Ppt on abo blood grouping reagents

Lecture 5: Identification of Blood

off phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer reagent) The reduced form of phenolphthalin is colorless but the oxidized form is bright pink Not the same dark red color of blood Leucomalachite green (LMG) /group onto H antigen ABO gene has three alleles: O allele = null (non-functional) A allele = A-transferase (adds N-acetylgalactosamine to H antigen) B allele = B-transferase (adds galactose to H antigen) ABO Typing Secretors and non-secretors Almost everyone has a functional copy of FUT1 ABO type expressed in blood/

Rh Grouping.

, AB serum or diluents control provided with the anti-D reagent or 22% bovine serum albumin may be used as negative control with the test cells Rh (D) Grouping In most of the blood transfusion laboratories, Rh (D) grouping is performed along with the ABO grouping and same techniques as used for ABO grouping may also be employed for Rh typing Slide Technique This technique may be used/

ABO Typing Discrepancies Jayme Heimonen MT(ASCP)SBB Blood Bank Technical Specialist Borgess Medical Center Kalamazoo, MI ASCLS-Michigan 2016 1.

4+ 0 0 0 AB patient massively transfused with Group: A red blood cells. 8 ABO Typing Discrepancies Group: AB patient massively transfused with Group: A red blood cells. Phone call to other hospital where transfusions were administered/reagents and serum/plasma. 15 ABO Typing Discrepancies Rouleaux Anti-A Anti-B Anti-D Co A1 Cells B Cells 4+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 4+ Microscopically observe cells as a stacked coin retractile appearance: Anti-A Anti-B Anti-D Co A1 Cells B Cells 4+ R R R R 4+ Saline replacement. 16 ABO/

ID & Characterization of Blood & Bloodstain. BEFORE DNA THERE WAS: SEROLOGY.

Blood ABO blood groups found on outside of cell Blood Group Markers ABO Markers (antigen and antibodies) person will have antibodies (A or B) to whatever blood group he/she doesn’t have Otherwise, a persons blood would clump up and cause death Blood Group Markers ABO Markers (antigen and antibodies) Blood Type Antigen (blood group) Antibody % population A B AB O Blood Group Markers ABO Markers (antigen and antibodies) Blood Type Antigen (blood group) Antibody % population AAAnti-B40 B AB O Blood Group/

Immune Hematology L Bonstien PhD E J Dann MD. RED BLOOD CELL SURFACE MAMBRANE.

on other cells and in bacteria and plants 80% of humans excrete ABO antigens in their secretions (Secretors) Secretors (of Antigens) = Se/Se, Se/se Non secretors = se/se Incidence of ABO blood groups in Israeli population שכיחות INCIDECE סוג TYPE שכיחות INCIDECE סוג TYPE 4%-A/the pt serum. The reaction between the Ab and Ag is in vitro anti IgG Coombs reagent is mono specific IgG + anti C 3 Coombs reagent is poly specific RBC Antibody is attached to Antigen on Erythrocyte surface membrane RBC Adding anti/


Servicing 99% Performance in the Blood Bank Examples of Errors 1.Patient sample labeling error 2.Blood issued to wrong patient 3.Incorrect grouping/typing due to technical error 4.Incorrect grouping/typing due to clerical error 5.Incomplete quality control of reagents How do we reduce errors? /D) antisera Each day of use Other antisera Each day of use AHG (antihuman globulin) Each day of use ABO reagents cells Each day of use N/A ABS (antibody screening cells) Each day of use N/A Patient CellsPatient Serum/

4th year medical students Serological Testing In Blood Transfusion Services Salwa Hindawi Medical Director of Blood Transfusion Services KAUH.

produced by the body in response to specific antigens 4th year medical students ABO Group Four blood groups: A, B, O, or AB Almost all serum contains antibodies to ABO antigens it lacks Antibodies are crucial to safe transfusion 4th year medical students/to 10) which contain all of the important antigens the antibody in the serum is identified 4th year medical students REAGENT RED CELL PANEL NEGATIVE AUTO CONTROL SOME CELLS POSITIVE ALL CELLS POSITIVESOME CELLS POSITIVE (SAME STRENGTH AND PHASES) (DIFFERENT /

