Presentation on theme: "BREEDING IN PEA AND BEANS"— Presentation transcript:
1 BREEDING IN PEA AND BEANS PRESENTATIONONBREEDING IN PEA AND BEANSSPEAKERNISHA CHANDELDeptt. OfVegetable Science,CoA, Raipur
2 introduction Botanical name :Pisum sativum L. Family:Leguminosae Chromosome no: 2n=2x=14 (diploid)Origin: Ethopia (Blixt 1970)Short day plantSelf pollinationPea protein is moderately deficient in the sulphur containing amino acids methionine and cysteineThe quality of peas is ascertained by tendrometer.Histones presences is responsible for mosaic resistance.
3 BOTANYRoot :-It develops tap root system and made up one main branch and other sub branches.Leaves :-Leaves are pinnately compound with two to several leaflets.Stem :-The plant may be single stemmed or many auxiliary stems may originate at the cotyledonary node or any superior node.Inflorescence :-The inflorescence is raceme arising from the axil of leaf.
4 Floral biologyThe flower are typical papilionaceous with green calyx comprising of five united sepals, five petals (one standard, two wings and two keels).The stamens are in diadelphous(9+1)condition.In peas inflorescence is a raceme. The flowers are borne solitary or in pairs or in cluster on elongated peduncles arising in the axil of leaves.Pea is strictly self-pollinated in nature.Stigma is receptive to pollen from several days prior to anthesis until one day..
6 Time of anthesisThe anthesis observed maximum between 9:00 AM to 12:00 Noon.The anther dehiscence starts before opening of flower. At 16°C temperature the stigma remained receptive for 3 days.After emasculation at 20-24°C retained good receptivity for only one day temperature is the factor, which affect the duration of receptivity.
7 cytogeneticThe chromosome number of pea is 2n=14(Das and kalloo 1970).Pisum sativum includes the following sub-species (Simmonds,1979)Pisum sativum Linn.var. hortense : Garden peaPisum sativum Linn.var. arvense : Field peaPisum sativum Linn.var. macrocarpum : Edible podded peaPisum sativum elatius : Wild formPisum sativum sysiacum : Wild form
8 Genetic resourcesICARDA (International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Area) -6129NBPGR (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources -3070IPGR(International Plant Genetic Resources) -1589RCA (Institute for Agrobotany) Hungry -1199
9 Selection indices Improved yield potential and stability. Standing ability and harvestability.High shelling percentageSuitable for freezing and canningResistant/tolerant to frost and drought, particularly at podding.Pod shatter resistanceResistant to disease, namely Downey mildew Powdery mildew, Rust , WiltResistant to insect ,Leaf minor ,Aphids ,Pod borer ,Pea stem fly
10 Inheritance of qualitative characters Plant heightHigh heritability, over dominance ,partial dominance, high genetic advanceDays to floweringNon-additive gene action, partial dominance, over dominanceEarlinessDominant genes, High heritabilityLate floweringRecessive genes, high heritabilityNumber of pods per plantsHigh heritability, epistatic gene action .Pod yieldLow heritability
12 BIOTECNOLOGYLaucou et al (1998) constructed a genetic linkage map of Pisum sativum L. Based primarily on RAPD markers that were carefully selected for their reproducibility and scored in popultion of 139 recombinant inbred lines.The mapping population was derived from from a cross between a protein -rich-dry seed cultivar ‘Terese’ and an increased branching mutant (k586) obtained from the pea cultivar ‘Torsdag’.Genes for which linked markers have been reported in the pea are listed in tableTRAITGENEMARKERCotyledon shaperbVc-5 (RFLP)Fussarium wilt resistancesFwH19.Y14,Y15(RAPD)Powedry mildew resistancesEr-23AFLP PRIMERS
13 Biotic AND ABIOTIC stress of pea Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni var;pisi)Jawahar peas-83, JP-71, JP-4Fusarium wilt(Fusarium oxysporum)Early badger, early giant, pusa vipasha, super alaskaRust (Uromyces viciiae fabae)JP batri brown3, JP batri brown4Root rotBristolWiltCascadia,Leaf minerJP-179,JP-169,LMR-4,LMR-10,LMR-20BruchesJP-9, JP-179,Leaf rollDakotaHeat tolerance varietyLincoln , Queen of heartHerbicide tolerant
14 variety S.No. Name of variety Organization Breeding Method Specific characteristicsEarly variety1.ArkelFranceIntroductionSuitable for fresh market and dehydration. The variety is highly susceptible to collar rot2.JawaharMatar 4JNKV JabalpurHybridization (T 19 and Little Marvel) Yield- 60q/ha.Mature seeds are green and wrinkle with 18g of 100 seed weight.3.Early BadgerUSAIt is a good canning variety and resistant to Fusarium wilt and tolerant heat and drought.4.Little MarvelEnglandIntroduction (Chelsea Gem x Suttons Alaska)A dwarf, wrinkled seeded variety .
