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Presentation on theme: "BREEDING IN PEA AND BEANS"— Presentation transcript:


2 introduction Botanical name :Pisum sativum L. Family:Leguminosae
Chromosome no: 2n=2x=14 (diploid) Origin: Ethopia (Blixt 1970) Short day plant Self pollination Pea protein is moderately deficient in the sulphur containing amino acids methionine and cysteine The quality of peas is ascertained by tendrometer. Histones presences is responsible for mosaic resistance.

3 BOTANY Root :-It develops tap root system and made up one main branch and other sub branches. Leaves :-Leaves are pinnately compound with two to several leaflets. Stem :-The plant may be single stemmed or many auxiliary stems may originate at the cotyledonary node or any superior node. Inflorescence :-The inflorescence is raceme arising from the axil of leaf.

4 Floral biology The flower are typical papilionaceous with green calyx comprising of five united sepals, five petals (one standard, two wings and two keels). The stamens are in diadelphous(9+1)condition. In peas inflorescence is a raceme. The flowers are borne solitary or in pairs or in cluster on elongated peduncles arising in the axil of leaves. Pea is strictly self-pollinated in nature. Stigma is receptive to pollen from several days prior to anthesis until one day. .


6 Time of anthesis The anthesis observed maximum between 9:00 AM to 12:00 Noon. The anther dehiscence starts before opening of flower. At 16°C temperature the stigma remained receptive for 3 days. After emasculation at 20-24°C retained good receptivity for only one day temperature is the factor, which affect the duration of receptivity.

7 cytogenetic The chromosome number of pea is 2n=14(Das and kalloo 1970). Pisum sativum includes the following sub-species (Simmonds,1979) Pisum sativum Linn.var. hortense : Garden pea Pisum sativum Linn.var. arvense : Field pea Pisum sativum Linn.var. macrocarpum : Edible podded pea Pisum sativum elatius : Wild form Pisum sativum sysiacum : Wild form

8 Genetic resources ICARDA (International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Area) -6129 NBPGR (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources -3070 IPGR(International Plant Genetic Resources) -1589 RCA (Institute for Agrobotany) Hungry -1199

9 Selection indices Improved yield potential and stability.
Standing ability and harvestability. High shelling percentage Suitable for freezing and canning Resistant/tolerant to frost and drought, particularly at podding. Pod shatter resistance Resistant to disease, namely Downey mildew Powdery mildew, Rust , Wilt Resistant to insect ,Leaf minor ,Aphids ,Pod borer ,Pea stem fly

10 Inheritance of qualitative characters
Plant height High heritability, over dominance ,partial dominance, high genetic advance Days to flowering Non-additive gene action, partial dominance, over dominance Earliness Dominant genes, High heritability Late flowering Recessive genes, high heritability Number of pods per plants High heritability, epistatic gene action . Pod yield Low heritability

11 Breeding method Introduction - Bonneville (USA),Arkel (France), Early budger, Lincoln, Meteor Selection-Arka ajit, Asauji,Pant upkar, Hybridization-Jawaharmatar-1-T-19*Greater progress Jawaharmatar-2-Russian-2*Greater progress Jawahar matar-3-T-3*Early budger Jawaharmatar-4-T-19*Little marvel Aseem-Pusa phalguni*EC 21622

12 BIOTECNOLOGY Laucou et al (1998) constructed a genetic linkage map of Pisum sativum L. Based primarily on RAPD markers that were carefully selected for their reproducibility and scored in popultion of 139 recombinant inbred lines. The mapping population was derived from from a cross between a protein -rich-dry seed cultivar ‘Terese’ and an increased branching mutant (k586) obtained from the pea cultivar ‘Torsdag’. Genes for which linked markers have been reported in the pea are listed in table TRAIT GENE MARKER Cotyledon shape rb Vc-5 (RFLP) Fussarium wilt resistances Fw H19.Y14,Y15(RAPD) Powedry mildew resistances Er-2 3AFLP PRIMERS

13 Biotic AND ABIOTIC stress of pea
Powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni var;pisi) Jawahar peas-83, JP-71, JP-4 Fusarium wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) Early badger, early giant, pusa vipasha, super alaska Rust (Uromyces viciiae fabae) JP batri brown3, JP batri brown4 Root rot Bristol Wilt Cascadia, Leaf miner JP-179,JP-169,LMR-4,LMR-10,LMR-20 Bruches JP-9, JP-179, Leaf roll Dakota Heat tolerance variety Lincoln , Queen of heart Herbicide tolerant