Forensic Serology Identification Using Blood Groups.

blood cells, RBCs (erythrocytes): deliver oxygen white blood cells (leukocytes): immune system platelets (thrombocytes): used for clotting Blood Terminology ABO blood groups—based on having an A, B, both or no antigens on red blood cells Rh factor—may be present on red blood/ place the swab directly onto the reagent tab on the strip –The reagent tab is originally yellow and undergoes a color change to green or blue- green indicating the presumption of blood Luminol Red blood cells contain hemoglobin (Hb) – /

Dr. Mohammed H Saiemaldahr BLOOD BANK MED TECH

Antibody Screening Antibody screening test involve testing patient’s serum against two or three reagent red blood cell samples called screening cells Screening cells are commercially prepared group O cell suspensions obtained from individual donors that are phenotype for the most /serum including the auto-logous control and the reverse ABO typing. 4- Rouleaux is dispersed by the addition of 1 to 3 drops of saline to the test tube. Reagent Red Blood Cell Screening Cell Sectional Listing of Antigens Present CC/

Practical Blood Bank Antibody Screening Lab 6.

Pregnant women Cases of transfusion reactions Blood and plasma donors Uses patients plasma/serum against reagent red cells to detect unexpected /reagent This will detect any IgG antibodies. Screening Cells Screening cells are single or pooled donor group O cells, however, single-donor vials offer increased sensitivity Why group/centrifuge and read, incubate at RT or 37C. Used in crossmatching to detect ABO incompatibility. In antibody tests used to detect IgM antibodies which react preferentially at /

The Rhesus (Rh) Blood Group system

with over 45 antigens. The complexity of the Rh blood group Ags is due to the highly polymorphic genes that encode them. Discovered in 1940 after work on Rhesus monkeys. The 2nd most important after ABO in the crossmatch test. Only the most clinically significant/can cross the placenta and endanger the fetus. Mohammed Laqqan Weak D Phenotype Most D positive rbc’s react macroscopically with Reagent anti-D at immediate spin These patients are referred to as Rh positive Reacting from 1+ to 3+ or greater HOWEVER/

1 Hot Topics New Blood and Plasma Issues Barbara Carmichael Investigator, U.S. Food & Drug Administration Florida District - Jacksonville, FL Resident.

spin compatibility test –The card is not a reliable detector of ABO incompatibilities (which are predominantly IgM); published studies document reported compatibility test/ one of same or greater sensitivity (e.g. HIV-1 Group O)Retests - should use the same test as that used for /reagents –Autologous use only Lookback of units from reactive donorLookback of units from reactive donor Statement in Circular that blood is from donors tested for T. cruzi on at least one donationStatement in Circular that blood/

Disease of the fetus and new born  Hyaline memb disease - 출생후 blood-gas exchange 를 위해 infant ’ s lung 은 fluid 가 제거 되고 air 가 차게되며 blood volume 이 증가하게 된다.

shake test) : mixed with ethanol stable foam at the air-liquid interface -> lung maturation Problem : ① amniotic fulid reagents, glassware 의 contamination 이 검사결과에 영향을 줌 ② false negative 가 많다 lumadex – FSI test fluorescent polarization amniotic fluid /by ABO incompatibility of fetus and mother Anemia  D negative woman : D positive infant ABO – compatible infant -> isoimmunization of 16% ABO – incompatible infant -> isoimmuniation of 2% ABO blood group system  Incompatibility for blood group antigen/


O, or A/B genotypes ABO Type Frequencies In U.S. ABO TypePer Cent O45% A40% B11% AB4% Landsteiner’s Rule Individual’s will form immune antibodies to ABO blood group antigens they do not possess. Critical for understanding compatibility between ABO blood groups. Antibody clinical significance Immunizations are/of rbcs with the B antigen. A drop of rbcs is added to each side and mixed well with the reagent. The slide is tilted back and forth for one minute and observed for agglutination (clumping) of the rbcs /

