# Ppt on amplitude shift keying formula

##### CSC 335 Data Communications and Networking Lecture 3: Signal Encoding and Conversion Dr. Cheer-Sun Yang.

baud rate. Bit rate = 2ƒ * n. (See Table 2.9) Any Limit on Bit Rate? The formula Bit rate = 2ƒ * n seems to imply that there is no upper bound for the data rate given the/encode a 0 bit. Modulation Techniques Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PK) Modulation Techniques This modulation technique is called Amplitude Shift keying (ASK) technique. Amplitude Shift Keying Values represented by different amplitudes of carrier Usually, one amplitude is zero –i.e. presence /

##### Chapter 4 4.1 : Digital Modulation 4.2 : Digital Transmission 4.3 : Multiple Access Methods.

is a linear function of bandwidth and transmission time and directly proportional to both. Shannon’s Formula Where I = information capacity (bps) B = bandwidth (Hz) = signal to noise /Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) A binary information signal directly modulates the amplitude of an analog carrier. Sometimes called Digital Amplitude Modulation (DAM) Where v ask (t) = amplitude shift keying/

##### Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 1.1 Engineering Systems  Introduction  Systems  Electrical and Electronic.

Key Points  Electrical signals can take many forms and can be analogue or digital  A simple analogue form is where a voltage is proportional to the amplitude/Education Limited 2004 OHT 1.238 Sequential Logic  Introduction  Bistables  Memory Registers  Shift Registers  Counters  Monostables or one-shots  Astables  Timers Chapter 10 Storey: Electrical/first-order systems can be described by the initial and final value formulae  Circuits that contain both capacitance and inductance are usually second-/

interval over which the channel impulsive response is considered stationary Typical assumption: Doppler spread and coherence time are related by the formula: K: constant in the range of 0.25 to 0.5 89 Time Variance: Fast Fading The channel changes /to the BER of these regions is larger Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) Encodes data as a series of frequency changes in a carrier Noise usually changes the amplitude of a signal Modulation that ignores amplitude (e.g., broadcast FM)  Relatively immune to /

Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—3-13 Calculating dB The formula for calculating dB is as follows: dB = 10 log10 (Pfinal/Pref) dB = /Amplitude –Frequency –Phase or angle The three corresponding techniques are as follows: –Amplitude modulation (AM) –Frequency modulation (FM) –Phase modulation (PM) Other modulation techniques –Amplitude shift keying (ASK) — Turning the amplitude all the way off –Frequency shift keying (FSK) — Hopping to an extreme frequency –Phase shift keying (PSK) — Shifting/

##### EC 723 Satellite Communication Systems

Amplitude: Amplitude-Shift-Keying (ASK) Change in Frequency: Frequency-Shift-Keying (FSK) Change in Phase: Phase-Shift-Keying (PSK) Hybrid changes (more than one parameter). Ex. Phase and Amplitude change: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Binary Modulations – Basic Types These two have constant envelope (important for amplitude/ Performance M-ary PSK Error Performance Operation Point Comparison Summary of Useful Formulas Summary of Digital Communications -1 Legend of variables mentioned in this section/

##### 09/16/2010© 2010 NTUST Chapter 8 Sine wave Fourier series Fourier transform.

+ 45 o ) …and the equation has a positive phase shift Phase Shift The power relationships developed for dc circuits apply to ac circuits except you must use rms values when calculating power. The general power formulas are: Power in Resistive AC Circuits Assume a sine wave with/ value. It is equal to 0.707 times the peak value. rms stands for root mean square. Selected Key Terms Radian Phase Amplitude Pulse Harmonics The maximum value of a voltage or current. A type of waveform that consists of two equal and/

##### Fundamentals of Digital Communications and Data Transmission

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Multilevel Signaling (Mary Modulation) Mary Amplitude Modulation Mary Phase Shift Keying (Mary PSK) Mary Frequency Shift Keying (Mary FSK) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) In ASK the binary data modulates the amplitude of the carrier signal Phase Shift Keying/ (Part III) Max. data rate = 2B log2 M bits/sec Nyquist Formula It states that if a signal consists of M levels then the maximum data/

