Presentation on theme: "South Africa. A Brief History of S. Africa Zulus controlled S.A. in the beginning The Dutch settled S. A. (looking for a rest stop en route to Asia) Dutch."— Presentation transcript:
A Brief History of S. Africa Zulus controlled S.A. in the beginning The Dutch settled S. A. (looking for a rest stop en route to Asia) Dutch settlers were known as the Boers (farmers) or the Afrikaners (White Africans) The British wanted S. African land The Boers fight many battles with the British Boers fled British rule during the Great Trek
History…Continued The Boers blamed the British for their problems, tensions led to the Boer War (1899-1910). The British win the Boer War and create the Union of S. Africa. Native Africans (Zulus) are forced from their homeland. They face poor jobs, racism. The British change the political, social, and economic structure of the people they conquered.
South Africa: Struggle for Democracy 1950’s-1960’s - African countries were gaining their independence Negative impacts of colonial rule slowed their progress - made boundaries without considering ethnic/cultural groups - led to many conflicts after colonizers left - unbalanced economies due to cash crops - lacked a skilled/literate work force
Apartheid in S. Africa South Africa had been racially divided under Dutch & British control Small white minority ruled a large black majority 1948- National party instituted the Apartheid policy= complete separation of races. (segregated schools, hospitals & neighborhoods) African National Congress (ANC) formed to fight for their rights (strikes, boycotts & protests) 1962- ANC leader Nelson Mandela was imprisoned- 27 yrs. 1960’s/1970’s many protesters were killed fighting for their rights
A New Constitution S. Africa was under pressure to change- foreign nations made trade restrictions, banned from Olympic games. 1990’s- legalized ANC, repealed Apartheid laws. April 1994- 1 st universal elections- all races could vote 1994- Mandela elected president (63%) 1996- democratic constitution- Bill of Rights modeled after the U.S.
Imperialism in India British interest in India began in the 1600’s British East India Company set up trading posts- Indian leadership was weak & British eventually took control Used Indian soldiers called “sepoys” to control the natives. India was considered the “brightest jewel in the crown” (most profitable & valuable colony) Indian competition with British goods was prohibited One of the main exports was tea.
Impacts of Colonialism Positive: Modernization, railroads, irrigation, bridges, telephone lines, sanitation, health improved, schools, literacy increased Negative: Britain held all power, restricted Indian owned industries, emphasis on cash crops, racist attitudes, threatened traditional lifestyle
Sepoy Rebellion 1857- new rifles were greased with beef & pork fat. Hindus considered cow sacred and Muslims don’t eat pork= Sepoys were outraged 85 soldiers refused to accept the cartridges & were jailed Sepoys marched to Delhi & rebelled (lasted about a yr.) 1757-1947- direct rule of the British called the Raj.
Next Up Nationalism movements in India Gandhi (non-violent resistance) Religious conflict between Hindus & Muslims leads to division of India