Control Signals Control Signals Clock/

##### Fabián E. Bustamante, Spring 2007 Machine-Level Programming – Introduction Today Assembly programmer’s exec model Accessing information Arithmetic operations.

performance of Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) –But, Intel has done just that! X86 evolution clones: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) –Historically followed just behind Intel – a little bit slower, a lot cheaper EECS 213 Introduction to/ next instruction –Register file (8x32bit) Heavily used program data –Condition codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching –Floating point register file %eip Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data /

##### PART 5: (2/2) Processor Internals CHAPTER 15: CONTROL UNIT OPERATION 1.

performs Determine functions control unit must perform 16 Basic Elements of Processor ALU Registers Internal data paths External data paths Control Unit 17 Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops 18 Functions of Control Unit Sequencing – Causing the CPU to step through a series of/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction January 29, 2002 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information –Registers –Memory Arithmetic.

mode 15-213 S’02 (Based On CS 213 F’01)– 5 – class05.ppt X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically –AMD has followed just behind Intel –A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently –/Counter –Address of next instruction Register File –Heavily used program data Condition Codes –Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation –Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition Codes /

##### Chapter 3 Operating Systems J. Glenn Brookshear J. Glenn Brookshear

= 1024 Exa = 1021 Yotta = 1024 Zeta = 1024 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exa- µs = micro second 760 mm Hg (Atmospheric pressure) d = deci = 10-1 c = centi = 10-2 m = milli = 10-3 µ = micro = 10-6 n = nano = 10-9 p = pico = 10-12 f = femto = 10/transfer contents of a register to a memory cell Move transfer cpntents of a register to another register Arithmetic/Logic Arithmetic operations ADD, FADD Logic operations OR, AND, XOR ROTATE Control direct execution of program JUMP direct control unit to execute an /

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Apr. 10, 2006 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

Micro Devices (AMD) Historically »AMD has followed just behind Intel »A little bit slower, a lot cheaper – 6 – CS213, S’06 Assembly Programmer’s View Programmer-Visible State EIPProgram Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation/ %edx=x, %eax becomes 5x+7 – 30 – CS213, S’06 Some Arithmetic Operations FormatComputation Two Operand Instructions addl Src,DestDest = Dest + Src subl Src,DestDest = Dest/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Jan. 22, 2008 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

not taken off in marketplace Lack of backward compatibility 16 15-213, S’08 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently / or “RIP” (x86- 64 ) Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching PCPC Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition Codes Memory/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Sept. 10, 2002 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

and 144 new instructions for streaming SIMD mode – 6 – 15-213, F’02 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited /Counter Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition/

##### Fabián E. Bustamante, Spring 2007 Machine-Level Programming – Introduction Today Assembly programmer’s exec model Accessing information Arithmetic operations.

performance of Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) –But, Intel has done just that! X86 evolution clones: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) –Historically followed just behind Intel – a little bit slower, a lot cheaper 3 EECS 213 Introduction/ next instruction –Register file (8x32bit) Heavily used program data –Condition codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching –Floating point register file %eip Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data /

##### Computer Organization and Architecture

perform Basic Elements of Processor ALU Registers Internal data paths External data paths Control Unit Types of Micro-operation All of the micro-operations fall into one the following categories: Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit The control unit performs two basic tasks: Sequencing Causing the/

evaluating all prefixes of (g 0, p 0 ) ¢ (g 1, p 1 ) ¢... ¢ (g k–2, p k–2 ) ¢ (g k–1, p k–1 ) The carry operator ¢ is associative, but not commutative [(g 1, p 1 ) ¢ (g 2, p 2 )] ¢ (g 3, p 3 ) = (g 1, p 1 ) ¢ [(g 2, p/Stone: 4 levels 49 cells Hybrid: 5 levels 32 cells Apr. 2007Computer Arithmetic, Addition/SubtractionSlide 52 6.6 VLSI Implementation Aspects Example: Radix-256 addition of 56-bit numbers as implemented in the AMD Am29050 CMOS micro Our description is based on the 64-bit version of the adder In/

##### Definition of PLC A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programming memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing.