##### electronics fundamentals

+ 45o) …and the equation has a positive phase shift PolyPhase power An important application of phase-shifted sine waves is in electrical power systems. Electrical utilities / composed only of the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics (of the proper amplitude). Oscilloscope A device that traces the graph of a measured electrical signal on/µs Selected Key Terms Sine wave Alternating current Period (T) Frequency (f) Hertz A type of waveform that follows a cyclic sinusoidal pattern defined by the formula y = A/

##### COMMUNICATION SYSTEM EEEB453 Chapter 6 DIGITAL MODULATION

general carrier wave may be written: Modulation methods based on varying the amplitude, A, frequency, f and phase, to transmit digital data is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) respectively. Example – Tx of digital data over telephone / and 0s are occuring. Therefore, Where fa = highest fund freq (hz) fb = input bit rate (bps) The formula used for modulation index in FM is also valid for FSK, thus (unitless) Where h = FM modulation index called h/

Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. FWL 1.0—3-8 Calculating dB The formula for calculating dB is as follows: dB = 10 log10 (Pfinal/Pref) dB = /Amplitude –Frequency –Phase or angle The three corresponding techniques are as follows: –Amplitude modulation (AM) –Frequency modulation (FM) –Phase modulation (PM) Other modulation techniques –Amplitude shift keying (ASK) — Turning the amplitude all the way off –Frequency shift keying (FSK) — Hopping to an extreme frequency –Phase shift keying (PSK) — Shifting/

##### Modulation Techniques for Mobile Radio

s bandwidth theorem Bandwidth efficiency B = R / B bps/Hz R=Data rate in bits/second B=Bandwidth of modulated RF signal Shannons formula: Bmax = C/B = channel capacity (bits/s) RF bandwidth = log2(1 + S/N) S/N = Signal to Noise/ period EB – Energy/bit, N0 – Noise spectral density QPSK BW = RB = 1 / TB Nonlinear or envelope modulation Frequency shift keying The frequency of a constant amplitude carrier signal is switched between 2 values ( 1 and 0) Properties of FSK Transmission Bandwidth BT = 2f + 2B B /

##### Modulation Techniques 1. Introduction A digital signal is superior to an analog signal because it is more robust to noise and can easily be recovered,

used. Refer to previous section for discussion and formulas. A digitized signal will always need more bandwidth /Amplitude-shift keying (ASK)  Amplitude difference of carrier frequency ◦ Frequency-shift keying (FSK)  Frequency difference near carrier frequency ◦ Phase-shift keying (PSK)  Phase of carrier signal shifted ◦ Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Hierarchy Types of digital-to-analog modulation Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/

##### Signal Encoding Techniques Chapter 6. Analog Signaling.

amplitude, frequency and phase Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted Basic Encoding Techniques Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/ signal elements Angle Modulation Carson’s rule where The formula for FM becomes Amplitude Modulation Transmitted power P t = total transmitted power /

##### 1 Kyung Hee University Chapter 5 Analog Transmission.

of an analog signal based on the information in digital data. Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion Amplitude Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Topics discussed in this section: 3 Kyung Hee University 5.1 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Figure /located at 250 kHz. This means that our carrier frequency can be at f c = 250 kHz. We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and r = 1). Digital-to-Analog Conversion - ASK 12/

##### Chapter 6: Pass-band Data Transmission Digital Communication Systems 2012 R.Sokullu1/62 CHAPTER 6 PASS-BAND DATA TRANSMISSION.

62 Figure 6.1 Illustrative waveforms for the three basic forms of signaling binary information. (a) Amplitude-shift keying. (b) Phase-shift keying. (c) Frequency-shift keying with continuous phase. Chapter 6: Pass-band Data Transmission Digital Communication Systems 2012 R.Sokullu6/62 /e is calculated –for simple binary coherent methods as coherent binary PSK and coherent binary FSK, there are exact formulas for P e –for coherent M-ary PSK and coherent M-ary FSK approximate solutions are sought. Chapter /

##### Dr. Ahmed Masri Department of Communications An Najah National University 2012/2013 Communications and Signals Processing 1 Dr. Ahmed Masri.