14 variety S.No. Name of variety Organization Breeding Method
Specific characteristics Early variety 1. Arkel France Introduction Suitable for fresh market and dehydration. The variety is highly susceptible to collar rot 2. JawaharMatar 4 JNKV Jabalpur Hybridization (T 19 and Little Marvel) Yield- 60q/ha. Mature seeds are green and wrinkle with 18g of 100 seed weight. 3. Early Badger USA It is a good canning variety and resistant to Fusarium wilt and tolerant heat and drought. 4. Little Marvel England Introduction (Chelsea Gem x Suttons Alaska) A dwarf, wrinkled seeded variety .

15 6. Jawahar Peas 54 (JP 54 ) JNKV Jabalpur (Arkel × JM5) × ('4bc' × JP 501) Powdery mildew resistant variety Mid season varieties 7. Bonneville IARI New Delhi Introduction It is susceptible to powdery mildew disease. 8. Alderman It is an excellent cultivar for freezing purpose. 9. Lincoln IARI Research Station Katrian It is a good canning purpose variety. 10 Azad P-2 Kalyanpur Hybridization cross (Bonneville × 6587) A powdery mildew resistant variety 11 Sylvia Sweden Selection First blossom appears at 14th to 16th node after 60 days of sowing

16 beans French bean Cow pea Lima bean Field bean Broad bean Cluster bean

17 FRENCH BEAN Scientific name :-Phaseolus vulgaris Family :-Leguminoceae
Chromosome No.:- 22 Origin-Southern Mexico and Central America(Kaplan1981) Progenitor -Phaseolus aborigineus Types of pollination:- Self pollination

18 Taxonomy French bean belongs to the family leguminosae under Phaseolus genus and vulgaris species. The genus Phaseolus possesses four cultivated species, viz: 1. Phaseolus vulgaris : The common, haricot, snap bean 2. P. coccineus : The runner or scarlet bean 3. P. acutifolius var. latifolius : The tepary bean 4. P. lunatus : The lima, sieve, butter of Medagascar bean.

19 Phaseolus vulgaris Phaseolus coccineus

20 Plant genetics resources
IPGR (International Plant Genetic Centre) 3220 RCA(Institute for Agrobotany) Hungry 4350 CIAT 35891 ISAR 2075

21 Inheritance of qualitative characters
S.No. Character Number of gene Types of gene action 1. Growth habit Monogenic Indeterminate or climbing habit dominant to determinate habit 2. Pod stringness Stringiness dominant to stringlessness 3. Pod surface Monogenic (accacc) Shiny node recessive to non shiny 4. Earliness Monogenic (fdfd) Early flowering dominat to late 5. Groove of pods Non-grooved dominant to grooved 6. Pod shape Polygenic Normal round has a general dominace over other shapes 7. Colour of foliage Digenic Green dominant to variegated, duplicate gene action 8. Hard seed Soft seed dominant to hard seed

22 Inheritance Of Resistance To Disease
Powedry Mildew A Singal Dominant Gene Bean Rust Resistance Dominant or Incompletely Dominant Anthracnose A single dominant gene ,are also mex-2 and mex-3 genes Bean Virus Single Recessive Gene,Mo Ri for Bean Virus-1 Common Bean Mosaic One Dominant Gene,I Recessive Race Specific Genes,Bc1,Bc2.Bc3 Curly Top Virus Two Epistatic Dominant Genes

23 Selection indices High pod yield
Nonstringy, long pods, flat or round in shape Early pod harvesting Bush/pole plant type High number of green pods/plant High number of pod clusters/plant High number of primary branches/plant Free from interlocular space Photo insensitivity Wider adaptability Resistance to disease Resistance to insects

24 Breeding method Introduction- Pole Type :- Kentucky Wonder, Lakshmi, Pusa himlata, Swarna lata, SVM-1, TKD-1, Bush Type :- Bountiful, Contender, Gaintstringless, Pant Anupama, Premier, Selection- Pant Anupama, Phulesuyash (GK-7), Swarnapriya (CH-812) Hybridization- Arka subidha(IIHR 909) Mutation –Pusa Parvati

