2 What is DNA and why is DNA important? DNA is able to determine an organism’s traits by determining the structure of an organism’s proteinsDNA makes up segments of information called genes. Many genes make up one chromosome. There are multiple chromosomes found in the nucleus of every cell.Where is DNA found in a eukaryotic cell? NucleusD. DNA is the recipe for all living things (code of life).
3 Structure of DNA Made up of many nucleotides linked together: Nucleotide is composed of:a. One deoxyribose sugarb. One phosphate groupOne nitrogenous basei. Purine: adenine & guanineii. Pyrimidine: thymine, cytosine
6 DNA Continued…. 1. Double-stranded (made up of two strands) a. Nitrogen bases are held togetherby hydrogen bonds (weak bond)in the middle of the moleculeb. Deoxyribose sugars andphosphates make up the sides ofthe ladder/moleculec. Antiparallel run in oppositedirections2. Helix twisted or coiled
8 Who discovered the structure of DNA? 1. James Watson American biochemist2. Francis Crick British physicist3. Rosalind Franklin X-Ray crystallographer4. Occurred in 1953, Watson & Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work!!!
9 Structure of RNA Made up of many nucleotides linked together B. Three main structural differences from DNA:1. Sugar is ribose2. Single-stranded3. Replace thymine with uracil
11 RNA Structure Continued… D. May leave the nucleus, unlike DNAE. Three types of RNA:ribosomal RNA (rRNA) makesup the ribosometransfer RNA (tRNA) bringsamino acids to the ribosome tomake a proteinmessenger RNA (mRNA) carriesDNA message out of thenucleus and to the ribosome
12 DNA vs. RNA ChartTake a few minutes to complete the chart by looking back over your notes for the answers.Chart with Answers