2012/2013 Communications and Signals Processing 1 Dr. Ahmed Masri 7.1 Some Preliminaries 7.2 Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying 7.3 Phase-Shift Keying 7.4 Frequency-Shift Keying Chapter 7 - Outlines 2 Dr. Ahmed Masri Section 7.1 – Some Preliminaries 3 Dr. Ahmed/this basis, we may express the average transmitted signal energy as  For this formula to hold, however, the two binary symbols must be equiprobable. Section 7.2 – Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying 17 Dr. Ahmed Masri Generation Of Ask Signals  From Eqs. (7.9)/

##### Lecture Outline for Chapters 1 and 2

observation interval of length To Linear modulation with sinc pulse uses all available degrees of freedom (interpolation formula) Bandwidth efficiency for a modulation scheme Signal space description of modulation formats Modulation degrees of freedom, II/symbols can now take complex values, typically from a fixed constellation Some example constellations PSK: phase shift keying QAM: quadrature amplitude modulation Bandwidth of linearly modulated signals Model as random process We give an outline of the /

##### Sine wave Fourier series Fourier transform

vector is called a phasor. Phasors are useful for showing the phase relationships in ac circuits. Phase Shift The phase of a sine wave is an angular measurement that specifies the position of a sine wave relative/ amplitude). Oscilloscope The oscilloscope is divided into four main sections. © Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Oscilloscope © Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Oscilloscopes Display Trigger Horizontal Vertical Selected Key Terms A type of waveform that follows a cyclic sinusoidal pattern defined by the formula /

##### Chapter Two Fundamentals of Data and Signals

Strength (continued) Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business Users Approach, Sixth Edition Loss of Signal Strength Formula for decibel (dB): dB = 10 x log10 (P2 / P1) where P1 is the beginning power / using analog signals, digital data must first undergo a process called shift keying or modulation Three basic techniques of shift keying are amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying, and phase shift keying Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business Users Approach, Sixth Edition/

##### ITC242 – Introduction to Data Communications Week 9 Topic 14 Data Transmission Topic 15 Data Communication Fundamentals Reading 3.

analogue and digital signals Transmission impairments – attenuation and noise affect signal quality Shannon’s formula provides a theoretical estimate of maximum channel capacity Topic 15 – Data Communication Fundamentals Learning/of Modulation Amplitude modulation (AM) or amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency modulation (FM) or frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase modulation or phase shift keying (PSK) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) In radio transmission, known as amplitude modulation (AM) The amplitude (or /

##### Analog & Digital Signals © Prof. Aiman Hanna Department of Computer Science Concordia University Montreal, Canada.

also to the S/N ratio; specifically he showed that: Bit Rate = Bandwidth * log 2 (1 + S/N) bps  The formula states that a higher BW and S/N ratio allow higher bit rate  Hence, for the telephone system, which has a frequency of /3.13 – FSK (Two Frequencies), One Bit per Baud – Analog signal for 01001 21 D igital-to-Analog- Conversion Amplitude Modulation (AM)  Also known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)  Each bit group is assigned to an analog signal of given magnitude  The signal is transmitted for a/

##### Chapter 5 Analog Transmission Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

. 5.10 5.11 5.5.2 Amplitude Shift Keying In amplitude shift keying, the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to create signal elements. Both frequency and phase remain constant while the amplitude changes. 5.12 Figure 5.3: Binary amplitude shift keying 5.13 Figure 5.4: Implementation of /bandwidth is located at 250 kHz. This means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz. We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and r = 1). 5.14 In data communications, we normally /

##### Chapter Two Fundamentals of Data and Signals Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business Users Approach Eighth Edition.

: A Business Users Approach, Eighth Edition © 2016. Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 25 Loss of Signal Strength Formula for decibel (dB): dB = 10 x log 10 (P 2 / P 1 ) where P 1 is the/to be transmitted using analog signals, digital data must first undergo a process called shift keying or modulation –Three basic techniques of shift keying are amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying, and phase shift keying Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business Users Approach, Eighth Edition © 2016/

##### Chapter 5: Analog Transmission Converting digital data to a bandpass analog signal is traditionally called digital-to-analog conversion. Converting a low-pass.

two types of conversions. Contents: 1.Digital-to-analog conversion 1.Amplitude Shift Keying 2.Frequency Shift Keying 3.Phase Shift Keying 4.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 2.Analog-to-Analog Conversion 1.Amplitude Modulation 2.Frequency Modulation 3.Phase Modulation 1.Digital-to-Analog Conversion / B is the bandwidth. The formula shows that the required bandwidth has a minimum value of S and a maximum value of 2 S. Multilevel ASK The above discussion uses only two amplitude levels. We can have multilevel /