Unit 9 Other Blood Group Systems Part 1 Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP)BB.

cells tested: reverse, antibody screen and crossmatches regardless of ABO blood group Positive reactions with all cells tested: reverse, antibody screen and crossmatches regardless of ABO blood group May cause ABO discrepancy May cause ABO discrepancy Can be detected in serum of most normal /, both in testing RBCs for the antigen and in the identification of the antibody. Anti-P 1 blood typing reagents usually sufficiently potent to detect weak forms of the antigen. An antibody that is weakly reactive at RT/

Chapter 10 Blood Identification & Serology “Out damned spot! Out, I say Here’s the smell of the blood still, All the perfumes of Arabia will not Sweeten.

agglutinate. Chapter 10Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company8 Blood Groups Type Antigen Antibody Can Give Blood To Can Get Blood From A B AB O A B A and B Neither A nor B B A Neither A nor B A and B A, ABO, A B, ABO, B AB A, B, O/ which then reacts with reduced phenolphthalein to produce color  Can give false positives with potatoes and horseradish Chapter 1015 Blood Presumptive Tests  Luminol —  reagent is mixture of luminol powder, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )  usually sprayed/

Blood and Bodily Fluid Evidence. Components of Blood Blood is one of the most common and obvious types of evidence left at a violent crime scene. An average.

use two tests to determine if a strain is due to blood. – Phenolphthalein Reagent Test – Luminol Test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ex0Fd_P DhU 1. Phenolphthalein Reagent Test Blood turns the clear and colorless reagent to a pink color. The pink color is due to/black marker, meter stick, goggles, and a bottle of blood. If you make a mess, clean it up immediately! Lab 1: Single Droplets 2550 Single Drops Group Members 75100 Single Drops Group Members Label two large pieces of construction paper as shown /

Blood Bank Case Studies

a high incidence antigen Some Techniques/Options Available: Next Step: Use blood bank techniques, reagents and cells to try and determine the antibody Some Techniques/Options / and Christine Lomas-Francis (2012). The Blood Group Antigen FactsBook, 3rd Edition, Elsevier. ·Daniels, G. (2013) MNS Blood Group System, in Human Blood Groups, 3rd edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, / Case Study Reference Lab testing: ABO/Rh performed: DAT Performed: Anti-A Anti-B Anti-D A1 Cell B Cell ABO/Rh 4+ 0 Positive Anti-IgG/


have resulted from environmental, bacterial, or viral antigens that are similar to blood group antigens. An Alloantibody is considered Clinically Significant: If it has caused hemolytic /History PRE-TESTING PHASE Obtain Medical and Transfusion History Age: may affect ABO typing. Sex Ethic origin: high prevalence antigens are lacking in certain/ cannot be typed with antisera requiring the antiglobulin test. Monoclonal, direct agglutinating reagents reagents can be used reliably. To test for Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb/

Accommodation in ABO-Incompatible Kidney Allografts: Graft Self-Protection via Downregulation of Genes Joseph P. Grande, M.D., Ph.D. Mark D. Stegall, M.D.

D. Walter D. Park Mayo Clinic - Rochester, MN USA METHODS 16 ABO-incompatible allografts studied at 3 and 12 months RESULTS Circulating anti-blood group antibody and target blood group antigen demonstrated in all patients 13/16 grafts had normal renal function and /.73 m 2 MICROARRAY ANALYSIS 16 gauge biopsies placed in RNA later (Ambien, Inc.) RNA extracted with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) core RNA purified using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Inc.) MICROARRAY ANALYSIS Sample quality assessed with Agilent /

Blood Grouping, Serum and Plasma By Elkhedir Elgorashi, MLT, M Sc.

education of public is difficult. Rh refers to the presence or absence of the D antigen on the red blood cell. Rh (D) Antigen (continued) Unlike the ABO blood group system, individuals who lack the D antigen do not naturally make it. Production of antibody to D requires /cause clumping of RBCs with the B antigen. A drop of RBCs is added to each side and mixed well with the reagent. The slide is tilted back and forth for one minute and observed for agglutination (clumping) of the RBCs Interpretation of Slide/


