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LT-1: Introduction to mobile communication & computing by Prof Weijia Jia ( 賈維嘉 ) SE-3-402

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Presentation on theme: "LT-1: Introduction to mobile communication & computing by Prof Weijia Jia ( 賈維嘉 ) SE-3-402"— Presentation transcript:

1 LT-1: Introduction to mobile communication & computing by Prof Weijia Jia ( 賈維嘉 ) SE-3-402 Email:; Tel: 185 21796516

2 Agenda What is Mobile Computing? Diversities Convergence History Summary – Top 10 Challenges 2

3 WHAT IS MOBILE COMPUTING? A simple answer => Performing computation in mobile units (i.e., mobile games, multimedia)  Mobile How to support mobility? Connected & communicate. Through a long wired/wireless links? Need to consider the scope of mobility and movement speed  Computing Activity of performing computations. What is computation? Define the logics (i.e., steps of completing a job and data structures to model the information).  Mobile Computing = Mobile + (Communications + Computation) 3

4 WHAT IS MOBILE? EXAMPLES  Mobile clients Browsing web in train/airplane Reading emails Playing mobile games on the way to a country park  Mobile servers Mobile server/hosts Connecting to a mobile game server  Mobile data and applications, i.e., Cross harbor tunnel payment system using RFID Tracking location information of goods in inventory control Finding the nearest restaurants for dinner 4

5 WHAT ARE MOBILE UNITS (HANDSETS)?  Concentrate on mobility, i.e., able to move around (still connected, how?)  Mobility No cable restricts the movement of users and entities in the system Different surrounding environment and locations roam/move among different wireless networks and occasionally may enter into a wired network (a heterogeneous networking system)  What are the mobile entities? Supporting mobile users (i.e., submitting requests) Supporting mobile hosts (i.e., providing services) Supporting mobile applications (i.e., systems) Supporting applications in mobile devices (i.e., interface for mobile users) 5

6 WHAT IS MOBILE COMPUTING? NOT just mobile communication Users prefer to have accesses to information/apps anytime, and anywhere  SHARE the wired and wireless networks (everywhere)  to access to APPLICATIONS (Mobile Services)  Network/apps everywhere 6 Mobile Devices Wireless Access Network Data Server, Other People, etc.

7 MOBILE COMPONENTS  Mobile communication provides an architecture/ system for connecting the entities (mobile units)  In addition to connections, we need to support mobile applications and manage them. What? How?  Three basic components Networks: mobile/wireless networks + wired networks (how to maintain the network quality and guaranteed services, … ) Devices and computing units (normally limited resources, i.e., processing power, memory, energy, devices) Apps (distributed apps with mobile users and mobile data, … ) 7

8 Mobile Communications  Demand for mobile communication creates the needs for integration of wireless networks into existing fixed networks: Local area networks: standardization of IEEE 802.11 Cellular networks: GSM (2G), 3G, 4G and ISDN, VoIP over WLAN … 8

9 WHAT ARE THE MOTIVATIONS FOR GOING MOBILE? Application Needs from End-Users + Growth of Computing (and other related) Technologies 9

10 APPLICATION EXAMPLE: SMART SPACES  We are living within (interact with) our environment  Environment: school, home, office, city, train, etc…  Interactions with the environment: eating, learning, reading, traveling, listening to music, etc..  Smart space: an environment embedded with computing devices (sensors) to detect your needs/status and perform jobs to react to your needs proactively (interactive)  Example: smart-home-- automatic adjustment of heating, cooling and lighting levels in a room based on occupant’s electronic profile 10

11 APPS: PROACTIVE SERVICES  Location-based services Different services are provided based on different locations of the users (or at different places) Emphasized on data and information delivery (broadcast and dissemination of information) I.e., shopping malls, schools, toilets What do you need when you are in a shopping mall?  Context-aware services Different services are provided based on different context detected in the system (situational)  Surveillance and triggering (monitor & react) Detecting system status (e.g. intruders? crisis?) Any emergence events -> timely responses (triggering) 11