15 6.Jawahar Peas 54 (JP 54 )JNKV Jabalpur(Arkel × JM5) × ('4bc' × JP 501)Powdery mildew resistant varietyMid season varieties7.BonnevilleIARI New DelhiIntroductionIt is susceptible to powdery mildew disease.8.AldermanIt is an excellent cultivar for freezing purpose.9.LincolnIARI Research Station KatrianIt is a good canning purpose variety.10Azad P-2KalyanpurHybridization cross (Bonneville × 6587)A powdery mildew resistant variety11SylviaSwedenSelectionFirst blossom appears at 14th to 16th node after 60 days of sowing
17 FRENCH BEAN Scientific name :-Phaseolus vulgaris Family :-Leguminoceae Chromosome No.:- 22Origin-Southern Mexico and Central America(Kaplan1981)Progenitor -Phaseolus aborigineusTypes of pollination:- Self pollination
18 TaxonomyFrench bean belongs to the family leguminosae under Phaseolus genus and vulgaris species. The genus Phaseolus possesses four cultivated species, viz:1. Phaseolus vulgaris : The common, haricot, snap bean2. P. coccineus : The runner or scarlet bean3. P. acutifolius var. latifolius : The tepary bean4. P. lunatus : The lima, sieve, butter of Medagascar bean.
20 Plant genetics resources IPGR (International Plant Genetic Centre)3220RCA(Institute for Agrobotany) Hungry4350CIAT35891ISAR2075
21 Inheritance of qualitative characters S.No.CharacterNumber of geneTypes of gene action1.Growth habitMonogenicIndeterminate or climbing habit dominant to determinate habit2.Pod stringnessStringiness dominant to stringlessness3.Pod surfaceMonogenic (accacc)Shiny node recessive to non shiny4.EarlinessMonogenic (fdfd)Early flowering dominat to late5.Groove of podsNon-grooved dominant to grooved6.Pod shapePolygenicNormal round has a general dominace over other shapes7.Colour of foliageDigenicGreen dominant to variegated, duplicate gene action8.Hard seedSoft seed dominant to hard seed
22 Inheritance Of Resistance To Disease Powedry MildewA Singal Dominant GeneBean RustResistance Dominant or Incompletely DominantAnthracnoseA single dominant gene ,are also mex-2 and mex-3 genesBean VirusSingle Recessive Gene,MoRi for Bean Virus-1Common Bean MosaicOne Dominant Gene,I Recessive Race Specific Genes,Bc1,Bc2.Bc3Curly Top VirusTwo Epistatic Dominant Genes
23 Selection indices High pod yield Nonstringy, long pods, flat or round in shapeEarly pod harvestingBush/pole plant typeHigh number of green pods/plantHigh number of pod clusters/plantHigh number of primary branches/plantFree from interlocular spacePhoto insensitivityWider adaptabilityResistance to diseaseResistance to insects
24 Breeding methodIntroduction- Pole Type :- Kentucky Wonder, Lakshmi, Pusa himlata, Swarna lata, SVM-1, TKD-1,Bush Type :- Bountiful, Contender, Gaintstringless, Pant Anupama, Premier,Selection- Pant Anupama, Phulesuyash (GK-7), Swarnapriya (CH-812)Hybridization- Arka subidha(IIHR 909)Mutation –Pusa Parvati
25 BiotecnologyRAPD markers have been used in common beans. RAPD markers linked to disease resistances in common bean are given in table(Kelly and Miklas 1998)Resistance genePathogenRAPD markersSize(bp)Co-1AnthacnoseOF 10530Co-2OQ4B355OH2014401000450BC-3BCMVOAD19690Mp-1MacrophominaB386900Ur-3RustOK14620Ur-9OJ131800
