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Chapter 11 Section 1 - The Crusades.

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1 Chapter 11 Section 1 - The Crusades

2 Palestine *Also known as the Holy Land *Sacred to both Christians
*Located along east coast of Med Sea *Also known as the Holy Land *Sacred to both Christians and Muslims (and Jews…) *Essentially today’s Israel (& now Palestinian Authority areas)

3 SELJUK TURKS *Warlike people who: - conquer Palestine in the 1000’s ad
- attack Byzantine Empire - persecute Christian pilgrims(?)

4 BYZANTINE EMPIRE *Former Eastern Roman Empire
*Capital city was Constantinople *When Turks attack them their emperor asks the Pope in Rome for help

5 Pope Urban II *At Council of Clermont in A.D he calls for a “crusade” to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims (also called or known as Saracens, Turks, Moors, Infidels, etc.)

6 The Crusades *(Christian) Military and religious expeditions to regain the Holy Lands (from the Muslims)

7 Maps of the Crusades

8 PEASANT’S CRUSADE *Peter the Hermit and others lead 15,000 – 30,000 untrained commoners (and a few poor knights) toward Jerusalem *They get slaughtered!

9 FIRST CRUSADE 1096-1099 Led by norman french knights
Battle of Jerusalem: Jerusalem falls after a siege and Crusaders then slaughter thousands of the city’s residents ~ Set up Crusader States of: >Kingdom of Jerusalem >Edessa >Antioch > Tripoli

10 Second Crusade 1147 -1149 JERUSALEM
French & German knights return home in failure after two years without liberating any towns

11 THE THIRD CRUSADE 1189 - 1192 Frederick Barbarosa
*Also called the Crusade of the Three Kings *CRUSADE LEADERS INCLUDE: Frederick Barbarosa *Holy Roman Emperor (Ger) *He dies in a river crossing and his army goes home

12 Richard the lionheart of england
Philip II of France *He has falling out with Richard and goes home too

13 S A L D I N Saladin – the most well known and successful Muslim
*Salah-al-Din Saladin – the most well known and successful Muslim leader of the Crusades *3RD Crusade essentially becomes a fight between Richard and the Muslim leader Saladin *Richard eventually settles for a truce and the right for Christians to enter Jerusalem and he goes home too, ending the 3rd Crusade

*Crusaders, at Venice’s urging, attack Christian cities of Zadar, and more importantly, Constantinople (VENICE)

15 Constantinople is weakened (and so is the Byzantine
ZADAR CONSTANTINOPLE *RESULTS: Constantinople is weakened (and so is the Byzantine Empire in general) 2. Entire army is excommunicated (by the Pope)

16 CHILDREN’S CRUSADE 1212 Group of children think they can succeed where their elders failed *RESULT: Some turned back by the Pope Some sold into slavery

17 *Pogroms, or persecution, against Jews also
a tragic chapter of the Crusades (every time a Crusade was launched toward the Holy Land, crusaders brutalized and killed Jewish People along the way…)

MILITARY – all but first were military failures, but Western Christians did gain knowledge about castles, siege tactics, and new weapons 2. SOCIAL – loss of knights strengthens both kings and rising new middle class, and feudalism declines 3. ECONOMIC – trade greatly stimulated * The Italian city-states gain significant power

19 SEC 2 – REVIVAL OF TRADE ~ Italian city-states grew wealthy by acting as middlemen between the Middle East and Western Europe ~ Vikings traded between Northern and Eastern Europe ~ Flanders, Bruges, and Ghent became important cities in the trade of textiles and wool in NW Europe

20 Hanseatic League Powerful alliance of trading cities on the North and Baltic Seas Ex. Coined own money, had a strong navy, armies, signed treaties with kings, charged taxes on goods they sold, etc.


22 Luxury Goods from the East

23 European Goods

24 TRADE FAIRS *Local lords hosted fairs, provided protection to merchants and travelers, and charged taxes on goods sold

25 Champagne Region in Northern France along trade route between Italian City-States and Northern Europe *Some of the most famous trade fairs were held here

26 BANCA Money changers needed to determine value of the many
currencies brought to the fairs BANCA *Italian word that the English word “bank” comes from *Usury was the charging of high interest on loans *Letters of credit – the forerunner of today’s checks *Capital – money to invest in business ventures

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