12 12 Agenda What is Mobile Computing? Diversities Old Mobile handsets Networks Challenges Convergence Summary

13 13 OLD MOBILE HANDSETS (MH) MHs include smartphones and PAD (iPad) provides services to users: Managing address book Scheduling calendar Cellular telephony Accessing Internet, email Example handsets: Apple iPhone, iPad, BlackBerry Storm, Palm TreoPro, T-Mobile

14 OLD MOBILE HANDSETS 14 The visible but smallest part of the network!

15 15 What’s inside a Mobile Handset? Source: [3] 15

16 WIRELESS NETWORK INGREDIENTS: ANTENNAS 16 Still visible – cause many discussions…

17 WIRELESS NETWORK INGREDIENTS: INFRASTRUCTURE 17 Base Stations Cabling Microwave links

18 WIRELESS NETWORK INGREDIENTS: INFRASTRUCTURE 18 Switching units Data bases Management Monitoring Not “visible”, but comprise the major part of the network (also from an investment point of view…)

19 ROAD TRAFFIC APPS 19 ad hoc GSM, 3G, WLAN, Bluetooth, WiMAX, LTE... Personal Travel Assistant, PDA, Laptop, Sensors

20 RFIDs (“Smart Labels and Identifiers”)  A label for identification and counting (simplify the identification process)  Like a low-end smart card with memory and processing power (embedded device)  Identify objects from a short distance (~10m to 100m) small IC with RF-transponder  Wireless energy supply magnetic field (induction)  Read/writeable  Low Cost => ~$0.1... $1 consumable and disposable  Flexible tags laminated with paper 20

21 SMART CLOTHING  Conductive textiles and inks Print electrically active patterns directly onto fabrics  Sensors based on fabric e.g., monitor pulse, blood pressure, body temperature  Invisible collar microphones  Kidswear Game console on the sleeve? Integrated GPS-driven locators? integrated small cameras (to keep the parents calm)? 21

22 Today’s Wearable Computers 22  Wearable computers: the computers that you can wear Simplified I/O (reduced display) and voice input together with simple panel to make it more easy to use Compact design to make it easy to carry (reduce unnecessary components)  What can you do with this devices?  Easy to operate and fit into your working environment  What will be the future wearable computers?

23 Introduction 1-23 “Cool” Robot

24 BODY AREA NETWORKS (BAN)  Networks are required to integrate the components to form a system  Very low current (some nA), some kb/s through the human body  Possible applications: Health monitor Car recognize driver Pay when touching the door of a bus Phone configures itself when it is touched  Various network scales: WAN, LAN, PAN Different performance Different connectivity Like a road system with different connectivity and performance 24

25 PERSONAL AREA NETWORK (PAN)  Various network configurations: Static vs. dynamic Dynamic: ad hoc network  Ad hoc network: changing configuration and workload  How to group and connect? 25 PAN: Personal area network

26 26 IMAGE APPS Fun MH image apps, e.g., Finger-painting (iPhone, free) iSwap Faces (iPhone, $3)

27 27 AUDIO APPS Shazam (iPhone, BlackBerry, and Android, free) Recognizes music tracks StreamFurious (Android, free) Plays streaming audio from the Internet

28 28 VIDEO APPS YouTube Available for almost every MH platform DVD to Go Available for almost every MH platform [16] Converts DVDs and videos to a format you can watch on an handset

29 29 GAMES Many games available Some are ported from other platforms to MHs, e.g., Assassin’s Creed (iPhone) Tetris (many) Guitar Hero (iPhone, Android)

30 30 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES Android developers can sell their apps in Google’s Android Market Costs: $25 to join (one-time) $400 for unlocked dev phone (can buy T-Mobile G1 for less) Devs must agree to Google’s terms of use to sell apps in Market Development kit is (mostly) open source (Win/Mac/Linux) Cheaper to develop than for iPod touch/iPhone

31 31 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES (2) iPhone OS developers can sell their App Store Costs: $100/year to sell on App Store $300/year to distribute in- house (enterprise) iPod touch/iPhone cost ≥ $200 (+ service for iPhone) Devs must agree to Apple’s terms of use SDK only available for Mac Licensing and costs are more restrictive than for Android, but devs can reach more users

