Presentation on theme: "An epic 1000 years in the making…. The Seljuk Turks In 1055, a Turkish leader captured Baghdad and claimed himself sultan, or “holder of power.” Under."— Presentation transcript:
The Seljuk Turks In 1055, a Turkish leader captured Baghdad and claimed himself sultan, or “holder of power.” Under new Turkish leadership, the Arab Empire began to increase pressure on their neighbors, the Byzantine Empire…
Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asks western Europe for help against the Turks. Seeing an opportunity, Pope Urban II challenged Christians to join in a holy war at the Council of Clermont in 1095. –Offered forgiveness of sins for those who participated. The Council of Clermont (1095)
Goals of the Crusades… 1.Save the Byzantine Empire -The Byzantine Empire were threatened by the Turks. 2.Retake Jerusalem -The Islamic Empire (and faith) had been spreading by 638AD it had captured the city of Jerusalem -By 1071AD the Seljuk Turks were persecuting Christians living there. 3.Spread Christianity 4.Increase the power of the Church and the Pope -The Catholic Church knew that, if successful, the Crusades would bring power and prestige to the Church. 5.End the feudal wars among nobility -The Pope hoped that sending knights off to war would reduce the conflicts between nobles at home.
So who joined? The holy war attracts both peasants and nobles –Why? Religious fervor Adventure and a change to fight Wealth and perhaps a title? –Overall, between 100,000 – 200,000 volunteer
Peasants and nobles from all over Western Europe make their way to Constantinople. –There, they must take an oath to Alexius I before continuing. To Constantinople!
The First Crusade Few members of the Peasants’ Crusade ever reach Constantinople. –Pillaged, stole, and murdered along the way. The main Crusade led by the nobles successfully takes Jerusalem in 1099. After, most of the crusaders returned home. –Some stay to establish the Four Crusader States. –“Islands of Christianity in a hostile sea of Islam”
Muslim forces recaptured Edessa in the 1140’s. Crusade sent to retake it fails miserably. –Gives Muslim forces a confidence boost. The Second Crusade X
Muslim leader Saladin retakes Jerusalem in 1187. Crusade is sent to retake it –Is successful at first Capture Acre –Later misfortunes ruin the Crusade Do not recapture Jerusalem –Establish a treaty with Saladin to allow safe passage for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. –Richard the Lionhearted The Third Crusade X
Pope Innocent III tries to establish the Fourth Crusade as a holy cause –Instead, it is led by Venetians who sack Constantinople in 1204. Were an economic competitor The Fourth Crusade
And the rest… There were several other Crusades of varying focus and success. Children’s Crusades –Italian Children’s Crusade is sent home by the Pope. –French Children’s Crusade ends in tragedy.
Goals of the Crusades… Accomplished? 1.Save the Byzantine Empire - Failed – Byzantine Empire is weakened and Constantinople is sacked in 1204! 2.Retake Jerusalem - Failed – Jerusalem remains in Muslim control. 3.Spread Christianity - Failed – Islamic world is left united and strengthened 4.Increase the power of the Church and the Pope - Success – Papacy gains much power (at first) 5.End the feudal wars among nobility -Success – Stops feudal warfare, unites kingdoms, and helps end feudalism overall