Free ppt on small scale industries in india

CREATING HAPPY INDIA Through Swadeshi Industries

power plants. So 4 times capacity can be built from the same investment. Very simple technology. Only Steam Engine + Small Boiler becomes Tiny Thermal Power Plant. Direct mechanical power can be used. No electricity generation. So generators, motors, transformers,/capacity can be established in India to produce 18 crore tones of cement providing employment to 30 lakh people. Cement production at tiny scale will cost Rs.70 per bag. Huge scope for engineers to decentralize cement industry. CEMENT FOR SLAVERY? /

India’s attractiveness as an investment destination

; The FMCG sector even otherwise has not been a priority for big industrial houses like Tata, Reliance etc. FMCG in India: How the operating environment changed In 1978 due to the policy of protecting the small scale sector the environment turned hostile towards the then big players in the market. Many like Coca Cola did leave India However, there were others like Hindustan Levers who adapted to the/

AP World Review May 3, 2006 afternoon.

establishment of trade routes from Muslim ports in India Sufi mystics and traders carried Islam to /government. Power of Individual Monarchs Evolved development of small national armies growth of trained bureaucracies ability to/ Dynasty Established by Manchu People Full Scale European Trade begins in China Last Dynasty of China Japanese / Nationalism Capitalism (Adam Smith actually from 1700s) Proto-Industrialism and Industrialism Liberalism, Radicalism, Conservatism Antithesis to Marxism is revisionism Idea/


) IT and ITeS Tourism Food Processing Construction and Engineering SSI: Textiles, Handlooms, Printing and Publishing SSI: Small Scale Industry Source: For updated information, please visit BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES Delhi AUGUST 2012 THE HEART OF INDIA Key Industries – Banking and Financial Services Sector (BFSI) … (1/3) The city is home to a number of private and public banks and financial services/

Title goes here …. >25 “Forget China, India and the Internet: Economic Growth Is Driven by Women.” —Headline, Economist, April 15, Leader, page 14.

*Growing female employment rate #1 driver of growth (women>high tech, China, India) *More women in gov’t increase econ growth emphasis (Invest health, ed, infrastructure, poverty) Source/Crazy Organizations Middle-sized companies are cool Re-imagine!/Innovate or Die! Small-ish/Scale & Synergy limits-delusions/anti-Big Mergers Causes/1966-2006 Women/Market / (or more). 3. Are you a “personality,” a de facto “brand” in the industry? The Dr Phil of... 4. Opportunism (with a little forethought) mostly wins./

Presentation on MSME-DI, Mumbai & Policy Initiatives & Schemes of Govt

of small enterprises; Facilitate economies of scale in terms of deployment of resources; For integrated and focused development of micro and small enterprises WHAT IS CLUSTER Concentration of units producing same/similar products (or engaged in same line of industrial activity)/ before seeking funds for Common Facility Centre (CFC), For CFC, GoI support is : Cost of Project and Govt of India Assistance: Diagnostic Study - Maximum cost Rs. 2.50 lakhs. Soft Interventions - Maximum cost of project Rs. 25.00/

Science, Technology, Innovation and IP in India – new directions and prospects Department of Economics Discussion Paper Series Number 660 June 2013 Christine.

small scale and labour intensive IPR policies that may help – introduce petty patents, educate about design rights, trademarks Create equivalent of an open source register for manufactured items with General Public Licences India’s economic imbalances Shares of GDP – like a rich country – Agriculture 19% – Industry/technology sector strategies: Improving technology transfer from domestic science base Picking potential winners in high tech sector for public science funding Continuing general subsidies to R&D /

Regional Energy Outlook ASIA: India Mudit Narain, Laboratory for Energy and the Environment Massachussetts Insitute of Technology Zehra Ali, Mechanical.

emissions reduced Final test: Number of people brought out of poverty, lives improved, value generated in a climate and environmentally friendly way Sustainable energy perspective Solutions in Energy that incorporate innovation, affordability, cultural acceptability for : –Household use –Commercial (health, education) –Food security (agriculture) –Small scale industries and sub sectors India and China The peoples whose time has come. Thank you Questions?? zehraali@mit/

BIOTECH SUPPLY October 8-9, 2012 Crowne Plaza, Foster City, CA Opportunities and Challenges of Pharma Outsourcing in India and China A comparative evaluation.

market are still small Source: China Pharma Association India Pharma. Association, Various 2010 10K WW ~$700B/$35B Overview of Indian and Chinese Pharmaceutical Industries -India The Indian generic pharmaceuticals industry was born in the early 1970s when the government of India abolished product patents in favor of process patents – Created a vibrant private sector generics industry that served the captive domestic market and established chemistry skills, manufacturing scale and cost/

Meaning Development banks are financial agencies that provide medium and long term financial assistance and act as catalytic agents in promoting balanced.