. Antiglobulin phaseCrossmatch Most incomplete antibodies in the blood group systems, including the Rh, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group systems Antibody Screening The antibody screen is also/ for the presence of unexpected antibiotics by incubating it with selected reagent RBCs (screen cells).. Is the Crossmatch Really Needed? In previously/,000 cells/mm) and clinical signs of bleeding usually When possible, ABO-compatible platelets should beused one platelet concentrate usually produces an increase of /

1 Copyright © 2011, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Assisting in the Analysis of Blood Chapter 54.

between the ABO blood groupings and the Rh blood groupings.  Secure a capillary blood sample and determine the ABO and Rh grouping of the sample.  Discuss rare blood types and the implication of having a rare blood type when /Inc. All rights reserved. Blood Glucose Testing  Blood glucose tolerance test.  Self-monitoring of blood glucose.  Urine reagent strips  Blood glucose monitors using electrochemisty  The medical assistant can perform glucose testing.  Blood glucose is routinely monitored for /

Blood Groups and Blood Transfusion Dr Stuart Laidlaw Haematology Royal Hallamshire Hospital.

in number Infrequent problem Only likely to have been sensitised if had previous blood transfusion (occasionally by pregnancy) Can cause major problems with finding compatible blood Group and Save Determine ABO group: cells and serum Determine Rh D status, using two different reagents Screen serum for presence of preformed antibodies to any blood group Cross match Specifically determine compatibility between donor red cells and recipients serum Very important/

1BB. MLT309. 2013-2014.Lec.6.Mr. Waggas. Other Blood Group Systems.

rare and is sometimes associated with infectious mononucleosis 15BB. MLT309. 2013-2014.Lec.6.Mr. Waggas P Blood Group (ISBT 003)  Similar to the ABO system  The most common phenotypes are P 1 and P 2 P 1 – consists of P 1/6.Mr. Waggas Kell antigens  Kell antigens have disulfide-bonded regions on the glycoproteins  This makes them sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents: 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) Dithiothreitol (DTT) So Kell system Ags are easily inactivated by treating RBCs with these substances. 29BB/

Blood and Lymph Test I. Of the following white cells which of the following are the most numerous in the blood? a. lymphocytes b. monocytes c. Neutrophils.

In the heme oxygenase reaction of heme degradation the methene (=C-) group of the porphyrin ring which is oxidized to CO is between the/ B The addition of both diazotized sulfanilic acid (Ehrlich’s reagent) and methyl alcohol to plasma results in a colored product /ABO incompatible blood is usually due to technical errors in the blood bank. Patients at risk for GVHD should receive A. Washed red blood cells B. Leukoreduced red blood cells C. Whole blood D. Frozen red blood cells E. Irradiated packed red blood/

BLOOD TRANSFUSION. Objectives: This lecture provides an understanding of:  Blood groups  Routine pre-transfusion compatibility testing  Transfusion.

mother during pregnancy Blood Grouping Test ABO blood grouping in two ways 1. Cell grouping and 2. Serum grouping Blood Grouping Test Cell grouping Antigenic character of the red cells is determined by reacting with the corresponding antibody This leads to hemeagglutination Blood Grouping Test Serum grouping The character of the antibody present in the blood group established by cell grouping CELL GROUPING A suspension of red cells is made to react with a known reagent antisera-anti/

Serology Blood Spatter Analysis Blood at the Crime Scene  Class evidence: A transfer of blood between victim and suspect or crime scene. ◦ Blood typing.

red blood cells their color. Composed of four globin (protein) chains, each with a heme group. Presumptive Test - Chemical  Kastle-Meyer test: ◦ Basted on the catalytic breakdown of peroxides by hemoglobin. Contact of reduced phenolphthalein reagent and hydrogen/Worked out the ABO blood typing system. – 1940 he discovered the rhesus factor (Rh) in blood. Serology - Blood  The make up of blood. ◦ 1/12 of the body is blood. ◦ Blood is suspended in a liquid called plasma (makes up 55% of blood).  Composed/

Serology Blood Spatter Analysis The Makeup of Blood  1/12 of the body is blood.  Liquid portion of bloodBlood is suspended in a liquid called plasma.