. 7. Once the circuit has been energized it will continue to operate until it is manually stopped. PLC SYSTEM CPU – include memory and micro-P CPU – include memory and micro-P Programmer/Monitor – a device used to communicate with the circuit of/the PLC’s instruction set, which is composed of specific control functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic. System memory is generally built from read-only memory devices. APPLICATION The application memory is divided into the data table/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations CS 105 “Tour of.

3.2-4.0 GHz Things are going crazy here… – 6 – CS 105 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited top/ Counter) Address of next instruction Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching EIPEIP Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition Codes/

##### Definition of PLC A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programming memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing.

. 7. Once the circuit has been energized it will continue to operate until it is manually stopped. PLC SYSTEM CPU – include memory and micro-P CPU – include memory and micro-P Programmer/Monitor – a device used to communicate with the circuit of/the PLC’s instruction set, which is composed of specific control functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic. System memory is generally built from read-only memory devices. APPLICATION The application memory is divided into the data table/

##### 11/22/2005SSST: CS130 F. Hadziomerovic1 Review 1.Data types and operations: Numbering systems: unary, binary, octal, decimal hexadecimal Binary addition.

, addressing modes Instruction executions: fetch cycle, execution cycle Computer Architecture (Data Path) around single bus, signals Micro-architecture and FSM of the LC-3 computer 4.Programming Machine language programming: LC-3 editor, LC-3 /modes ACC - Accumulator Register ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit CPU - Central Processing Unit E - Execution phase F - Fetch phase I/O - Input Output (Terminal) MAR - Memory Address Register MDR - Memory Data Register OP - Instruction operation PC - Program Counter 11/22//

##### Control Unit Operations Chapter10:. What is Control Unit (CU)?(1)  Part of a CPU or other device that directs its operation.  Tells the rest of the.

 Internal data paths  External data paths  Control Unit Types of Micro-operation  Transfer data between registers  Transfer data from register to external  Transfer data from external to register  Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit  Sequencing —Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations  Execution —Causing the performance of each micro-op  This is done using Control Signals Control Signals  Clock/

##### Chapter 10 Control Unit Operation “Controls the operation of the processor”

registers Transfer data from register to external interface (e.g : system bus) Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing –Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations Execution –Causing the performance of each micro- op This is done using Control Signals Block diagram of the Control Unit Control Signals- input Clock –One/

##### William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8 th Edition Chapter 15 Control Unit Operation Mohamed Elshaer Ayoub Abdalla Rolando Solis 1.

performs Determine functions control unit must perform 15 Basic Elements of Processor ALU Registers Internal data pahs External data paths Control Unit 16 Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops 17 Functions of Control Unit Sequencing –Causing the CPU to step through a series of/

##### Functions of Processor Operation Addressing modes Registers i/o module interface Memory module interface Interrupts.

(1) Reg. (2) Reg and ALU External data paths Move Data Between (1)Reg To Memory And I/O Modules Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing Execution This is done using Control Signals Control Signals Clock One/

##### William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture

Internal data pahs External data paths Control Unit Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Functions of Control Unit Sequencing Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations Execution Causing the performance of each micro-op This is done using Control Signals Control Signals (1/

##### Damian BrowneLuis PabonPedro Tovar The operation of a computer in executing a program consists of a sequence of Instruction Cycles, with one machine.