26 Biotic AND ABIOTIC stress of French bean Powdery mildewContender, Long kidney, Top cropBean rustKentucky Wonder, VL Boni -1Common Bean MosaicRefugee, RobustAnthracnoseCornell49-242Stem FlySel-2, SVM-1, Sel-9, Sel- 4AphidBrunaLeaf hopperLondon horticultural, contender, top cropHeat and droughtRed Mexican
27 VARIETY S.No. Variety Developing institutions Breeding method Special features1ArkaKomalIIHRIntroductionGood transport and keeping quality, susceptible to bean common mosaic virus,yield potential 80q/hac.2.Arka Subidha(IIHR 909)Hybridization (Blue crop ×Contender)Plants bushy and photosensitive. .3.ContenderIARI New DelhiIt isuscepatible to bean common mosaic virus y4.Pusa ParvatiDeveloped through irradiation followed by selection from wax podded variety EC 1906.Resistant to mosaic and powdery mildew.VARIETY
28 5Ooty-1Tamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityModerately resistant to leaf spot, anthracnose and pod borer..6Pant Anupama (UPF 191)GBPUA&T, PantnagarSelection from line UPF181Moderately resistant to bean mosaic and angular leaf spot.7PhuleSuyash (GK-7)MPKV, RahuriSelectionPlant are highly tolerant to wilt and bean mosaic virus .8SwarnaPriya (CH-812)CHES, RanchiPure line selectionGood cooking quality, suitable for daal preparation
29 COW PEA S.N.-Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Family –Leguminosea 2n=2x=22 Origin-Africa(Simmonds 1976)Pollination-Self pollination
30 TaxonomyThese are three cultivated and two wild subspecies of cow pea these are as followsSesquipedalis –Cultivated speciesUnguiculata-Cultivated speciesCylindrical-Wild speciesDekindtiana- Wild speciesMensensis- Wild species
31 FLORAL BIOLOGYInfloresences is an unbranched axillary raceme bearing several flowers at the terminal end of peduncles.Cow pea flowers are large and showy.Flowers open only 7 and 9 A.M.On cloudy days the flowers may open even in the afternoon.Due to dehiscence taking place before the opening of flower ,the cow pea is strictly self polllinated in nature.
32 Selection indices High Green Pod Yield High Seed Yield Earlieness Wider AdaptabilityAppropriate Plant TypeShort Tender Pods For Whole Pod ProcessingLong Tender And Stringless Pods For Fresh ConsumptionsVarieties Suitable For IntercroppingResistance To Disease ,Anthracnose,Cercospora Leaf Spot, Fusarium Wilt,Ascochyta BlightResistance To Insects Hairy Caterpillars, Leaf Hoppers, Aphids,Thrips, Bruchids, Pod Borer
35 BIOTECHNOLOGYIndirect marker –assisted selection can be useful for applying selection pressure in early generations for trait that are difficult to select directly or for shuttle breeding where it is not possible to directly screen for resistances to a pest due to quarantine restrictions.Isozymes have not been useful for indirect selection in cowpea due to extremely low levels of polymorphisms in cultivated cowpea.DNA markers should be more effective for developing a linkage map for cow pea.A cow pea linkage map has been developed from a cross between an improved cultivar and a wild sub species Vigna unguiculata ssp.dekindtiana.This map consists of 87 random genomic and 5 cdna RFLP 5 random amplified arranged in 10 linkage groups..