Blood Components Hemoglobin: Oxygen carrier that gives red blood cells their color. Composed of four globin (protein) chains, each with a heme group. Other Blood Components  Antibodies: proteins in the blood/Basted on the catalytic breakdown of peroxides by hemoglobin. Contact of reduced phenolphthalein reagent and hydrogen peroxide with a bloodstain produces a deep pink color. ◦ /the ABO blood typing system. – 1940 he discovered the rhesus factor (Rh) in blood. Blood Spatter Analysis The way in which blood /

Forensic Biology Screening Workshop

Clear liquid that is left after blood coagulates Plasma without the clotting factors Forensic Significance Of Blood Hemoglobin (RBC) Peroxidase-like activity can cleave H2O2 Blood Group Antigen (RBC) Bound to RBC membrane (ABO groups) DNA (WBC) Found in /benzidine, TMB, etc.) or the discoverer (Kastle-Meyer, etc.) Oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) oxidizes a colorless reagent to a colored reagent Heme catalyzes this oxidation by cleaving an oxygen from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Kastle-Meyer (KM) Reaction Kastle/

Chapters 6 and 8: Blood and Forensic Medicine. Background Information Questions such as “Is this blood”, “Is this human blood” and “what biochemical markers.

blood antigens and 29 blood groups due to the different combinations of these antigens. Many of these antigens are considered Rhesus antigens – as that is the other major type of classifying blood. Blood Typing When blood is described as being positive or negative, it is in reference to the presence of the D antigen on the surface. For blood transfusions, we ensure the compatibility for both the ABO/

Drmsaiem Rh Blood Group System DR. MOHAMMED H SAIEMALDAHR BB Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences MED TECH DEP.

Her husband, who had the same ABO type, was selected as her donor, after transfusion the recipient, demonstrated the classic symptoms of acute hemo]ytic transfusion reaction. drmsaiem Rh Blood Group System drmsaiem Rh Blood Group System Landsteiner and Wiener reported on/ of Rh Antibodies and Antigens  Are IgG, react optimally at 37 o C or following the addition of antiglobulin reagent  Produced after exposure of the individual’s immune system to foreign red cells, either through transfusion or pregnancy. /

Other Blood Groups Lewis, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Ii, MNSs & P.

, give crossmatch compatible The Kell Blood Group System Background information  The Kell blood group system was discovered in 1946.  Number of Kell antigens: > 20  These antigens are the third most potent, after those of the ABO and Rh blood groups, at triggering an immune reaction./occurring often due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection  Anti-I reacts with all adult cells (including patient’s own, all reagent cells, all donor cells)  Anti-I does not react with cord cells  Auto-anti-I is a common “/

Chapter 10 Blood “Out damned spot! Out, I say Here’s the smell of the blood still, All the perfumes of Arabia will not Sweeten this little hand. Oh, Oh,

 Oxygen reacts with phenolphthalein reagent to produce a deep pink color  cause the formation of a deep pink color if blood is present Chapter 10Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company14 Presumptive Tests for Blood Determination  Hematest® tablet /lack antibody  Mismatched blood transfusion causes agglutination Chapter 10Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company19 Blood Terminology  ABO blood groups—based on having an A, B, both or no antigens on red blood cells  Rh factor—may be present on red blood cells; positive if /

Reagents and Methods for Testing in the Blood Bank.

molecular, they are still Antibody-Antigen reactions Routine Testing Typing of the ABO and Rh Antigens Typing for Antigens of Other Blood Group Systems Antibody Screen Antibody Identification Compatibility Test (Crossmatch) Direct Antiglobulin Test ABO and Rh Antisera Where to the Antigens come from? Antibody Screen Antigens Where do the Antibodies come from? Reagent cells for reverse typing Where do the Antibodies come from? Anti/

