Exposition The beginning of the story; sets the scene for the conflict Setting – the time and place in which the events of the story occur. The setting is VERY important to a story! Without an interesting setting, the story may not be successful. Characters – People, animals or imaginary creatures that take part in the action of the story.
There are two main types of characters in a story. Protagonist: The main character. This would be the “Good Guy” in the story. Antagonist: The character that work against or causes the problem for the protagonist. Also known as the “Bad Guy.”
The Antagonist and Protagonist can be either : Static Character: The character’s personality, opinions, and/or actions stay the same throughout the entire story. Dynamic Character: The character’s personality, opinions, and/or actions change because of what happens in the story.
Characterization Authors reveal information about characters in a process called characterization. – Words the character says – Actions the character makes – Things other characters say about the character – Observations made by the narrator
Rising Action: The rising action is the longest part of a story. In the rising action, one or more of the story’s characters work to resolve the conflict of the story. The characters work through a series of events that makes it hard for the characters to achieve their goal(s).
Setting The place, time, environment and overall surroundings in the story. Setting contributes to the overall emotional effect of the story. Setting can play an important role in plot. Some stories can only take place in a particular setting; while others can take place anywhere.
Conflict Clash, fight, problem or struggle in a story. There can be one or more conflicts within a story. Two major types of conflict are External and Internal
External Conflict A character struggles against outside forces Examples: – Person vs. person – Person vs. nature – Person vs. society – Person vs. fate or destiny – Person vs. supernatural
Internal Conflict Takes place within a character’s mind. It is a struggle between opposing emotions, needs or desires. Example: – Person vs. Self
Climax: The highest point of interest or turning point in a story. It is the moment of decision where it becomes clear how the conflict will be resolved.
Falling Action: Shows what happens to the character as the conflict is resolved or solved.
Resolution: Gives the final outcome of the story. It can also reveal the theme of the story.
Theme The main or central thought or idea of a story. It is the message, idea or feeling the author wants to communicate about life. This general idea or statement comes from the subject and events of a story. Theme is stated as a phrase or sentence.
Examples of Themes Family ties give family members strength. Things are not always the way they seem. Love conquers all. There is no place like home. Friends can be there for you when your family cannot.
Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told. It reveals who tells the story and what the narrator or characters can “see” and “hear”
First Person POV One of the characters is telling the story. Narrator uses “I” when telling the story. The narrator influences what the audience sees and hears. This POV often helps readers identify with the narrator. Sometimes can be trusted, sometimes cannot!
Third Person Limited The narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one character. The reader observes the action through the eyes and feelings of only one character. The narrator is not directly involved in the action of the story now is he/she a character in the story. It is as if the narrator is perched on one character’s shoulders and can see inside the character’s mind.
Third Person Omniscient The narrator is all-knowing and can tell the past, present, future of all characters. The narrator can also tell the inner-most thoughts and feelings of any character. Narrator is NOT a character involved in the action. It is as if the narrator can see, hear, and know everything about all the characters in the story.
Mood The overall feeling or spirit that a story portrays. Often a matter of personal opinion, but also is influenced by the setting. Examples: – Funeral – sad, serious, distraught – Haunted House – suspenseful, scary – Roller Coaster – exciting, intense, frightening
Plot Map Introduces setting and characters Presents conflicts and questions Moment of decision. It becomes clear how the conflict will be resolved. Comes near the end. Concludes story. Conflict resolved