25 Biotecnology RAPD markers have been used in common beans. RAPD markers linked to disease resistances in common bean are given in table(Kelly and Miklas 1998) Resistance gene Pathogen RAPD markers Size(bp) Co-1 Anthacnose OF 10 530 Co-2 OQ4 B355 OH20 1440 1000 450 BC-3 BCMV OAD19 690 Mp-1 Macrophomina B386 900 Ur-3 Rust OK14 620 Ur-9 OJ13 1800

26 Biotic AND ABIOTIC stress of French bean
Powdery mildew Contender, Long kidney, Top crop Bean rust Kentucky Wonder, VL Boni -1 Common Bean Mosaic Refugee, Robust Anthracnose Cornell49-242 Stem Fly Sel-2, SVM-1, Sel-9, Sel- 4 Aphid Bruna Leaf hopper London horticultural, contender, top crop Heat and drought Red Mexican

27 VARIETY S.No. Variety Developing institutions Breeding method
Special features 1 ArkaKomal IIHR Introduction Good transport and keeping quality, susceptible to bean common mosaic virus,yield potential 80q/hac. 2. Arka Subidha(IIHR 909) Hybridization (Blue crop ×Contender) Plants bushy and photosensitive. . 3. Contender IARI New Delhi It isuscepatible to bean common mosaic virus y 4. Pusa Parvati Developed through irradiation followed by selection from wax podded variety EC 1906. Resistant to mosaic and powdery mildew. VARIETY

28 5 Ooty-1 Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Moderately resistant to leaf spot, anthracnose and pod borer.. 6 Pant Anupama (UPF 191) GBPUA&T, Pantnagar Selection from line UPF181 Moderately resistant to bean mosaic and angular leaf spot. 7 PhuleSuyash (GK-7) MPKV, Rahuri Selection Plant are highly tolerant to wilt and bean mosaic virus . 8 SwarnaPriya (CH-812) CHES, Ranchi Pure line selection Good cooking quality, suitable for daal preparation

29 COW PEA S.N.-Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp Family –Leguminosea 2n=2x=22
Origin-Africa(Simmonds 1976) Pollination-Self pollination

30 Taxonomy These are three cultivated and two wild subspecies of cow pea these are as follows Sesquipedalis –Cultivated species Unguiculata-Cultivated species Cylindrical-Wild species Dekindtiana- Wild species Mensensis- Wild species

31 FLORAL BIOLOGY Infloresences is an unbranched axillary raceme bearing several flowers at the terminal end of peduncles. Cow pea flowers are large and showy. Flowers open only 7 and 9 A.M. On cloudy days the flowers may open even in the afternoon. Due to dehiscence taking place before the opening of flower ,the cow pea is strictly self polllinated in nature.

32 Selection indices High Green Pod Yield High Seed Yield Earlieness
Wider Adaptability Appropriate Plant Type Short Tender Pods For Whole Pod Processing Long Tender And Stringless Pods For Fresh Consumptions Varieties Suitable For Intercropping Resistance To Disease ,Anthracnose,Cercospora Leaf Spot, Fusarium Wilt,Ascochyta Blight Resistance To Insects Hairy Caterpillars, Leaf Hoppers, Aphids,Thrips, Bruchids, Pod Borer

33 Inheritance pattern Growth habit Monogenic Flower colour Calyx colour
Pod number Non additive Pod length Partial dominance Pod colour No of seed/pods Over dominance Pod yield/plant Additive gene action Seed yield

34 Biotic and Abiotic stress
Anthacnose, Rust, Cercospora leaf spot TVu -310, 315, Iron Fusarium wilt TVu- 347,1000,Iron Bacterial blight TVu -347,410,Vita -3 Scab TVu- 853,Vita- 4 Brown blotch Vita -1

35 BIOTECHNOLOGY Indirect marker –assisted selection can be useful for applying selection pressure in early generations for trait that are difficult to select directly or for shuttle breeding where it is not possible to directly screen for resistances to a pest due to quarantine restrictions. Isozymes have not been useful for indirect selection in cowpea due to extremely low levels of polymorphisms in cultivated cowpea. DNA markers should be more effective for developing a linkage map for cow pea. A cow pea linkage map has been developed from a cross between an improved cultivar and a wild sub species Vigna unguiculata ssp.dekindtiana. This map consists of 87 random genomic and 5 cdna RFLP 5 random amplified arranged in 10 linkage groups..

