Scientific Papers – Original Research Articles “A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results” http://mason.gmu.edu/~jjohnsto/Dayarticle.htm http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/scientific-papers-13815490 http://lnu.se/the-university-library/search-and-writing-help-/scientific- articles?l=en
Abstract - Importance For busy readers the Abstract, sometimes called the Summary, may be the only part of the paper they read, unless it succeeds in convincing them to take the time to read the whole paper! For readers in developing countries with limited access to the literature, the Abstract may be the only information on your work that is available to them. Abstracting services may use the text of the title plus the Abstract and keywords for their searchable databases 7
Abstract - Content Some background information The principal activity (or purpose) of the study and its scope Some information about the methods used in the study The most important results of the study A statement of conclusion or recommendation 8
Introduction As your primary reading audience of editor and referees will probably start reading at the Introduction, an effective Introduction is particularly important. Referees are likely to look here for evidence to answer the following questions. 1. Is the contribution new? 2. Is the contribution significant? 3. Is it suitable for publication in the journal?
Introduction 1. Statements about the field of research to provide the reader with a setting or context for the problem to be investigated and to claim its centrality or importance. 2. More specific statements about the aspects of the problem already studied by other researchers, laying a foundation of information already known. 3. Statements that indicate the need for more investigation, creating a gap or research niche for the present study to fill. 4. Statements giving the purpose/ objectives of the writer’s study or outlining its main activity or findings. 5. Optional statement(s) that give a positive value or justification for carrying out the study. 10
References: Styles ACS style Surname1, X1.; Surname2, X2.; ….; SurnameX, XX. Journal Abbreviation Year, Volume, xxx-xxx. e.g. Borsdorf, R.; Hofmann, H.-J.; Kohler, H.-J.; Scholz, M.; Fabian, J. Tetrahedron 1970, 26, 3227−3231. RSC Style X1. Surname1, X2. Surname2, …and XX. SurnameX, Journal Abbreviation, Year, Volume, xxx-xxx. e.g. W. R. Bowman, M. O. Cloonan, A. J. Fletcher and T. Stein, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2005, 3, 1460–1467. Wiley Style
Major Publishers of Organic Chemistry Journals http://www.organicdivision.org/organic_journals.html ACS Journals: http://pubs.acs.org/ (Journal of Organic Chemistry, Organic Letters, Chemical Reviews)http://pubs.acs.org/ RSC Journals: http://pubs.rsc.org/ (Organic Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Communications, Perkin Transactions 1 etc.)http://pubs.rsc.org/ Elsevier/ Science Direct Journals: http://www.sciencedirect.com/ (Tetrahedron, Tetrahedron Letters)http://www.sciencedirect.com/ Wiley Journals: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/browse/publications (European Journal of Organic Chemistry)ttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/browse/publications Thieme Journals: https://www.thieme.de/en/thieme- chemistry/journals-54617.htm (Synthesis, Synlett)https://www.thieme.de/en/thieme- chemistry/journals-54617.htm
Journal Impact Factor http://wokinfo.com/essays/impact- factor/?utm_source=false&utm_medium=false&utm_campaign=false# A measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period.
Need for Peer Review A scientific research article does not produce truth or certainty but documents the observations/measurements, analysis, and interpretation of the authors in the context of previous research. The veracity of findings from a scientific study will be confirmed by subsequent research or application, and may be qualified or amended over time. The peer-review process assists the scientific community in assuring the quality of research before it is published and before it can be examined and used by a wider audience. Peer reviewing is part of the process of turning information into knowledge. The correspondence between the author, reviewer, and editor is part of a collective sense-making process used to test that new information is worth knowing and acting upon. 20
Role of Referee/Reviewer Referees are important to the journal editor because they take a critical role in determining the quality of manuscripts, and in most cases they do this as a professional contribution and without payment. Referees are important to the author because they bring a critical eye to the content and writing, and highlight how the story can be clarified or more suitably presented. 21
What Peer Review DOES: Confirms that the hypotheses have been tested appropriately and that results reported reflect the materials, methods, and analysis tools used Confirms that the strength of claims about the results and the implications of the study are appropriate Assists journals to decide whether the focus, novelty, and importance of the research are appropriate for the standard of the journal Checks that the presentation and style of the content conforms to accepted conventions for production and reader convenience Advises the authors and the journal editor about how (and often where) the manuscript could be improved 22 JIFJIF
Typical questions that the referees are asked to answer 1. Is the contribution new? 2. Is the contribution significant? 3. Is it suitable for publication in the Journal? 4. Is the organization acceptable? 5. Do the methods and the treatment of results conform to acceptable scientific standards? 6. Are all conclusions firmly based in the data presented? 7. Is the length of the paper satisfactory?
Typical questions that the referees are asked to answer 8. Are all illustrations required? 9. Are all the figures and tables necessary? 10. Are figure legends and table titles adequate? 11. Do the title and Abstract clearly indicate the content of the paper? 12. Are the references up to date, complete, and the journal titles correctly abbreviated? 13. Is the paper excellent, good, or poor?