36 VARIETY S.N. Variety Method Characters 1. Pusa Phalguni Selection From Dolique Du TonkinDwarf Bushy Habit,maturity in 60 days pods of cm length,yield potential of green pods is 75 q/ha2Pusa BarsatiExotic Selection From PhillipinesEarly Variety ,pods are cm long ,yield potential 75q/hac3.Pusa Do FasliPusa Phalguni*PhillippinesPlant Busy ,Photo Insensitive,pods are 18 cm long pod yield 80 q/hac.4S-203Selection-2*VirginiaDouble Cropping System In Red Soils5Yard Long BeanPlants Need Staking,pods are about 50cm long,pod yield 100q/hac.6Pusa KomalSelection 1552Resistance To Bacterial Blight,pods are light green cm long ,pod yield 100 q/hac.7Pusa RiturajSelectionPlant Is Bushy,Dual Purpose Variety8S-488Virginia*Iron GreyTolerance To Xanthomonas Vignicola
37 Lima bean S.N.-Phaseolus lunatus L.(sweet) Family-Fabaceae 2n=2x=22 Central America(Mexico and Guatemala) for the small seeded forms and the Andean region(Peru and Ecuador) for the large seeded.Self pollinationThe world collection of germplasm is being maintained at the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical.(CIAT,Cali,Colombia).Small germplasm collections are in other countries also like the USA,Brazil Costa rica.Germany,Indonesia.
38 Selection indices Plant Height Early Maturity Short Duration No of Pods Per PlantPod LengthNo of Seeds Per PodResistance to Insect Pest And DiseaseResistance to High Temperature
39 VarietyAlmost all varieties of lima bean in india are introductions from abroad.These pole types like florida butter,challenger and Carolina butter,semi pole types hopi and Wilbur and bush type like baby potato, babyford hook and Henderson bush.
40 Broad bean S.N.-Vicia faba L. Family-Leguminosea Chromosome no-2n=12 Origin-Near eastThe broad been is not highly autogamous. It has considerable natural cross pollination (20-40%) mainly by bumble bees and honey bees.Variety:- Pusa sumeet
41 Selection indices High yield Desirable seed size and colour High seed proteinHigh methoinine and cysteineLow tanninsEarlinessStiff strawResistance to charcoal spot, Ascochyta blight, Rust,bean yellow mosaic virusTolerance to drought and salt
42 Cluster bean Cymposis tetragonolobus(L.) Taub Family –Fabaceae Chromosome no 2n=12Origin-AfricaC.sengalensis is the ancestor of cluster bean, but it is not found growing wild.Pollination: Cluster bean is mostly self pollinating with only 2 percent cross pollination
43 Selection indices Plant type dwarf, single stem Seasonal adaptability Early maturityPod quality-pod long smooth tender and fibrelessGreen pod yieldResistance to insect pest
44 variety S.N. Variety Method 1. Pusa mausami Selection 2. Pusa navbahar Pusa mausami*Pusa sadabahar3.Pusa sadabaharSelection from a local cultivar jaipuri4Durga baharPusanavbahar*ROC-401
45 Field bean S.N.-Lablab purpureus L. sweet Family-Fabaceae Chromosome no-2n=2x=22Origin-IndiaPollination:-It is generally self pollinated. However, about 6-10% cross pollination is observed. Flowers open generally two days after anther dehiscence opening is mostly between 11 am to 5 pm.
47 Quantitative inheritance Number of days to flowering pod length and widthAdditive gene actionNumber of pods per plant seed per plant and pod yieldHigh heritability, high genetic advances, additive gene actionSeed yield per plantHigh heritability and high GCVPod yield per plantPartial dominance with duplicate type of epistatisSeed yieldComplementary type of epistatisNumber of flowersNon additive gene action
48 Selection indices Bushy plant habit Early maturity Photoinsenstivity Pod characters(shape, size ,colour)Number of pods per plantSeed colourNumber of seed per pod green pod yield dry seed yieldResistance to disease and pest (aphids and hairy caterpillar)
49 Variety Pusa early prolific Selection From Local Type Pusa Sem-2 Co-1Selection From HD 18 Of HisarCo-2Selection From Local Variety Chhina AvaraiCo-3Selection From A Local Type Yanaikathu AvaraiHebbal Avare-3Hebbal Avare-1*Us-67-13