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) (2) IDBI Bank Ltd. (3) IDBI Capital Market Services Ltd. (4) IDBI Investment Management Company Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India was established as a joint stock company in the private sector in/ backward areas and small scale industries Functions of State Financial Corporation 1) Grant of loans and advances to or subscribe to debentures of industrial concerns repayable within/

1 Maharashtra GATEWAY TO INDIA For updated information, please visit AUGUST 2012.

GATEWAY TO INDIA Key Investment Promotion Offices … (1/3) For updated information, please visit AgencyDescriptionContact Information Directorate of Industries The work of the Directorate of Industries, Maharashtra state, is mainly confined to the development and progress of large-scale, small-scale and cottage industries in the state. The Department of Industries was reorganised and the Directorate of Industries was formed in August 1960. Control of cottage industries was transferred/


capacity can be established in India to produce 18 crore tones of cement providing employment to 30 lakh people. Cement production at tiny scale will cost Rs.70 per bag. Huge scope for engineers to decentralize cement industry. CEMENT FOR SLAVERY? OR/ OF SOLAR COOKERS 15 crores of domestic parabolic OR funnel solar cookers can work in India. 25 lakhs of small community parabolic solar cookers can be established in India. 2 lakh village blacksmiths can make parabolic cooker for Rs.3000 and community cooker/

Project and Reports. Project  Project: A whole complex of activities involved in using resources to gain benefits  A Project has three attributes (i)

are required to form a cooperative society. In case of multi- state cooperative societies the minimum number should be 50 from each state. (d) Registration of the Society: In India, cooperative societies are registered under the /Small Scale Inddustries  A small-scale industry is one in which the investment in plant & machinery is less than Rs. 1 crore.  When investment is less than Rs. 25 Lakhs it qualifies to be treated as a “Tiny” sector SSI. Small Scale Industries  Registration of a small scale/


Laboratories Industry Needs and Expectations Large industrial houses have the resources to invest in technology development but Academic participation is often needed in minor technological innovation Medium & small scale industry, often depend on support in / Entrepreneurship Network (NEN) –National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN) to develop the next generation of high growth entrepreneurship in India –IISER –IISER devoted to science education and research –NFSE –NFSE to oversee and funds research & new/


1 ECONOMIC STATISTICS PROGRAMME IN INDIA by S.K.Nath, INDIA 2 MAIN PROGRAMMES ON ECONOMIC STATISTICS Annual Surveys of Industries (ASI) Annual Surveys of Industries (ASI) Economic Census Economic Census Country-wide Large Scale Sample Surveys Country-wide Large Scale Sample Surveys Census of Registered Small Scale Industries Census of Registered Small Scale Industries 3 CHALLENGES Under Economic Statistics there is no Statistical Act for data collection, except for ASI Under Economic Statistics/

During the 19th Century there were attempts to follow the example of the West in religion and in social and political reform. Educated India became growingly.

industrialization leads to a decline in Indias industrial growth rates. Skyrocketing world oil prices deeply affect the country, a large importer of oil. In agriculture, India ushers in /small-scale sector" to promote employment. These small producers are unable to compete for contracts with large, international buyers. 1980-1984: Indias share of world trade falls to 0.4 percent. Exports finance 60 percent of imports. By 1984, Rajiv Gandhi implements changes to stimulate Indias nascent high-tech industry/


of the private sector. Stress the role of cottage and village and small scale industries in the development of the national economy. Disparities in levels of development between different regions should be progressively reduced. Industrial Policy 1973 Certain structural distortions called for policy changes in IPR 1956 Provide for a closer interaction between the agricultural and industrial sectors Highest priority to the generation and transmission of power. Identify/

1 South-South Cooperation for Technology Transfer and Development of Small and Medium Enterprises: VIT Experiences Prof. D.P. Kothari, FNAE, FNASc Vice.