32 32 MOBILE PHONE: YOUR NEXT COMPUTER? Mobile phones are expected to propel growth, to climb to 147 million shipments in 2012, a 16% year-on-year increase. 4.5 billion mobile phone subscriptions as of Jan. 2010 >3 billion subscriptions correspond to one person; some people have multiple phones! Young adults replace phones every 6 months in South Korea In HK, ~8-12 months What about young people in China ? These statistics are just for phones

33 33 DIVERSITIES: MOBILE PHONE MICROPROCESSORS Mobile Phone s use embedded processors Intel, ARM dominate: BlackBerry 8700 -- Intel PXA901 chip iPhone -- Samsung ARM 1100 chip Low power use and code size are crucial Vendors package all the chip’s functionality in a single chip (package-on-package)-- maximum flexibility

34 34 ANDROID MOBILE PHONE PLATFORM Android -- development platform for Mobile Phone s -- based on Linux Google and Open Handset Alliance (OHA) for different Mobile Phone manufacturers T-Mobile G1 -- 1 st Android-based Mobile Phone HTC 34

35 35 MOBILE PHONE-OS WAR Smartphone operating systems Gartner's analysis of global Q3 2011 smartphone sales hit Q3 2011 at 115 M, shows the Android operating system dominating market share (rounded to nearest percentage point):analysis A comScore survey from September 2011 for the USsurvey Smartphone sales set to double in 2012 Source: Gartner (November 2011) Source: comScore (November 2011)

36 36 MOBILE PHONE OS 36 PeriodAndroid iOSWindows PhoneBlackBerry OSOthers 2015Q282.8%13.9%2.6% 0.3%0.4% 2014Q284.8%11.6%2.5%0.5%0.7% 2013Q279.8%12.9%3.4%2.8%1.2% 2012Q269.3%16.6%3.1%4.9%6.1% Source: IDC, Aug 2015


38 38 WINDOWS OS Windows Mobile development tools include: Plugins for MS Visual Studio 2005, 2008, etc. SDKs for Windows Mobile-based handsets Microsoft gives away Visual Studio to students for free with its DreamSpark program Microsoft gave up old Windows Mobile and just lunched Windows Mobile 7 or Windows Phone 7

39 39 BLACKBERRY INTERNET SERVICES BlackBerry Internet Service leverages centrally-hosted wireless gateways, allowing users to access up to 10 supported email accounts, browse Internet 39

40 40 Agenda Background Diversities Wireless Networks Mobile handsets Convergence Summary

41 41 WIRELESS NETWORKS Many Mobile Phone s support both cellular telephony and wireless networking: Wireless IEEE 802.11 (longer range) Bluetooth (100 m max, 10 m for handsets) Infrared Data Association (IrDA) Wired USB, etc.

42 BLUETOOTH Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Voice and data transmission, approx. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate Max bandwidth is 3 Mbps for Bluetooth 2.x with Enhanced Data Rate 42 One of the first modules (Ericsson).

43 43 IEEE 802.11 Networks wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)

44 44 Regional: Satellite Cellular networks-- GSM, UMTS (3G), HSPA(3.5G) 4G (LTE?) Metropolitan area: Cellular networks WiMAX(?) Campus-based: Cellular networks WiFi, RFID; Sensors(?) in-car, in-house, personal area Bluetooth; Sensors; Femtocells (?) Vertical Diversity Horizontal Diversity Network Diversity

45 SIMPLE REFERENCE MODEL 45 Application Transport Network Data Link Physical Medium Data Link Physical Application Transport Network Data Link Physical Data Link Physical Network Radio

46 Mobile and Wireless Services Always Best Connected 46 UMTS 2 Mbit/s UMTS, GSM 384 kbit/s LAN 100 Mbit/s, WLAN 54 Mbit/s UMTS, GSM 115 kbit/s GSM 115 kbit/s, WLAN 11 Mbit/s GSM/GPRS 53 kbit/s Bluetooth 500 kbit/s GSM/EDGE 384 kbit/s, DSL/WLAN 3 Mbit/s DSL/ WLAN 3 Mbit/s