Antibody Identification

Antibody Identification Rh System Antibody Identification Rh System Most important blood group system in blood transfusion medicine. (after ABO) Rh Discovery 1939 – Levine and Stetson 1st discovered antibody 1940 – Landsteiner and / But monoclonal antibodies are specific for a single D epitope Does not detect all D-positive red cells. Rh Typing Reagents Current reagents are blends containing monoclonal IgM antibody plus monoclonal or polyclonal IgG antibody IgM allows for RT reactivity IgG allows for AHG/

Immunohematology (Blood Bank) CLS 245. What is Immunohematology? It is the study of Antigen-Antibody reaction as they relate to blood disorder.

blood sample 2-If there is agglutination then the test is positive. This patient blood group is …? -Determine the blood group of each patient Patient1 Patient 2 Pateint3 Patient 4 Patient 5 Patient 6 Patient 7 Patient 8 Patient 9 ABO and Rh blood/the general population have positive antibody screen. Antibody screening test involve testing patient’s serum against two or three reagent red blood cell samples called screening cells Cross match Cross-match test, consisting of mixing the patient’s serum with donor/

The Bloody Facts A Presentation All About Blood. Brief Composition of Blood What is blood made up of? What is blood made up of? Adult human has about.

on Chromosome 9 ABO blood groups AB0 blood grouping system According to the AB0 blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null). According to the AB0 blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null). Blood group A A antigens and anti-B antibodies Blood group B B antigens and anti-A antibodies Blood group AB Both A/

Antiglobulin Test. Teaching Aims To understand the principle of AGT To learn the techniques of AGT To know about the AHG reagent.

hemagglutination and hemolysis for the detection and identification of blood group antibodies. Commercial Sources Regular donors In-house Staff members Applications of Reagent Red Cells Reverse ABO grouping Antibody screening Antibody identification Antibody titration Allogenic adsorption Control of AHG technique Reagent cells for antibody screen of donors Pooled reagent screening cells used only for testing samples from blood donors Group O red cells –naturally occurring anti-A or anti/

SVTM 17.Sept.2005 M. Senn Hemovigilance : Risks of the Blood Transfusion Process Marianne Senn, ART (CSMLS) Head of Hemovigilance Swissmedic / Swiss Agency.

Senn Safe Product Prescription by M.D. Patient Sample Hospital Transfusions Service Blood Administration Role of Hemovigilance Donor Selection Testing and Preparation Material and Reagents Safe Process SVTM 17.Sept.2005 M. Senn Comparison: Transfusion Risks/2003 6 Mix-ups 3 ABO-incompatible RBC transfused 20047 Incorrect blood product transfused - 3x ABO incompatible (2 RBC, 1 FFP) - 4x ABO compatible  wrong patient SVTM 17.Sept.2005 M. Senn, Wrong ABO Group transfused Faulty identification procedures –/

Practical Blood Bank Anti-Globulin Test Direct, Indirect Lab 5.

(also known as Rh disease) ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (the indirect Coombs test may only be weakly positive) Anti-Kell hemolytic disease of the newborn Rhesus c, E hemolytic disease of the newborn Other blood group incompatibility (RhC, Rhe, Kidd,/ results: DAT and IAT ; In specimens containing potent cold-reactive antibodies agglutination may occur before adding the AHG reagent. Dirty glassware may cause clumping of cells. Over centrifugation DAT A positive DAT from a clotted sample should be/

EU Regulatory Environment—2008

. Australia > Canada > China > The Netherlands > United States 1.800.956.6588 Annex II, List A Reagents and reagent products, including related calibrators and control materials, for determining the following blood groups: ABO system, rhesus (C, c, D, E, e) anti-Kell, reagents and reagent products, including related calibrators and control materials, for the detection, confirmation and quantification in human specimens of markers of HIV infection (HIV 1/

Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP)BB MLAB 2431 Immunohematology Unit 1 Part 2 Blood Collection.

reagents used for testing must meet or exceed appropriate FDA regulations. CANNOT rely on previous testing Results recorded immediately. Record system to track unit to final disposition. Records must be retrievable. Records must be kept for 5 years OR 6 months after product expires. General Considerations Numbers on blood bag, processing tubes and donor records should be rechecked prior to processing. ABO group and/

BLOOD TRANSFUSION BRI BUDLOVSKY R3 JANUARY 2015. OVERVIEW The process Blood components Testing Consent Transfusion reactions.

