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European Colonization of Africa

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1 European Colonization of Africa

2 Europe first became interested in Africa…..
During the trans-Atlantic slave trade from the 1500’s till the early 1800’s. Even though the slave trade ended, competition for power kept European countries interested in Africa (imperialism) Colonization is the forced take over of one nation or region by another nation



5 Africa before colonization

6 Reasons for the colonization of Africa
Imperialism-power and competition with other European countries Raw Materials -natural resources, such as gold, diamonds, coal, rubber, platinum, and uranium. Control of transportation routes- British Empire controlled the Suez Canal in Egypt Spread Christianity- Christian missionaries would convert what they believed were the “heathen” natives of Africa aw


8 The Berlin conference In European nations met at the Berlin Conference to decide how to divide up Africa. African’s did not have a say on how it would be divided! In the late 19th & early 20th centuries, European powers raced to colonize the African continent... This would become known all around the world as the SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA! (when European nations raced(scrambled) to take their piece of African land and colonize it.)

9 The Berlin conference

10 Color in the colonized Map of Africa

11 Life under colonial rule
European countries used Africa’s natural resources to make themselves rich. Often times without regard to the environment or the people already living on the land. Under colonial rule African’s were treated as second class citizens. Many were forced to assimilate(give up their customs and adopt European ways). Other African’s were denied an education and forced off their land. African’s did not have a voice in making economic and government decisions By the 1950’s and 1960’s(after WWII), many African countries sought to seek independence.

12 Results of colonization
New ideas were brought to Africa from Europe (technology, religions, language & culture). The European drawing of artificial political boundaries did not take into consideration the different ethnic and religious groups that lived in the region. When these countries gained independence, the old colonial (artificial) boundaries remained. This led to conflict and civil war between the various ethnic and religious groups in many countries. Because of the mistreatment under colonial rule, many now independent countries did not know how to function on their own. This lead to poverty, disease, government corruption and economic weakness.

13 What observations can you make?

14 Do these borders look the same?

15 What is the result of the artificial boundaries drawn by the Europeans?

16 Impact of Colonialism Positive Effects on Africa
Schools and hospitals built. Economy was improved by new governments. Roads and railroads were built. Health was improved (Health systems, etc…) Berlin Conference set a specific date for the end of the slave trade. New technology elevated the standard of living.

17 Impact of Colonialism Negative Effects for Africa
African tribes lost control of their own countries. Land was confiscated for farms for the European colonies. Wars, revolts, and protests were common Starvation and disease became widespread. “NEW BORDERS” were drawn that separated families and tribes. Conflicts broke out between tribes that were once friendly.

18 On a sheet of paper, draw a line down the middle of it
On a sheet of paper, draw a line down the middle of it. Label the top LEFT side of your paper Negative and label the top RIGHT side Positive. With the person sitting next to you discuss (and list on your paper) how you could make a case for why it was a good (positive) thing that Africa was colonized and on the negative side do the same….describe why it was such a bad thing that Africa was colonized and some consequences that African’s faced then and even still today!! ...good arguments for both sides!

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