47 47 CELLULAR NETWORKS Think of cellular nets in terms of generations: 0G: Briefcase-size mobile radio telephones 1G: Analog cellular telephony 2G: Digital cellular telephony 3G: High-speed digital cellular telephony (video telephony) 4G: IP-based “anytime, anywhere” voice, data, and multimedia telephony at faster data rates than 3G (to be deployed in 2012–2015) 5G: …

48 48 2G GSM Two main 2G technologies: Global System for Mobile communications (GSM)  TDMA Interim Standard 95 (IS-95, aka cdmaOne™)  CDMA GSM is open, but Qualcomm owns all patents of CDMA IS-95 (1990s –1 st CDMA-based mobile standard Short Message Service (SMS) 1985 GSM standard -- at most 160 chars. (incl. spaces) Over 2.4 billion people use it; multi-billion $ industry

49 49 2.5/2.75G GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 2.5G telephony GSM upgrade to provide IP-based packet data transmission up to 114 kbps “always on” Internet access and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE) GSM revision that provides 3× GPRS’ data rate (max. 236.8 kbps). Preparing for 3G

50 50 3G AND UMTS CDMA2000, IS-95’s hybrid 2.5G/3G successor Telecos own trademarks “cdmaOne” and “CDMA2000” in the U.S. Three competing 3G technologies: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), TD-SCDMA (China) and CDMA2000 (North America) UMTS -- a 3G standard  4G standard, designed to replace GSM (aka 3GSM) with air interface W-CDMA, deployed in Europe and Asia

51 51 3.5G HSPA+, or Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, is a technical standard for wireless, broadband telecommunication. HSPA+ enhances the widely used WCDMA (UMTS) based 3G networks with higher speeds for the end user that are comparable to the newer LTE networks. HSPA+ was first defined in the technical standard 3GPP release 7 and expanded further in later releases. In the United States, it is commonly available under AT&T Mobility and T-Mobile US.

52 52 3.5G HSPA+ provides data rates up to 168 Mbit/s to the mobile device (downlink) and 22 Mbit/s from the mobile device (uplink). MIMO and higher order modulation (64QAM) or combining multiple cells into one with a technique known as Dual-Cell HSDPA. HSPA+ differs from LTE, which uses a new air interface based on OFDMA technology. HSPA+ is an evolution of HSPA that upgrades the existing 3G network and provides a method for telecom operators to migrate towards 4G speeds without deploying a new radio interface.

53 53 3.5G High Speed Packet Access (HSPA): High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)&High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) enhanced 3G mobile-telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also dubbed 3.5G, 3G+, or Turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data speeds and capacity. As of 2013 HSDPA deployments can support down-link speeds of up to 99.3 Mbit/s. HSPA+ offers speeds of up to 337.5 Mbit/s A further improved 3GPP standard, Evolved HSPA (also known as HSPA+), released late in 2008 with subsequent worldwide adoption beginning in 2010. bit-rates ->337 Mbit/s & 34 Mbit/s in the uplink.

54 54 4G 4G, short for fourth generation, is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G and preceding 5G. A 4G system, provides mobile broadband Internet access, amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.

55 55 4G Two 4G candidate systems: WiMAX (first used in South Korea in 2007), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009). In the US, Sprint has deployed Mobile WiMAX networks since 2008, while MetroPCS became the first operator to offer LTE service in 2010. LTE smartphones arriving in 2011. 3G /4G equipment made for other continents are not always compatible, because of different frequency bands. Mobile WiMAX is currently (April 2012) not available for the European market.

56 56 5G Data rates of several tens of Mb/s should be supported for tens of thousands of users. - 1 Gbit/s to be offered, simultaneously to tens of workers on the same office floor. - Up to Several 100,000's simultaneous connections to be supported for massive sensor deployments. - Spectral efficiency should be significantly enhanced compared to 4G. - Coverage should be improved - Signaling efficiency enhanced.