already working at Vellore and Coimbatore 18 Establishing and Managing Entrepreneurship Clubs (E-Clubs) in Southern India Expected outcomes: Provide solutions for common problems Enhancing the productivity and competitiveness of entrepreneurs Capacity building of micro and small enterprises Facilitate substantial economic of scale Provide management training Provide incubator services Representation to industry associations / other agencies 19 Support to SMEs through Business Incubation at VIT Technology/

Strategies in Mature Industries, High-Growth-Phase Industries, Declining Industries, Fragmented Industries Shailaja Menon Roll No. 24 Gautam PrabhukeluskarRoll.

Share in India’s GDP 2.1% to 3.6% Auto Component Makers / Auto Ancillary Industries Strategies in High-Growth-Phase Industries To tap this demand, domestic industry Needs to scale up significantly Should attract talent in a /be many small privately held firms) Can range from Charterered Accountant Firms / Law Firms / Restaurants to Cement players Strategies in Fragmented Industries Strategies at work – Strategic Alliances / Partnerships & Consolidation (witnessed in Indian Cement Industry in the past/


— Eligible Undertaking shall manufacture or produce any article or thing not being any article or thing specified in the list in the Eleventh Schedule, or operates one or more cold storage plant or plants, in any part of India. However in relation to a small-scale industrial undertaking or an industrial undertaking referred in section 80-IB(4) Eligible Undertaking shall manufacture or produce any article or thing, or operates/

AP World Review May 3, 2006 afternoon. Who takes the test s 21,000+ students took the test in 2002. s This was the most popular first-year exam in the.

–Inundation: regular flooding Schedule –Monarchy: Pharaoh and Small class of Priests –Duality: Complex Religion, Mummification /Dynasty –Established by Manchu People –Full Scale European Trade begins in China –Last Dynasty of China Japanese /in India –Central Asian Turkish adventurer invaded India in 1523, seized Delhi in 1526 –By his death in 1530, Mughal empire embraced most of India/Adam Smith actually from 1700s) s Proto-Industrialism and Industrialism s Liberalism, Radicalism, Conservatism s Antithesis/

SUBAITA ZUBAIR Introduction to Demography. Introduction Population growth is the single most important set of events ever to occur in human history, “the.

this growth is more intense in certain areas of the world, such as in Pakistan and in India, thus creating social problems/mortality is high, the number of surviving children may be small, and the supply may approximate the demand. Innovation/Diffusion/in society. In 1964, Reissman described it this way: Urbanization is social change on a vast scale. It means deep and irrevocable changes that alter all sectors of a society. In our own history [the United States] the shift from an agricultural to an industrial/

Entrepreneurship Management Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Prof Bharat Nadkarni.

family workers generally form the largest component of small- scale force. Entrepreneurship Management Importance of small scale industry Small scale industries play an important role in the process of country’s industrial development. It accounts for 40% of the total values of industrial production and contributes directly about 33% of aggregate exports. In a developing country like India it is a small scale industry that constitutes the backbone of industrial structure. Its development has created vast/

INDUSTRIAL POLICY OF INDIA Kamal Singh Lecturer in Economics GCCBA -42 Chd.

left to the initiative and enterprise of the private sector. 13.The Government of India would stress the role of cottage and village and small scale industries in the development of the national economy. 14. Disparities in levels of development between different regions should be progressively reduced. INDUSTRIAL POLICY FEBRUARY 2, 1973 1.The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 still remained valid, but certain structural distortions had crept/

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all there. Small wonder then, that executives from India’s best-known companies are subscribed to afaqs! Reporter. Available on barter via Ormita Alive Journalism, important national issues, international affairs, Indian economy, industry and technology / Radio Noida Radio NOIDA-107.4 FM is a community radio in the truest sense of a community radio format. A Community Radio gets license for small-scale, not-for-profit radio stations operated for/

Media Concentration and Ownership in Global Comparison Eli Noam Professor of Finance and Economics Garrett Professor of Public Policy and Business Responsibility.

small countries that maintain nevertheless a fairly rich assortment of media voices. On the other extreme are countries that are large as well as poor, and there the number of voices per capita is the smallest– China, India, Egypt, Mexico 165 Note also the difference of voices in industrialized/the media sector are those of high fixed costs, low marginal costs, 296 And thus there are high economies of scale and high network effects. And this means oligioply, at best. So if you do not like that equilibrium – /