Blood components Testing Consent Transfusion reactions DONATION TESTSPECIFIC AGENTSTESTS Group ABO,Rh Alloantibodies ABO and Rh antigen testing Virus HIV Hep B Hep C HTLV West Nile Antibodies, nucleic acid testing Bacteria Syphilis Bacterial contamination Serology Bacterial Culture (plt only) Parasites Chagas in at risk donors antibody BLOOD/based on patient and donor testing. Blood is not actually mixed. DAT 45 RBCs from patient are washed, and then mixed with Coombs Reagent. If they stick together, it /

Blood Typing Forensic Science. History of Typing 1901: Austrian, Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups Mixing 2 different kinds of blood that.

blood group systems known today, but the ABO and Rh systems are the most important ABO Blood Grouping there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null). Blood Group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma. Blood Type B If you belong to the blood group/ build up if blood is exposed to Rh positive blood. How to do Blood Typing 1. You mix the blood with three different reagents including either of /

Blood Typing. What is the use of blood typing? Each person’s blood is different due to the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Before.

ones used for blood transfusions. Not all blood groups are compatible with each other. Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping, which is dangerous for individuals. What are the different blood groups? www.freelivedoctor.com According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O (null). ABO blood grouping system www.freelivedoctor.com Type A Blood If you belong to the blood group A, you have/

Blood Basics and Other Body Fluids Objectives: Distinguish between blood types and their antigens and antibodies. Explain what happens in the process of.

blood. From his work the ABO classification system of blood types was developed. B. By 1937 the Rh factor was discovered. C. At present over 100 different blood factors have been shown to exist, but the ABO/identity of each of the four A-B-O blood groups can be established by testing the blood with anti-A and anti-B sera. The /the reagent- phenolphthalein is mixed with hemoglobin in blood, the clear phenolphthalein will turn a deep pink. Not a specific test for blood, some vegetables react with the reagent in/

HLA Typing for Blood Bankers

Serology vs Molecular Typing DNA amplification DRB1*0401 DRB1*0402 DRB1*0403 DRB1*0404 DRB1*0405… DRB1*0424 Serology Ab reagents DR4 Nomenclature HLA HLA complex HLA-A Locus HLA-A*02 Ag equivalent HLA-A*02:01 Allele specificity HLA-/typing > serology choose young, male / nonparous female consider CMV status, donor/pt size, ABO/Rh Mismatched URD mismatch rare alleles ethnic group matching preferred Consider cord blood donor HLA-DPB1: Need to Match? Studies have suggested that DPB1 matching does not impact /

DR. MOHAMMED H SAIEMALDAHR Faculty of Applied Medical Science

the H Ag is common to all ABO blood group, Bombay blood is incompatible with all ABO donors. In routine forward grouping, using anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB. The Bombay would phenotype as an O blood group. However, transfusing normal group O would cause immediate cell lysis by/cells drmsaiem The Bombay Phenotypes (Oh) 5- Presence of A or B enzymes in serum 6- Strong reactivity with anti-I reagents (possibly owing to an increase in number of I receptors) 7. A recessive mode of inheritance. 8. Red cells of the/

Other Blood Groups.

occurring often due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection Anti-I reacts with all adult cells (including patient’s own, all reagent cells, all donor cells) Anti-I does not react with cord cells Auto-anti-I is a common “cold agglutinin/Thermal range 4 - 37 HDNB Transfusion Reactions Extravascular Intravascular No P Blood Group System Genetics: These genes code for enzymes that sequentially add sugars to precursor substance. This system is related to the ABO, Le and Ii systems. Genes: P1, Pk, P and lower/

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