##### 0 ECE 222 Electric Circuit Analysis II Chapter 12 Sinusoidal Sources Herbert G. Mayer, PSU Status 4/19/2016 For use at CCUT Spring 2016.

of a circles part that encloses a circumference of length equal to the radius Key equation to convert: 2 π = 360 degrees Convert degrees to radians: /Also written as: n=c θoθo 31 Complex Numbers Convert polar  rectangular via Euler’s Formula: e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ Conjugate of a complex number is simply formed/( ωt - 26 o ), yet ω cannot be derived from the phasor Phasor only expresses amplitude and phase shift Phasor doe NOT include frequency or ω Goal to transform Phasor to time domain is finding the /

##### Signal Encoding Techniques

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted Basic Encoding Techniques Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/FM and PM require greater bandwidth than AM Angle Modulation Carson’s rule where The formula for FM becomes Basic Encoding Techniques Analog data to digital signal Pulse code modulation (/

##### electronics fundamentals

sin (q + 45o) …and the equation has a positive phase shift Phase shift An important application of phase-shifted sine waves is in electrical power systems. Electrical utilities generate ac with /dc and the ac sources produce the same power to the bulb: The power formulas are: 120 Vdc 0 V 170 Vp = 120 Vrms 0 V Power in/for root mean square. Selected Key Terms A unit of angular measurement. There are 2p radians in one complete 360o revolution. Radian Phase Amplitude Pulse Harmonics The relative angular /

##### Rev.5;Page. 1 ©1996-2005 R.Levine Sine waves and Decibels Southern Methodist University EETS8302 Fall 2005 Lecture 3 Typographic error on p.11 corrected.

totally replaced analog Rev.5;Page. 4 ©1996-2005 R.Levine Data Communication in 1960 Modulator-demodulators (MODEMs) using frequency- shift-keying (FSK) modulation were in limited use via dial-up PSTN connections –Data rates up to 110 bit/second typically used with /5;Page. 41 ©1996-2005 R.Levine Approx. Square Wave Using 3 Odd Harmonics Proper amplitude of each “harmonic” sine wave was found from a product integral formula (same as statistical cross correlation). Rev.5;Page. 42 ©1996-2005 R.Levine Approx. /

##### Signal Encoding Techniques

Basic Encoding Techniques Digital data to analog signal Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted The case of transmitting digital data using analog /most cases, infinite bandwidth is required to transmit FM and PM signals. Angle Modulation Carson’s rule The formula for FM becomes where Am is the maximum value of m(t). F is the peak derivation F/

Encoding Techniques Digital data to analog signal Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted Basic Encoding Techniques Stallings, Wireless Communications &/ Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-191835-4 Angle Modulation Carson’s rule where The formula for FM becomes Stallings, Wireless Communications & Networks, Second Edition, © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc/

##### Chapter 5 Analog Transmission Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

5.13 5.14 5.5.2 Amplitude Shift Keying In amplitude shift keying, the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to create signal elements. ( Both frequency and phase remain constant while the amplitude changes. ) 5.15 Figure 5.3: Binary amplitude shift keying 5.16 Figure 5.4: Implementation of / is located at 250 kHz. This means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz. We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and r = 1). 5.21 In data communications, we normally/

##### 1 University of Freiburg Computer Networks and Telematics Prof. Christian Schindelhauer Wireless Sensor Networks 4th Lecture 07.11.2006 Christian Schindelhauer.

(keying!) examples  Use data to modify the amplitude of a carrier frequency ! Amplitude Shift Keying  Use data to modify the frequency of a carrier frequency ! Frequency Shift Keying  Use data to modify the phase of a carrier frequency ! Phase Shift Keying ©/ a multi-path environment  Brighter color = stronger signal  Obviously, simple (quadratic) free space attenuation formula is not sufficient to capture these effects © Jochen Schiller, FU Berlin University of Freiburg Institute of Computer Science/

##### 1 Wireless Sensor Networks Physical Layer Mario Čagalj FESB University of Split 9/04/2010. Based on “Protocols and Architectures for.