Trade and Investment Environment in India S K Verma, Deputy Director General, India Taipei Association, Taipei.

in which they have equity participation in India.  c. Trading of hi-tech items/items requiring specialised after sales service  d. Trading of items for social sector  e. Trading of high-tech, medical and diagnostic items.  f. Trading of items sourced from the small scale/to Delhi thrice a week.  Some business/industry associations have collaborative MoUs. January 9, 2004 S K Verma, India Taipei Association : b78ita@ms24.hinet.net36 Fortune 500 & Major MNCs in India Telecom  AT&T  Swiss Telecom  /

Mineral reserves or Ore reserves that are valuable and legally and economically and technically feasible to extract Mineral resources in India are adequately.

Salt.Manganese OreCoalBauxiteMicaIronSalt Further, there other varieties too that are not found in abundance. The Mining industry in India is a major economic activity which contributes significantly to the economy of India. The GDP contribution of the mining industry varies from 2.2% to 2/5% only but going by the GDP of the total industrial sector it contributes around 10% to 11% Coal is abundantly available/

1 Module 3 Chapter 10: Imperfect Markets and Fallible Governments: The Role of the State in Industrial Development Lall Arab Open University - Beirut.

stable and competitive environment. First, FDI can take a small economy a long way if it is carefully selected /in India in skill generation, and there was widespread illiteracy. R&D scientists and engineers were 150 people per million in India (versus 1283 in South Korea). R&D scientists and engineers were 150 people per million in India (versus 1283 in South Korea). R&D in India accounts for 1% of GDP (versus 2.1% in Korea). There are few linkages between technology institutions and industry. R&D in India/

National Accreditation Board for Education & Training (NABET) Quality Council of India Accreditation.

Udyog Mahamandal (SVUM) Aluminium Association of India South Gujarat Textile Processors Association (SGTPA) ALL INDIA STAINLESS STEEL INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION (AISSIA) Federation of Indian Micro and Small & Medium enterprises (FISME)In process of Filing Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FKCCI)In process of Filing All India Association of Industries (AIAI) Manufacturer Association of IT (MAIT) MP Small Scale Industrial Organisation (MPSSIO) All India Flat Tape Mfgrs. Association, (AIFTMA/

Industrial Policy in India Pre-91 and post-91 phase.

Industrial Policy in India Pre-91 and post-91 phase Industrial Policy up to 1991 Reservation of Industries Dominance of Public Sector Industrial licensing Restriction on growth Restriction on foreign capital and technology Reservation of Industries Reservation for the public sector Reservation for the small scale industries Dominance of Public Sector IPR 1948 – Public sector monopoly in 9 industries IPR 56 – 17 most important industries were exclusively reserved for Public Sector PSU gained control/

India Truth alone triumphs. Present 5,000 year old ancient civilization 5,000 year old ancient civilization 325 languages spoken – 1,652 dialects 325.

exponentially. Sequencing genes and delivering genomic information for big Pharmaceutical companies is the next boom industry in India. India: Foreign Multi-National Companies Top 5 American employers in India: General Electric:: 17,800 employees Hewlett-Packard: 11,000 employees IBM: 6,000/ centre. It is the largest software centre for Philips outside Holland. Bangalore. Established in 2002 with just two people, has scaled up to 20 specialists today. Plans exist to double its headcount by the beginning of/

Part 1 - Amara Raja Group Profile Part 2 - A synopsis of Indian Economy & Growing sectors in India a. Electronics Hardware & Electronics Systems Design.

Plant which started operations in 1990. How we transformed (Industrial Battery Plant) AMARA RAJA BATTERIES LTD Amara Raja Batteries Ltd – Automotive Battery Plant which started operations in 2004. How we transformed (Automotive Battery Plant) AMARA RAJA BATTERIES LTD Amara Raja Batteries Ltd – Small Battery Plant which started operations in 2008. How we transformed (Small Battery Plant) AMARA RAJA BATTERIES LTD WORLD CLASS & WORLD SCALE One of the/