57 57 5G 第五代移动电话行动通信标准,指的是第五代移动通信技术,外语缩 写: 5G 。也是 4G 之后的延伸,目前正在研究中。目前中国还没有任 何电信公司或标准订定组织(像 3GPP 、 WiMAX 论坛及 ITU-R )的公开 规格或官方文件有提到 5G 。据央视 2015 年 03 月 01 日报道,英国《每 日邮报》报道,英国已成功研制 5G 网络,并进行 100 米内的传送数据 测试,数据传输高达 125GB ,是 4G 网络的 6.5 万倍,理论上 1 秒钟可下 载 30 部电影,并称于 2018 年投入公众测试, 2020 年正式投入商用。 第五代移动通信技术, 2014 年还没有一个具体标准。不过在有消息报 道韩国成功研发第五代移动通信技术,手机在利用该技术后无线下载 速度可以达到每秒 10G 。这一新的通信技术名为 “ 流浪本地无线接入 ” (外语: NOmadic Local Area wireless access 、外语缩写: NOLA )。 而作为全球最大的电信设备商华为日前已正式宣布,其目前已经在包 括加拿大、英国等地为 5G 投入 200 多位研发人员,并将在未来 5 年内 为此继续投资 6 亿美元。

58 WIRELESS SYSTEMS: OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT cellular phonessatellites wireless LAN/MAN cordless phones 1992: GSM 1994: DCS 1800 2001: IMT-2000 1987: CT1+ 1982: Inmarsat-A 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1998: Iridium 1989: CT 2 1991: DECT 199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802.11 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 1988: Inmarsat-C analogue digital 1991: D-AMPS 1991: CDMA 1981: NMT 450 1986: NMT 900 1980: CT0 1984: CT1 1983: AMPS 1993: PDC 2000: GPRS 2000: IEEE 802.11a 2009: 4 th Generation-LTE 5G – Fifth generation: when and how? 2006: IEEE 802.16 2002: WCDMA/CDMA2000 TD-SCDMA 58

59 AREAS OF RESEARCH IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION Wireless Communication transmission quality (bandwidth, error rate, delay) modulation, coding, interference media access, regulations... Mobility location dependent services location transparency quality of service support (delay, jitter, security)... Portability power consumption limited computing power, sizes of display,... usability... 59

60 INFLUENCE OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION TO THE LAYER MODEL service location new applications, multimedia adaptive applications congestion and flow control quality of service addressing, routing, device location hand-over authentication media access multiplexing media access control encryption modulation interference attenuation frequency Application layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer 60

61 LECTURES FLOWS ON MOBILE COMPUTING Wireless Transmission Medium Access Control Telecommunication Systems Ad-hoc/Sensor Networks *Broadcast Systems Wireless LAN/MAN Mobile Network Concepts Mobile Transport Layer Mobile IP/Wireless TCP Support for Mobility 61

62 EARLY HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION Many people in history used light for communication heliographs, flags (“semaphore”),... 150 BC smoke signals for communication; (Polybius, Greece) (“The return of the King”) ( 烽火戯諸侯 ) 1794, optical telegraph, Claude Chappe Electromagnetic waves are of special importance: 1831 Faraday demonstrates electromagnetic induction J. Maxwell (1831-79): theory of electromagnetic Fields, wave equations (1864) H. Hertz (1857-94): demonstrates with an experiment the wave character of electrical transmission through space (1888, in Karlsruhe, Germany, at the location of today’s University of Karlsruhe) 62

63 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION I 1896Guglielmo Marconi first demonstration of wireless telegraphy (digital!) long wave transmission, high transmission power necessary (> 200kw) 1907Commercial transatlantic connections huge base stations (30 100m high antennas) 1915Wireless voice transmission New York - San Francisco 1920Discovery of short waves by Marconi reflection at the ionosphere smaller sender and receiver, possible due to the invention of the vacuum tube (1906, Lee DeForest and Robert von Lieben) 1926Train-phone on the line Hamburg - Berlin wires parallel to the railroad track 63