(II) oUse data to modify the amplitude of a carrier frequency - Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) oUse data to modify the frequency of a carrier frequency - Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) oUse data to modify the phase of a carrier frequency - Phase Shift Keying (PSK) © Tanenbaum, Computer Networks 10/by default the gain of an the gain of an isotropic antennaisotropic antenna A linear number is converted into dB, using the following formula: X(dB) = 10log 10 (X) X(dBm) = 10log 10 (X/1mW) E.g. 1W = 0dBW = +/

##### Chapter 5: Physical Layer. 2 Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice Waltenegus Dargie and Christian Poellabauer © 2010 Outline.

amplitude modulation can be described as follows:  the amplitude of s c (t) is varied according to the modulating signal, s m (t). To simplify the analysis, assume that the two signals are in phase (φ m = φ c = 0) and thus, Equation (5.17) reduces to:  applying Euler’s formula/ 5.12)  it requires a mixer with an excessive bandwidth - expensive to afford Figure 5.12 Amplitude shift-keying technique using an on – off switch 52 Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice Waltenegus Dargie /

##### Mathematical Modeling: The Right Courses for the Right Students for the Right Reasons Sheldon P. Gordon

of making an erroneous decision. The risk levels are typically  = 10%, 5%, 2%, 1%, or 0.5%. The key is whether or not the sample mean falls among the least likely of all possible sample means for a given risk level. Hypothesis/and minimum; estimate the midline. 3.Estimate the amplitude. 4.What is the frequency? 5.Estimate the phase shift for a cosine or sine function. 6.Write a formula to model the phenomenon. Write a possible formula for each of the following trigonometric functions: Dallas Temperatures/

##### Signal Encoding Techniques Lecture 18. Overview Where we Stand on Layers Data Representation and Signaling Used Data Encoding Reasons for Choosing Encoding.

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted 14 Basic Encoding Techniques 15 Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/PM require greater bandwidth than AM 40 Angle Modulation Carson ’ s rule where The formula for FM becomes 41 Basic Encoding Techniques Analog data to digital signal Pulse code /

##### Wireless PHY: Modulation and Channels Y. Richard Yang 09/6/2012.

DSB, SSB r Digital modulation m Amplitude shift keying (ASK) m Frequency shift keying: FSK m Phase shift keying: BPSK, QPSK, MSK m Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 16 Outline r Recap r Frequency domain examples r Basic concepts of modulation r Amplitude modulation 17 Example: Amplitude Modulation (AM) r Block diagram/ contains both cos() and sin(). r Using Euler’s formula: 113 Implementing Wireless: From Hardware to Software 114 Making Sense of the Transform 115 Relating the Two Representations

##### TUNALIData Communication1 Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques.

—Use modem (modulator-demodulator) Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PK) TUNALIData Communication34 Modulation Techniques TUNALIData Communication35 Amplitude Shift Keying (1) Two binary values represented by different amplitudes of carrier frequency Usually, one amplitude is zero —i.e. presence/B T ) dB From Figure 5.4, for FSK and ASK, E b /N 0 = 14.2 dB And substitution to above formula yields 14.2 dB = 12 dB – (R/B T ) dB yielding R/B T = 0.6. For PSK, from /

##### ECEN 621, Prof. Xi Zhang ECEN 621-600 “ Mobile Wireless Networking ” Course Materials: Papers, Reference Texts: Bertsekas/Gallager, Stuber, Stallings,

 Digital data to analog signal  Amplitude-shift keying (ASK)  Amplitude difference of carrier frequency  Frequency-shift keying (FSK)  Frequency difference near carrier frequency  Phase-shift keying (PSK)  Phase of carrier signal shifted ECEN 621, Mobile Wireless Networks Prof. Xi/ AM ECEN 621, Mobile Wireless Networks Prof. Xi Zhang Angle Modulation  Carson’s rule where  The formula for FM becomes ECEN 621, Mobile Wireless Networks Prof. Xi Zhang Basic Encoding Techniques  Analog data to /

##### Signal Encoding Techniques Chapter 6. Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques  Digital data, digital signal Equipment less complex and expensive than.