36 VARIETY S.N. Variety Method Characters 1. Pusa Phalguni
Selection From Dolique Du Tonkin Dwarf Bushy Habit,maturity in 60 days pods of cm length,yield potential of green pods is 75 q/ha 2 Pusa Barsati Exotic Selection From Phillipines Early Variety ,pods are cm long ,yield potential 75q/hac 3. Pusa Do Fasli Pusa Phalguni*Phillippines Plant Busy ,Photo Insensitive,pods are 18 cm long pod yield 80 q/hac. 4 S-203 Selection-2*Virginia Double Cropping System In Red Soils 5 Yard Long Bean Plants Need Staking,pods are about 50cm long,pod yield 100q/hac. 6 Pusa Komal Selection 1552 Resistance To Bacterial Blight,pods are light green cm long ,pod yield 100 q/hac. 7 Pusa Rituraj Selection Plant Is Bushy,Dual Purpose Variety 8 S-488 Virginia*Iron Grey Tolerance To Xanthomonas Vignicola

37 Lima bean S.N.-Phaseolus lunatus L.(sweet) Family-Fabaceae 2n=2x=22
Central America(Mexico and Guatemala) for the small seeded forms and the Andean region(Peru and Ecuador) for the large seeded. Self pollination The world collection of germplasm is being maintained at the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical.(CIAT,Cali,Colombia). Small germplasm collections are in other countries also like the USA,Brazil Costa rica.Germany,Indonesia.

38 Selection indices Plant Height Early Maturity Short Duration
No of Pods Per Plant Pod Length No of Seeds Per Pod Resistance to Insect Pest And Disease Resistance to High Temperature

39 Variety Almost all varieties of lima bean in india are introductions from abroad. These pole types like florida butter,challenger and Carolina butter,semi pole types hopi and Wilbur and bush type like baby potato, babyford hook and Henderson bush.

40 Broad bean S.N.-Vicia faba L. Family-Leguminosea Chromosome no-2n=12
Origin-Near east The broad been is not highly autogamous. It has considerable natural cross pollination (20-40%) mainly by bumble bees and honey bees. Variety:- Pusa sumeet

41 Selection indices High yield Desirable seed size and colour
High seed protein High methoinine and cysteine Low tannins Earliness Stiff straw Resistance to charcoal spot, Ascochyta blight, Rust,bean yellow mosaic virus Tolerance to drought and salt

42 Cluster bean Cymposis tetragonolobus(L.) Taub Family –Fabaceae
Chromosome no 2n=12 Origin-Africa C.sengalensis is the ancestor of cluster bean, but it is not found growing wild. Pollination: Cluster bean is mostly self pollinating with only 2 percent cross pollination

43 Selection indices Plant type dwarf, single stem Seasonal adaptability
Early maturity Pod quality-pod long smooth tender and fibreless Green pod yield Resistance to insect pest

44 variety S.N. Variety Method 1. Pusa mausami Selection 2. Pusa navbahar
Pusa mausami*Pusa sadabahar 3. Pusa sadabahar Selection from a local cultivar jaipuri 4 Durga bahar Pusanavbahar*ROC-401

45 Field bean S.N.-Lablab purpureus L. sweet Family-Fabaceae
Chromosome no-2n=2x=22 Origin-India Pollination:-It is generally self pollinated. However, about 6-10% cross pollination is observed. Flowers open generally two days after anther dehiscence opening is mostly between 11 am to 5 pm.

46 Inheritance pattern Spreading plant habit Monogenic ,dominant
Growth habit and inflorescence type Three genes Photoperiod sensitivity Monogenic, dominant Leaf vein colour Digenic ,complementary genes Purple petiole Two complementary genes Pod form Monogenic ,dominant and two complementary Pod colour Three duplicate gene

47 Quantitative inheritance
Number of days to flowering pod length and width Additive gene action Number of pods per plant seed per plant and pod yield High heritability, high genetic advances, additive gene action Seed yield per plant High heritability and high GCV Pod yield per plant Partial dominance with duplicate type of epistatis Seed yield Complementary type of epistatis Number of flowers Non additive gene action

48 Selection indices Bushy plant habit Early maturity Photoinsenstivity
Pod characters(shape, size ,colour) Number of pods per plant Seed colour Number of seed per pod green pod yield dry seed yield Resistance to disease and pest (aphids and hairy caterpillar)

49 Variety Pusa early prolific Selection From Local Type Pusa Sem-2
Co-1 Selection From HD 18 Of Hisar Co-2 Selection From Local Variety Chhina Avarai Co-3 Selection From A Local Type Yanaikathu Avarai Hebbal Avare-3 Hebbal Avare-1*Us-67-13



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