Functional Essence ALU Store internal data Go to or Come from Registers Move data Links Registers Internal & External Path Execute operations Control Unit Micro-operations Register to another Register to external interface External Interface to register Arithmetic operations Control Unit Sequencing Series of micro-operations in sequence. Execution Micro-operations are executed. Inputs & Outputs State of the System Inputs Behavior of the system Outputs ClockIR Flags Control signals  bus/

##### Chapter 16 Control Unit Operation No HW problems on this chapter. It is important to understand this material on the architecture of computer control units,

requested) These can be seen as micro-operations —Each step does a modest amount of work —Atomic operation of CPU Constituent Elements of its Program Execution Types of Micro-operation Transfer data between registers Transfer data from register to external Transfer data from external to register Perform arithmetic or logical ops Control Signals Clock —One micro-instruction (or set of parallel micro- instructions) per clock cycle Instruction register/

##### Machine-Level Programming I: Introduction Sept. 10, 2007 Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic.

taken off in marketplace Lack of backward compatibility – 6 – 15-213, F’07 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Historically AMD has followed just behind Intel A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Recently Recruited/or “RIP” (x86- 64) Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching PCPC Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition Codes Memory/

##### Machine-Level Programming 1 Introduction Topics Assembly Programmer’s Execution Model Accessing Information Registers Memory Arithmetic operations.

multimedia operations Parallel operations on 1, 2, and 4-byte data, both integer & FP Instructions to enable more efficient conditional operations Linux/GCC Evolution None! – 5 – CMSC 313, F’09 X86 Evolution: Clones Advanced Micro Devices /RIP” (x86- 64) Register File Heavily used program data Condition Codes Store status information about most recent arithmetic operation Used for conditional branching PCPC Registers CPU Memory Object Code Program Data OS Data Addresses Data Instructions Stack Condition /

##### Chapter 16 Micro-programmed Control EEL 4709C Alan Garcia Arturo Linares Henry Mitzler.

at 640x480. Playstation 2’s vector processor units were microprogrammable via microcode. 3D Geometry and floating point arithmetic Microcode allows for programmers to fine-tune the processors at a below assembly code level, allows for more/next microinstruction Control Logic Module Generates control signals Vertical microprogramming  Each microinstruction specifies a single (or few) micro- operations to be performed Width is narrow: n control signals can be encoded into log2n control bits Limited ability/

##### Architecture of 8085 Nitin Mishra. Registers Microprocessor Instruction Cache Arithmetic & Logic Unit Control Unit Bus Interface Unit Data Cache Instruction.

is an 8-bit register that is a part of arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The result of an operation is stored in the accumulator. The accumulator is also / uses these flags to test data conditions. Flags cont…… These flags have critical importance in the decision-making process of the micro- processor. The conditions (set or reset) of the flags are tested through the software instructions. For example, the instruction JC/

##### Types of Micro-operation  Transfer data between registers  Transfer data from register to external  Transfer data from external to register  Perform.

external to register  Perform arithmetic or logical operations, using registers for input and outputs Functions of Control Unit  Sequencing Causing the CPU to step through a series of micro-operations  Execution Causing the performance of each micro- operation This is done using /off all control lines indicated by a 0 bit.  The resulting control signals will cause one or more micro-operations to be performed.  If the condition indicated by the condition bits is false, execute the next microinstruction/

##### CSE 495/595: Intro to Micro- and Nano- Embedded Systems

receiver). It allows many components to operate at a fixed frequency (IF section) and therefore they can be optimized or made more inexpensively. It can be used to improve signal isolation by arithmetic selectivity Radio Basics f1 + f2 and/ in the inductor packaging limits the self-resonance frequency and therefore maximum operating frequency consume board space in portable electronics on-chip inductors are desirable Micro-machined inductors Example inductor parameters for on-chip VCOs in cellular phones /

##### COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE & OPERATIONS I Instructor: Hao Ji.

-p 0.000,00 0,000,00 1 10 −12 −12 milliardthbillionthnano-n 0.000,00 0,001 10 −9 −9 millionth micro-µ 0.000,00 1 10 −6 −6 thousand th milli-m0.00110 −3 −3 one ––110 0 0 http://en.wikipedia./operands Overflow if result sign is 1 Adding two –value operands Overflow if result sign is 0 Arithmetic Logic Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Heart of a CPU Operations Arithmetic operations Addition Subtraction Logical operations NOT AND OR Overall 1-bit ALU Final 32-bit ALU ALU Control Signals Faster Addition Carry/