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK)  Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK)  Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK)  Phase of carrier signal shifted Basic Encoding Techniques Amplitude-Shift Keying  One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/PM require greater bandwidth than AM Angle Modulation  Carson’s rule where  The formula for FM becomes Basic Encoding Techniques  Analog data to digital signal Pulse code /

##### DNT 1013 DATA COMMUNICATIONS ------------------------------------------ CHAPTER 2: PHYSICAL LAYER AND MEDIA Prepared By: Mdm Noor Suhana Bt Sulaiman FKMT-NT,

levels. How many bits are needed per level? We calculate the number of bits from the formula Each signal level is represented by 3 bits. A digital signal has 9 levels. How many / Analog Signals Three basic techniques: Amplitude shift keying Frequency shift keying Phase shift keying 29 Amplitude Shift Keying One amplitude encodes a 0 while another amplitude encodes a 1 (a form of amplitude modulation) 30 Amplitude Shift Keying 31 Amplitude Shift Keying 32 Frequency Shift Keying One frequency encodes a 0 while/

##### Signal Encoding Techniques Chapter 6. Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques Digital data, digital signal Equipment less complex and expensive than.

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted Basic Encoding Techniques Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude/FM and PM require greater bandwidth than AM Angle Modulation Carson’s rule where The formula for FM becomes Basic Encoding Techniques Analog data to digital signal Pulse code modulation (/

##### 1 CSE 6806: Wireless and Mobile Communication Networks.

of a channel between 3 MHz and 4 MHz ; SNR dB = 24 dB Using Shannon’s formula, Channel capacity 35 Example of Nyquist and Shannon Formulations How many signaling levels are required? Classifications of / 52 Digital modulation Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): –very simple –low bandwidth requirements –very susceptible to interference Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): –needs larger bandwidth Phase Shift Keying (PSK): –more complex –robust against interference 101 /

##### SIMS-201 What is Bandwidth and How it is Used.

channel dictates the information carrying capacity of the channel This is calculated using Shannon’s channel capacity formula Increasing bandwidth Shannon’s Theorem (Shannon’s Limit for Information Capacity) Claude Shannon at Bell / transmit information in analog form using Amplitude or Frequency modulation Digital communication systems also employ modulation techniques, some of which include: Amplitude Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying Basic digital communications system Transmitter EM /

##### D-Theory - Model of cell-structured space

. 4.D Body Wave direction L To drive the animation use PageUp- and PageDown-keys in SlideShow-state (F5). Gravitational wave contains transverse and longitudinal component. A wave is/the field and an amplitude of cyclic wave. Thus the speed ve must be added to the relative speeds vr of all bodies parallel the radius of the field. The formula to add the / faster it seems to fly away on grounds of the light trace (red shift). The red shift is caused, when the time of the bodies at inner orbits passes slower./

##### Physics AQA P1.

Physics Energy Efficiency The energy efficiency of a device can be calculated using this formula: energy efficiency = useful output energy total input energy Useful energy is measured in/of direction when they are refracted at an interface. i) The terms frequency, wavelength and amplitude. j) All waves obey the wave equation: v = f x  k) Radio waves/ Boardworks GCSE Science: Physics The Universe Red Shift and the Big Bang Theory The observation of red shift is a key piece of evidence for the Big Bang theory/

##### Graphs, Inverses, and Applications of Trigonometric Functions

by solving bx – c = 0 and bx – c = 2π The vertical shift up is d. 4.5: Sketching Sine and Cosine by Key Points Find the amplitude, frequency, period, vertical shift, and endpoints of a one-cycle interval, and then sketch the graph of each function/simple harmonic motion for a spring whose period is 6 seconds and whose amplitude is 4 cm. Chapter 4 Review Trigonometry Formulas Definitions Laws and Identities Textbook Site Animated Precalculus Study Guides by Section Practice Quizzes Khan Academy Brightstorm /

##### Data Communications and Networking

to another constant level. Time domain function of a signal: s(t) Specifies the amplitude (in volts) of the signal at each instant in time. Analogue & Digital Signals /of a signal will arrive at the receiver at different times, resulting in phase shifts between the different frequencies. Delay distortion is particularly critical for digital data Some of/levels are required at least? By Nyquist’s formula: C = 2Blog2M We have 8 x 106 = 2 x 106 x log2M  M = 16. KEY POINTS All of the forms of information can be/

##### Chapter 5 Analog Transmission

based on the information in digital data. Topics discussed in this section: Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion Amplitude Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Figure 5.1 Digital-to-analog conversion Figure 5.2 Types of digital-to-analog conversion Bit /is located at 250 kHz. This means that our carrier frequency can be at fc = 250 kHz. We can use the formula for bandwidth to find the bit rate (with d = 1 and r = 1). Example 5.4 In data communications, we/