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The Brain.

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain

2 What You Should Know The Brain consists of 3 interconnected layers, the central core, the limbic system and cerebral cortex The central core contains the medulla that regulates the basic life processes of breathing, heart rate, arousal and sleep and the cerebellum which is responsible for controlling balance, posture and movement. Limbic system functions include processing information for memories and influencing emotional and motivational states The functions of the cerebral cortex in receiving sensory information, coordinating voluntary movement and makes conscious decisions in the light of experience by recalling memories in order to alter behaviour Localisation of functions to include sensory areas, motor areas and the association areas concerning language, personality, imagination and intelligence. Information from one side of the body is processed in the opposite side of the cerebrum, transfer of information occurs through the corpus callosum

3 Brain Structure Consists of a Central core Limbic system
Cerebral cortex

4 Central Core Contains the medulla and cerebellum Medulla controls
Breathing Heart rate Sleep Arousal (being awake and aware of the environment) Cerebellum controls Balance Posture movement

5 Limbic System Is a composite region of the brain which reaches far into the cerebral area of the brain Functions include processing information to form long term memories influencing emotional states- anxiety, fear, aggression Influencing biological motivation- hunger, thirst, sex drive It contains the hypothalamus which is connected to the pituitary gland The hypothalamus releases hormones to exert control of growth, contraction of smooth muscle, control of body temperature and control of water balance

6 Cerebral Cortex Is split into 2 cerebral hemispheres
The left side processes information from the right visual field and controls the right side of the body The right side processes information from the left visual field and controls the left side of the body The 2 hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum which consists of a large bundle of nerves

7 Localisation of Function
The cerebral cortex contains 3 types of functional area Sensory- receive information from receptors as sensory impulses Association-analyse and interpret these impulses Motor-send motor impulses to appropriate effectors e.g. muscle

8 Continued… Further to this there are 3 more specialised mental processes which take place in the cerebral cortex: Somatosensory- receives impulses from receptors in skin, organs and muscles Visual- receives impulses from retina and interprets these as images involving shape, colour etc… Auditory- receives impulses from cochlea and interprets these as sounds involving pitch, volume etc… The different parts of the cerebral cortex are linked together by interconnections of tiny nerve fibres

9 Temporal Lobe Motor area Sensory area Visual area Auditory area

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