64 64/54 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION II 1928 many TV broadcast trials (across Atlantic, color TV, TV news) 1933 Frequency modulation (E. H. Armstrong) 1958A-Netz in Germany analog, 160MHz, connection setup only from the mobile station, no handover, 80% coverage, 1971 11000 customers 1972B-Netz in Germany analog, 160MHz, connection setup from the fixed network too (but location of the mobile station has to be known) available also in A, NL and LUX, 1979 13000 customer in D 1979NMT at 450MHz (Scandinavian countries) 1982Start of GSM-specification goal: pan-European digital mobile phone system with roaming 1983Start of the American AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System, analog) 1984CT-1 standard (Europe) for cordless telephones

65 65/54 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION III 1986C-Netz in Germany analog voice transmission, 450MHz, hand-over possible, digital signaling, automatic location of mobile device Was in use until 2000, services: FAX, modem, X.25, e-mail, 98% coverage 1991Specification of DECT Digital European Cordless Telephone (today: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) 1880-1900MHz, ~100-500m range, 120 duplex channels, 1.2Mbit/s data transmission, voice encryption, authentication, up to several 10000 user/km 2, used in more than 50 countries 1992Start of GSM in D as D1 and D2, fully digital, 900MHz, 124 channels automatic location, hand-over, cellular roaming in Europe - now worldwide in more than 200 countries services: data with 9.6kbit/s, FAX, voice,...

66 66/54 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION IV 1994E-Netz in Germany GSM with 1800MHz, smaller cells As Eplus in D (1997 98% coverage of the population) 1996HiperLAN (High Performance Radio Local Area Network) ETSI, standardization of type 1: 5.15 - 5.30GHz, 23.5Mbit/s recommendations for type 2 and 3 (both 5GHz) and 4 (17GHz) as wireless ATM-networks (up to 155Mbit/s) 1997Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11 IEEE standard, 2.4 - 2.5GHz and infrared, 2Mbit/s already many (proprietary) products available in the beginning 1998Specification of GSM successors for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) as European proposals for IMT-2000 Iridium 66 satellites (+6 spare), 1.6GHz to the mobile phone

67 67/54 HISTORY OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION V 1999 Standardization of additional wireless LANs IEEE standard 802.11b, 2.4-2.5GHz, 11Mbit/s Bluetooth for piconets, 2.4Ghz, <1Mbit/s Decision about IMT-2000 Several “members” of a “family”: UMTS, cdma2000, DECT, … Start of WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-mode First step towards a unified Internet/mobile communication system Access to many services via the mobile phone 2000 GSM with higher data rates HSCSD offers up to 57,6kbit/s First GPRS trials with up to 50 kbit/s (packet oriented!) UMTS auctions/beauty contests Hype followed by disillusionment (50 B$ paid in Germany for 6 licenses!) 2001 Start of 3G systems Cdma2000 in Korea, UMTS tests in Europe, Foma (almost UMTS) in Japan

68 SUMMARY  Research Guide: The Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2015  Gartner's top 10 strategic technology trends for 2015 are prime enablers for new digital business opportunities.  The research looks at these trends' disruptive power, which stems from merging virtual and physical worlds, the growth of intelligence everywhere, and the emerging new realities of IT. 68

69 SUMMARY: RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS  1: Computing Everywhere is Changing How People Experience the World  2: Internet of Things Brings the Power of Device Ecosystems to Your Enterprise  *3: 3D Printing is Approaching a Critical Inflection Point  4: Advanced, Pervasive and Invisible Analytics Turn Every Application into an Analytical Application Delivering Actionable Insights to Consumers  5: Context-Rich Systems Provide Agility and Proactive Responsiveness 69

70 SUMMARY: RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS  6: Smart Machines Extend Humankind's Ability to Address Complex Situations  7: Cloud/Client Computing Will Emerge to Unify Cloud and Mobile Strategies  8: Software-Defined Architecture is required for Dynamic, Agile, Flexible Systems to Support Digital Business  9: Web-Scale IT is Required to Keep Pace With Digital Innovation and Competitive Threats  10: Digital Business Demands Risk-Based Security and Self-Protection 70

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