Information Technology Key Techno-Economic Driver of 21st Century

, Intel, CISCO, DELL have major R&D centers in India – The biggest outside US Monsato - R & D base in India - first outside USA GE - T9he Jack Welch Research Center in Bangalore HP Labs India has built a Prototype that Scan Handwritten Mail through a Small Handheld Device The Daimler Chrysler Research Center in Bangalore engaged in Fundamental and Applied Research in Avionics, Simulation and Software Development Whirlpool’s Pune Research/

Study to Size the Counterfeit Market for Auto Components in India

Also according to experts, counterfeit components should constitute not more than 30%-40% of the total replacement market in India Source: Depth Interviews Size of auto components industry in India : Rs.38200 crores (approx) Share of OE sales and exports ~ Rs. 28000 crores (approx) Share/ types of genuine components especially in Northern region where counterfeiting is being done at a very large scale Non-metros and small towns to be given equal importance if not more in terms of education Summarizing… Key/


which Manufacturing, Industrial and GDP growth remained at 8.7%, 8.0% and 7.6% resp. 16 1990-91 2006-07 SME IN INDIA 35.7 lakh SME units (2003) Employment Generation in SSI 295 lakh Share in Industrial value added 39/ of their gross annual income as per Income Tax return. (iii) For Small Scale Industrial Units, Small Scale Services & Business Enterprises (SSSBEs) including tiny sector units the assessment norms in vogue as per the Nayak Committee recommendations. To provide hassle free financial support /

Issues in Capital Account And Current Account Transactions

meeting the minimum investment criteria Continuous requirement to invest 50% in backend capital expenditure may be difficult to achieve Mandatory sourcing of 30% from small scale industries Challenges in achieving economies of scale and consistency in quality Increase in cost on account of procurement in small quantity and training of multiple suppliers Challenges associated with switching to another supplier when small scale supplier outgrows its size Transfer of Shares Transfer of shares/

Trade Policy, Inequality and Performance in Indian Manufacturing Kunal Sen IDPM, University of Manchester.

shares of different industries in overall manufacturing output (w i), increasing the output of exportables and reducing output of import competing industries. Finally, trade can have an impact on employment by changing labour coefficients within industries (L/Q)i. These three impacts can be referred to as the scale effect, the composition effect, and the process effect of trade. Factor Content of India’s Manufacturing Exports/

Solutions Road Show 2014 March’ 2014 | India Amey Divekar Lead Technologist Dell Networking Right size your Data Centre Networking.

India Confidential Fabrics from small-scale to hyper-scale Server/VM density 10s Servers/VMs 100s Servers/VMs 1000s Servers/VMs 10000s Servers/VMs Embedded and top-of-rack fabrics Highly-scalable, cost-effective spine/leaf fabrics Fabric scale 9 Confidential 10 Solutions Road Show 2014 March’ 2014 | India Confidential 10 Confidential Scale-Out: A new benchmark in/ game in this era is about VM’s Software Defined Networks ….. and networks participate mainstream Traditional mainframe type industry Millions /

India “Truth alone triumphs”. Contents India in the New Millennium Great Indians Quotes on India Civilized Past Indian Philosophy Sights of India The.

.  Sequencing genes and delivering genomic information for big Pharmaceutical companies is the next boom industry in India. India: Foreign Multi-National Companies Top 5 American employers in India: General Electric:: 17,800 employees Hewlett-Packard: 11,000 employees IBM: 6,000 employees/ centre. It is the largest software centre for Philips outside Holland. Bangalore. Established in 2002 with just two people, has scaled up to 20 specialists today. Plans exist to double its headcount by the beginning of/

Regional Economic Cooperation in South Asia Kathmandu, 14-16 August 2006 Special Treatment for LDCs in SAFTA With a special examination of what they will.

Bangladesh will also account for 22% of increase in labour force in LDCs between 2000-10. Background Growth in Bangladesh Economy attributed to rapid growth in mainly services, construction and small scale industry on account of demand stimulus from Growth in Bangladesh Economy attributed to rapid growth in mainly services, construction and small scale industry on account of demand stimulus from a. Growth of garment industry b. Remittances c. Growing agricultural income Osmani/

Overview of the Indian Economy and Related Opportunities by Marvin Hildebrand Consul General of Canada in Mumbai.

Growth  Foreign Direct Investment Policy  Governance, Delays  Infrastructure Needs  Scale (a.k.a. opportunity) 9 Scale in India means…  World’s largest producer of milk, and second-largest producer of wheat and rice  6,600 companies on the Bombay Stock Exchange  World’s second-largest pharmaceutical industry after China  World’s second-largest small car market  World’s second-largest group of software developers  100 Fortune/

Impacts of the EU-India FTA on Human and Social Rights Civil Society and the EU-India FTA 22 nd January 2014 1/22/2014Chanda Korgaokar, EIAS1.

from India in the international market of European countries and that will bring in economic growth. Opening up of markets will bring in improved technology whose benefits will be largely skewed to male labourers and farmers with large land holdings. It will displace female labour in the informal sector. For ex. In Agriiculture, Garment and Waste Picking industry. Due to lack of proper infrastructure, lack of credit, small/


Ahuja, Amexs head of public affairs and communications for India and area countries “The new operations in India will include processing activities such as voice-based customer support/scale in investment BO operations small portion of costs and not perceived as core activity T+1 likely viewed as compliance event Although investment per company less than brokers/dealers or custodians, relative savings even less resulting in longer payback period Despite little economics incentive for asset managers, industry/

Globalization and the Financial Crisis in Southeast Asia

industry to renegotiate, but mortgage companies are being overwhelmed by a tidal wave of cases. Scale and Spread Collapse of the government backed mortgage system in/ crisis …and in Euroland to an increase in bank lending rates Lending rates on new loans with 1-5 year fixed rates Consumer credit Mortgages Small corporations Large corporations/in China. India is at the center of the debate on offshore outsourcing. Dynamism of the IT sector in India contributed to high growth in the last years. But India/


and flexibility. Rail is preferred because of containerization facility and ease in transporting ship-containers and wooden crates. In order to encourage trade by small scale industries, Indian Railways has started a “road-railer”system where container vehicles/and establishing cold chain from production to consumption is required FEDERATION OF FREIGHT FORWARDERS ASSOCIATIONS IN INDIA D) Horticulture Production- India may be among one of the world’s leading producers of horticulture products but more /


GENERATION UNDER EXISTING SYSTEM FARM LABOURS HAMALS COMMISSION AGENTS BROKERS TRANSPORTERS TEA SHOP OWNERS HOTELS DHABAS SHOP KEEPERS HAWKERS CONSUMER COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES SMALL SCALE-INDUSTRIES & MANUFACTURERES 21 Implications of large Multinational & Corporate Retailers in Retail Trade All the traders will be rendered jobless. India is very different country where the markets have evolved over hundred’s of years. The traders made redundant will struggle to/

National Development Banks in comparative perspective

the central bank began administering a credit guarantee scheme for small-scale industries from July 1960. With a view to supporting various term-financing institutions, the RBI set up the National Industrial Credit (Long-Term Operations) Fund from the year 1964-65. The infrastructure The industrial finance infrastructure consisted of the Industrial Finance Corporation of India (established in 1948), the State Financial Institutions set up under an Act/

Presented By: Dr. P. Sekhar Chairman & Managing Director, Micro Technologies (India) Ltd.

– 47; 5.Total Dams – 4,300; 6.Major Dams – 256; 7.Ponds & Tanks – 22,000 (in sq. Kms). INDUSTRY SECTOR 1.Small scale Units – 13,74,974; 2.Unregistered Small Scale Units – 91,46,216; 3.Aluminums / Steel related Plants – 40 / 39; 4.Vehicle related Factories – 592;/ selected out of 12000 reputed companies. 8.Chosen as one of the fastest growing companies in India by Deloitte for its ‘Deloitte Technology Fast 50 (India) Award’ and ‘Deloitte Technology Fast 500 Asia Pacific’ Award for the second consecutive years/

Commercial Hydroponics- Is It Viable? 6/26/2015Presentation is copyright of ISH, India Presented by Lt Cdr (retd) CV Prakash, IN CEO, Chief Visionary.

Industry in India. 6/26/2015Presentation is copyright of ISH, India Capital costs. Trained Manpower. Education required. Attention to shifting market demands. Attention to crop growing or cultural practices. Knowledge of IPM. Knowledge of Environment Controls in /pricing of produce. Product not tailored as per demand. Profitability is Linked to…….. Industry profitability is directly linked to… Production scale, increasing returns to increasing size. Ability to supply promised amount with quality and /

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